depression paper

Topics: Bipolar disorder, Mania, Mood stabilizer Pages: 5 (804 words) Published: January 11, 2015


Depression Paper
Alisa Jones
PSY/270
November 23, 2014
Katia Araujo
Depression Paper
According to the Center for Disease control roughly 8 percent of Americans suffer from depression (CDC statistics 2012). Healthline.com estimates of that 8 percent that have symptoms of depression 80 percent are not seeking any type of help. Many Americans from all walks of life go through times of grief and sadness in their lives whether the sadness is from a great loss or a change in a relationship the feelings can become overwhelming. When feelings of sadness begin to interfere with normal daily activities is when depression becomes of real concern. On the opposite side, we all experience great happiness in our lives, but when thoughts of grandeur and states of euphoria become more frequent fears of Mania emerge. When these bouts of depression and mania linger and continue for long periods of time, a diagnosis of mood disorder is likely. When an individual is no longer able to function as they normally would it is a mood disorder such as unipolar depression, or bipolar depression could be the diagnoses. The word Uni is defined as “one; having or consisting of one (Google).” Unipolar depression is bouts of depression followed by a return to normalcy when the depression lifts “Unipolar depression strikes approximately 7 percent of people at any given time, of that 7 percent 2 percent are extreme cases (Kessler & Wang, 2009; Taube-Schiff & Lau, 2008).” Symptoms of unipolar depression consist of emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive and physical aspects. The emotional aspect consists of overwhelming sadness, thoughts of despair, hopelessness and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The patients may lose all motivation to do much of anything. Individuals with unipolar depression tend to isolate themselves from others and become less active often sleeping more than normal. On the cognitive level unipolar sufferers often have very negative views of life in general. Physical ailments include headaches, dizziness, and overall physical discomfort. Bi means two. Bipolar depression consists of bouts of both depression and mania. Patients with bipolar depression can swing from one extreme to the other. Bipolar depressions manic states have the opposite effect on the emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physical aspects of life. People suffering from manic episodes often have emotions so powerful that they seek out risky behaviors. In the throes of a manic episode, an individual might have misled motivation. An individual with manic behavior are often very active, show poor judgment and tend to sleep very little. Both Unipolar and bipolar depression have underlying causes. Unipolar depression can be triggered by stressful situations. There is also research that points to people being predisposed to depression based on their genetic makeup, “researchers have found evidence that unipolar depression may be tied to genes on chromosomes (Carlson, 2008)." Low activity of certain neurotransmitter chemicals such as serotonin and norepinephrine have also been linked to unipolar depression. Bipolar depression like unipolar is suspected to have some deal to do with the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin. Unlike unipolar experiences is thought that bipolar depression has more to do with high levels of norepinephrine and still low levels of serotonin. Like unipolar research shows that individuals may have a predisposition to it based on genetic factors. Bipolar depression is split into two categories bipolar depression l and bipolar depression ll. bipolar depression l is defined as having the presence of major mania mixed with bouts of depression. Bipolar ll is the presence of minor mania and major depression Depression itself is not difficult to diagnose, however, distinguishing on whether the depression warrants a unipolar diagnosis or bipolar diagnoses is much more difficult. It is thoughts that bipolar individuals...

References: Center for disease control http://www.cdc.gov/features/datastatistics.html
http://www.healthline.com/health/depression/statistics-infographic
Google definitions
Kessler & Wang, 2009; Taube-Schiff & Lau, 2008 from fundamental of abnormal psychology
Lauren LeBano Psych congress 2008 http://www.psychcongress.com/article/how-differentiate-bipolar-disorder-unipolar-depression-12483
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