Design theory

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A Research on Arts&Crafts Movement and Bauhaus
1. Introduction
Arts and Crafts Movement and Bauhaus are two major movements in design history. In this paper, the author aims at making an overview of the two movements including the historical, cultural and social context and revealing the philosophy behind each movement. In order to obtain an in-depth understanding, the author chooses William Morris from the Arts and Crafts Movement and Walter Gropius from Bauhaus and their significant artworks as case studies, and finally complete a comparative study of art works and art movements.

2. Overview of the Arts and Crafts Movement
The Arts and Crafts Movement originated from mid-19th century, which aimed at fighting against the decreasing design level caused by industrial mass production of furniture, interior products and architecture. The theoratical director of this movement is John Ruskin, the key practitioner is William Morris.(Kaplan, 2004) This movement was influenced by Japanese art, mainly in the aspects of jewelry and book design.
At that time, artists could not fix the problems brought by industrialization, sought to escape from the reality and returned to their idealized mid-century and Gothic period. The philosophy of the movement opposed mass production and mechanic aesthetics, thus it did not become a leading style, from the ideologist perspective, it is negative. However it brought design style references to later designers and has profound meaning to the New Art movement.
The main characteristics of Arts and Crafts Movement stresses craftsmanship, naturalism, oriental decoration, Gothic and other mid-century styles, the sincere of design, simple and rustic functions, and clearly objects to mechanical production and artificial trend. (Naylor, 1971)

3. Overview of the Bauhaus
The term Bauhaus invented by Walter Gropius was originally the name of a design school in Germany. The establishment of Bauhaus symbolizes the existence of modern



References: Franciscono, M. (1971). Walter Gropius and the creation of the Bauhaus in Weimar: The ideals and artistic theories of its founding years. University of Illinois Press. 1-19. Gropius, W. (1965). The new architecture and the Bauhaus (Vol. 21). The MIT Press. 12-44. Kaplan, W. (2004). The arts & crafts movement in Europe & America: Design for the Modern World. Thames & Hudson. 103-106. Margolin, V. (1995). Design history or design studies: Subject matter and methods. Design Issues, 11(1), 4-15. Narvaez, L. M. J. (2000). Design 's own knowledge. Design Issues, 16(1), 36-51. Naylor, G. (1971). The arts and crafts movement: a study of its sources, ideals and influence on design theory. London: Studio Vista. 3-15. Pevsner, N. (2005). Pioneers of modern design: from William Morris to Walter Gropius. Yale University Press. 20-104. Stansky, P. (1996). Redesigning the world: William Morris, the 1880s, and the Arts and Crafts. Society for the Promotion of Science and Scholarship. pp 1-18. Wingler, H. M., & Stein, J. (1969). The Bauhaus: Weimar, Dessau, Berlin, Chicago. Mit Press. 67-89.

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