INFORMATIVE SPEECH OUTLINE
Healing the Whole World Speech #1: Informative
Josephine Harscouet, Sheyla Rodriguez, Mallory Bridgman
Dengue Fever in Colombia and India
SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To inform my audience about Dengue Fever
I. With more than one-third of the world’s population living in areas at risk for infection, dengue virus is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics. II. We would like to inform you of this disease because it affects so many populations and there have already been cases in the USA. III. Refer to point II.
IV. Today, we’ll present you with the profile of the dengue fever as well as how it affects India and Colombia. [TRANSITION: ] After presenting you those facts, I’m going to present to you the Dengue Fever. BODY
I. What is the Dengue Fever ?A. Dengue viruses have four serotypes. An infection with any of these serotypes can cause dengue fever and, rarely, the more severe disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever. As many as 400 millions people are infected yearly. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is characterized by a fever that lasts from 2 to 7 days, with general signs and symptoms consistent with dengue fever. When the fever declines, warning signs may develop. This marks the beginning of a 24 to 48 hour period when the smallest blood vessels become excessively permeable, allowing the fluid component to escape from the blood vessels. This may lead to failure of the circulatory system and shock, and possibly death without prompt, or appropriate treatment. In addition, the patient with dengue fever has a low platelet count and hemorrhagic manifestations, tendency to bruise easily or have other types of skin hemorrhages, bleeding nose or gums, and possibly internal bleeding. B.
- Six dengue fever vaccines are in development, but not yet available. The vaccine that's furthest in development is a three-dose vaccine for children. The results of a phase III trial were published in July 2014: it showed that the vaccine appears to be safe, and it prevented dengue infections slightly more than half the time. - There is no specific medication for treatment of a dengue infection. Persons who think they have dengue should use analgesics (that are pain relievers). They should also rest, drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, avoid mosquito bites while febrile and consult a physician. As with dengue, there is no specific medication for dengue hemorrhagic fever. If a clinical diagnosis is made early, a health care provider can effectively treat DHF using fluid replacement therapy. Adequately management of DHF generally requires hospitalization. C. The dengue virus is spread through a human-to-mosquito-to-human cycle of transmission. It is transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected mosquito. Only a few mosquito species are vectors for the dengue virus. When a mosquito bites a person who has dengue virus in his or her blood, the mosquito becomes infected with the dengue virus. An infected mosquito can later transmit that virus to healthy people by biting them. Dengue cannot be spread directly from one person to another, and mosquitoes are necessary for transmission of the dengue virus. [TRANSITION: ] Now that you know what dengue fever is, I’d like to talk to you about how it’s affecting India. II. The Dengue Fever in India
A. In India there is poor medical surveillance, so they don’t know the exact prevalence of dengue fever in that area. However, it’s been documented that between September 2001 and January 2002 there were newly 800 reported cases. The mortality rate is less than 1% in India. A clinical study of dengue in North Western India found that nearly 77% of the patients with dengue were males. B. Because there is no treatment for dengue, prevention is important. Since dengue is most commonly spread by mosquito bites, mosquito repellant is one of the best forms of prevention; those living in areas thick with mosquitos are also advised to use mosquito mats. In India, mosquitos commonly breed in people’s coolers so it is recommended that the coolers be emptied regularly and rinsed with kerosene. The best way to control the spread of dengue Fever is to have minimal contact with mosquitos and water that mosquitos have been near. C. Different areas of India provide different risks of spreading dengue Fever. When a mosquito bites a person with dengue, it then becomes infected as well and can infect any other people it bites. Because of this, areas with high numbers of international tourists and rapid urbanization, such as New Delhi, can increase cases of dengue because it allows infected mosquitos to reach many people quickly. Areas with poor living conditions and unsanitary water are also at a higher risk of acquiring dengue Fever. [TRANSITION: ] Dengue fever is not only affecting India, it is also a significant health problem in Colombia. III. The Dengue Fever in Colombia
A. Cases of dengue in Girardot dramatically increased in the first half of 2013 with 60 newly infected people diagnosed each week. Over 25 million people, more than half of Colombia’s population is at risk of dengue. Over recent years despite extensive vector control efforts, the mosquito has also expanded into new geographical areas within the country. In 2010 Colombia experienced its largest ever outbreak when over 157,00 cases of dengue were reported, of these 5,535 were confirmed as severe dengue, resulting in 217 deaths. B. In Medellin Colombia there is a program called The Eliminate Dengue research program which is investigating whether Wolbachia, bacteria that occur naturally in up to 60% of all insect species but not the dengue carrying mosquito can be used as an effective strategy to disrupt dengue transmission between people. This program is trying for the Wolbachia can establish in the wild mosquito population in a local area then there would be reduce transmission of dengue between people. There is some vaccines that control dengue but have not found an actual cure for it.C. The lack of resources in Colombia such as sanitary water. Most people need to use eco nets to protect their tanks of water that they have for the day. Preventing the mosquitos to lay their eggs and prevent the dengue. If dengue is not soon curable whole South America will be infected. The only countries not at risk factors are Chile and Argentina. Infection with a second dengue serotype may be a risk factor for the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever. [TRANSITION: ] As you can see, Dengue Fever has had a large affect on both India and Colombia. Fortunately, the amount of deaths caused globally by Dengue Fever continues to decrease and are currently less than 1%. However, the number of cases is continuing to increase. Although this Dengue fever has likely not had an immediate effect on you, there was a case reported in Texas in 2006. Dengue has the ability to spread to many more areas than it is currently affecting. WORKS CITED
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