Account for the demand for Pakistan to be an independent state.
By 1947, the demand for, as well as need of, a separate Muslim state of Pakistan was most apparent due to flaring communal tensions. India’s quest for independence up to this time was full of Muslim and Hindu conflict making a united, nationalist force in want of purna-swaraj or “self-government” near impossible. Historians argue that throughout the 1920’s, ample opportunity arose for India to emerge as an independent nation, the only force preventing this being inner conflict of interests. Therefore it was inevitable and necessary for the groups to partition. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the All Indian Muslim League (AIML) leading up to partition, saw the Indian National Congress (INC) as the “snake in the parlour” that Britain was inviting them to enter. As the INC was generally led by the Hindu faction of India, it tended to support Hindu ideologies, much to the anger of Jinnah. Differences regarding leadership under the British Raj as well as methods of presenting dissatisfaction increased and remained unresolved between the groups heightening communalist tensions. Throughout the early 20th century, Jinnah, as representative of Muslim interests, had attempted on a number of occasions to compromise with the INC in order to unify India. At this stage, he showed no intentions of dividing India, but devising methods of configuring the political system to appease both parties. His 14 Point Plan presented at the All Parties Conference in 1928 which was in response to the Simon Commission detailed ways that the two parties could work against communalism in India. His ideas were rejected both by Congress and by many Muslims. Jinnah underwent self exile to Britain and left India politics temporarily. On his return, Jinnah adopted a separatist line, though not to the extent of complete partition. In 1937 when Nehru made an election speech stating that in India there were ‘two parties- Congress and...
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