DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSPORTATION
Transport is an important part of the nation's economy.It has progressed at a rapid pace, and today there is a wide variety of modes of transport by land, water and air. Public transport still remains the primary mode of transport for most of the population. Despite improvements, several aspects of transport are still riddled with problems due to outdated infrastructure and a burgeoning population, and demand for transport infrastructure and services has been rising by around 10% a year.Its quite often to think that how rapidly we had advanced from slow bullock carts to high speed Bullet trains. The different types of transport modes are: Road transport Air transport Water transport Rail Transport
Road transport or road transportation is transport on roads of passengers or goods. The Makran Coastal Highway was an ancient road within Pakistan. Now it's a major road leading to the city of Gwadar.The first methods of road transport were horses, oxen or even humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. As commerce increased, the tracks were often flattened or widened to accommodate the activities. Later, the travois, a frame used to drag loads, was developed. The wheel came still later, probably preceded by the use of logs as rollers. With the advent of the Roman Empire, there was a need for armies to be able to travel quickly from one area to another, and the roads that existed were often muddy, which greatly delayed the movement of large masses of troops. To resolve this issue, the Romans built great roads. The Roman roads used deep roadbeds of crushed stone as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from the crushed stone, instead of becoming mud in clay soils.
During the Industrial Revolution, and because of the increased commerce that came with it, improved roadways became imperative. The problem was rain combined with dirt roads created commerce-miring mud. John Loudon McAdam (1756-1836) designed the first modern highways. He developed an inexpensive paving material of soil and stone aggregate (known as macadam), and he embanked roads a few feet higher than the surrounding terrain to cause water to drain away from the surface. At the same time, Thomas Telford, made substantial advances in the engineering of new roads and the construction of bridges, particularly, the London to Holyhead road.In the early 20th century tarmac and concrete paving were extended into the countryside. Transportation Transport on roads can be roughly grouped into two categories: Transportation of goods Transportation of people.
In many countries licencing requirements and safety regulations ensure a separation of the two industries.The nature of road transportation of goods depends, apart from the degree of development of the local infrastructure, on the distance the goods are transported by road, the weight and volume of the individual shipment and the type of goods transported. For short distances and light, small shipments a van or pickup truck may be used. For large shipments even if less than a full truckload (Less than truckload) a truck is more appropriate. (Also see Trucking and Hauling below). In some countries cargo is transported by road in horse-drawn carriages, donkey carts or other non-motorized mode (see animal-powered transport). Delivery services (see Delivery (commerce)) are sometimes considered a separate category from cargo transport. In many places fast food is transported on roads by various types of vehicles. For inner city delivery of small packages and documents
bike couriers are quite common.People (Passengers) are transported on roads either in individual cars or automobiles or in mass transit/public transport by bus / Coach (vehicle). Special modes of individual transport by road like rikshas or velotaxis may also be locally available. (Also see links below). Trucking and hauling...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document