9. Describe the differences between the universal and the contingency leadership theories. Explain your answer in sufficient detail to demonstrate your understanding. Be specific using the materials in your text and not a generalized or philosophical statement. Hint: both the trait and behavioral leadership theories were attempts to find the “one best leadership style in all situations”; thus they are called universal leader theories. According to Stogdill and Mann, it was illustrated that traits were considered a mutual concept after conducting several researches. The end result of those researches proposed that individuals were considered leaders dependent on the given situation that they were in. In my current duty position, the engineers are all subordinates, but when we are out on a field test, each one in individually recognized as a group leader. They acknowledge their roles as a supervisor or leader, and they take charge of the group. In this position they, do not need additional supervision from the organization to carry out the task. This concept falls under the contingency leadership theory. The leader is charismatic and the group is willing to follow. In this same environment, when delegating on the spot individual tasking to subordinate group members, the leader is making universal leaders for different task to be accomplished. For example, I am assigned to a recovery team. All members of my team are on the parachute recovery detail for the Orion space capsule, and we are all lead by a subordinate engineer. Once we reach the impact zone, the engineer takes lead and appoints each one of us to a specific task. My task is to take a few guys and properly recover the drogue parachute using my expertise. Now that I’ve broken away with my own group, I’ve become a universal leader. I was allowed to conduct my recovery using my vision, and abilities to motivate my group to do it in an efficient manner. That was more of a transformational trait implied. I think there is not much of a difference, but the universal leader theory seems to be more trusted in several different areas not specific to a common task versus the contingent leader who are driven towards a specific task. The contingency theory did not reflect a psychological profile, nor did it set persistent traits associated directly to effective leadership. The boundaries between distinct traits and the predominant conditions was what created effective leadership. The contingency theory clearly related effective leadership as being dependent on factors free of an individual leader. This concept signified that effective leaders were those whose personal traits matched the needs of the situations in which they found themselves. Fiedler's contingency model of leadership focused on the interaction of leadership style and the situation (later called situational control). He identified three relevant aspects of the situation: the quality of the leader's relationships with others, how well structured their tasks were, and the leader's amount of formal authority (Boundless, Four Theories of Leadership, Boundless, 08 Dec. 2014). Source: Boundless. “Four Theories of Leadership.” Boundless Management. Boundless, 08 Dec. 2014. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2014 from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/leadership-9/defining-leadership-68/four-theories-of-leadership-344-7580/ 10. What are the significant differences among the transformational leadership theory model, the normative decision model, and the charismatic leadership model? And under what conditions/situations might each of the three leadership models (transformational – charismatic - normative decision) be effective? Explain your answer in sufficient detail to demonstrate your understanding.
Dubrin stated that a notable aspect of charismatic and transformational leaders is that their influence extends beyond the immediate work group, and also beyond...
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