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Depression and Fascism

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1. Describe the political beliefs of Vladimir Lenin. * Lenin was a Marxist. He preached that private property should be abolished and that everything should be owned by everyone. He also believed that anybody making profit was abusing everybody else and that the Russian government supported a system that kept the huge majority of Russian people in misery and therefore it should be overthrown. 2. What did Lenin promise the people of Russia in order to gain their support for the Revolution? * Lenin promised to pull Russia out of the war, to give land to the peasants, and lastly, to give control of the factories to the workers and the Soviets. 3. How did Lenin gain control of Russia between 1918-1921? Your answer must address the problems of World War I, the Russian Civil War, and War Communism. * Lenin had support of the Russian peasants, who made up a large portion of the Russian population. In March 1918, he signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia's involvement in World War I and surrendering much of Russia's resources. The Civil War ruined Russia's economy. During the War, Lenin initiated War Communism. The state seized most factories, all surplus food was taken to the government, and there was no buying, selling, or trading. During this time, a huge percentage of Russians dies (about 33%). Many of them being farmers and laborers.

4. Describe life in Russia under Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and 1930s. Your answer must address the use of propaganda, The Great Purge, and the role of religion in society.

* Under Stalin’s rule, life in Russia was very difficult. He used propaganda in forms of newspapers, books, and films to build up his image as a great leader. He ruled from 1929 until his death in 1953. He used fear to drive his dictatorship. He executed anyone who went against him. During the Great Purge he tortured and killed over 6 million Soviets. During his rule, the Russian Orthodox Churches were closed and religious leaders persecuted.

5. What were the causes of the Great Depression (from Digital History)? Be sure to include an explanation of misdistribution of purchasing power, lack of diversification, credit structure, the breakdown of international trade, and the Wall Street Crash of 1929 in your answer. * There are many causes for the Great Depression. One of these is the Stock Market Crash of 1929. During this time, stockholders had lost more than $40 billion dollars. By the end of 1930, the stock market had regained a little of what it had lost, but it was still not enough to keep America from the Great Depression. Another huge contribution to the Great Depression is the extensive bank failures in the 30s. Throughout the 1930s, over 9,000 banks failed across the US. Bank deposits were uninsured, so as banks failed, people simply lost all of their savings.

6. Identify the following (from Columbia Encyclopedia): a. Benito Mussolini: Italian dictator and leader of the Fascist movement b. Fascism: totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. c. Francisco Franco: Spanish General and leader d. League of Nations: former international organization, established by the peace treaties that ended World War I. e. Spanish Civil War: which the conservative and traditionalist forces in Spain rose against and finally overthrew the second Spanish republic.

6. Explain the ideological theory of Nazism (Columbia Encyclopedia's National Socialism). * The idea behind Nazism is that races can be classified as superior or inferior, and that the highest racial type was the Germans. Consequently it was their destiny to govern their inferiors and, through scientific breeding, to extend the “master race” and limit inferior races.

7. Explain how Adolph Hitler (Columbia Encyclopedia) came to power in Germany and the role that inflation in the 1920s and depression in the 1930s played in his rise to leadership. * Hitler took over first by false propaganda; then he could manipulate and persuade people’s minds. People during the depression just wanted a leader and were too “depressed” to really think about Hitler’s possible intentions. He then got the power to tell everyone Jews were bad and then could terminate them without any question or opposition.

8. Identify, from your reading about the Nazi Regime under Hitler, the following: f. 1935 Nuremberg Laws: were antisemitic laws that took away civil rights and citizenship from German Jews. g. Kristallnacht: an anti-Jewish pogrom in Nazi Germany. h. Anschluss: German term designating the incorporation of Austria into Germany in the 1930s. i. Munich Pact: An agreement between Britain, France, Germany, and Italy, signed at Munich on September 29, 1938, under which the Sudetenland was ceded to Nazi Germany, often cited as an example of misjudged or dishonorable appeasement.

9. Identify the following (from Infoplease) in terms of their relationship to the road to war in the Asian theatre of World War II in the 1930s and 1940s: j. Tojo Hideki: The most powerful leader in the government during World War II, he approved the attack on Pearl Harbor k. Chiang Kai-Shek: The leader of China prior to communist overthrow. In fighting the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, he hosted a U.S. covert military force known as The American Volunteer Group (AKA "The Flying Tigers"). l. Mao Zedong: Chinese Communist leader, fought the Japanese in WW II but did not support Chaing Kai-Shek. m. Sino-Japanese War: war between Russia and Japan prior to WW I.

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