Topics: Dengue fever, Dengue, Fever Pages: 44 (15336 words) Published: July 3, 2013
Analytica Chimica Acta 687 (2011) 28–42

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Biosensors and rapid diagnostic tests on the frontier between analytical and clinical chemistry for biomolecular diagnosis of dengue disease: A review Fernando Sérgio Rodrigues Ribeiro Teles ∗
Centre for Malaria and Tropical Diseases (CMDT), Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT), Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Rua da Junqueira 100, 1349-008 Lisboa, Portugal

a r t i c l e

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a b s t r a c t
The past decades have witnessed enormous technological improvements towards the development of simple, cost-effective and accurate rapid diagnostic tests for detection and identification of infectious pathogens. Among them is dengue virus, the etiologic agent of the mosquito-borne dengue disease, one of the most important emerging infectious pathologies of nowadays. Dengue fever may cause potentially deadly hemorrhagic symptoms and is endemic in the tropical and sub-tropical world, being also a serious threat to temperate countries in the developed world. Effective diagnostics for dengue should be able to discriminate among the four antigenically related dengue serotypes and fulfill the requirements for successful decentralized (point-of-care) testing in the harsh environmental conditions found in most tropical regions. The accurate identification of circulating serotypes is crucial for the successful implementation of vector control programs based on reliable epidemiological predictions. This paper briefly summarizes the limitations of the main conventional techniques for biomolecular diagnosis of dengue disease and critically reviews some of the most relevant biosensors and rapid diagnostic tests developed, implemented and reported so far for point-of-care testing of dengue infections. The invaluable contributions of microfluidics and nanotechnology encompass the whole paper, while evaluation concerns of rapid diagnostic tests and foreseen technological improvements in this field are also overviewed for the diagnosis of dengue and other infectious and tropical diseases as well. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 9 September 2010 Received in revised form 9 November 2010 Accepted 7 December 2010 Available online 15 December 2010 Keywords: Biosensor Dengue Diagnosis Evaluation Rapid test Tropical disease

Abbreviations: CDC, Centers for Disease Control; DENV1–4, dengue virus serotypes (1–4); ssRNA, single-stranded ribonucleic acid; ORF, open-reading frame; NS1, non-structural 1; DHF, dengue hemorrhagic fever; DSS, dengue shock syndrome; WHO, World Health Organization; HI, hemagglutination-inhibition; MAC-EIA, monoclonal antibody capture-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; 3 -NR, 3 noncoding region; RNA, ribonucleic acid; IgG, immunoglobulin G; IgM, immunoglobulin M; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; QCM, quartz-crystal microbalance; MIP, molecularly imprinted polymer; GNP, gold nanoparticle; SAM, self-assembled monolayer; BSA, bovine serum albumin; SPR, surface plasmon resonance; NASBA, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification; S/N, signal-to-noise ratio; CMOS, complementary metal oxide semiconductor; FIA, flow-injection analysis; FCCS, fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy; FCS, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; EIS, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; BST, barium strontium titanate; FET, field-effect transistor; PNA, peptide nucleic-acid; LOD, limit of detection; cDNA, complementary DNA; TDR, Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases; UNDP, United Nations Development Programme; PDVI, Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative; STARD, Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy; FIOCRUZ, Fundacão Oswaldo Cruz; DPP® , Dual-Path Platform; BLM, bilayer lipid membrane; ¸ QD, quantum dot; CNT, carbon nanotube; MS, mass spectrometry;...

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