Top-Rated Free Essay

Definition on Communication Theories Terms

Powerful Essays
DEFINITION:

1. COMMUNICATION

Based on website nwlink, 2010, communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver (U.S. Army, 1983)

Communication also can be defined as a message transmission from a source to a receiver and it will occurs when a source sends a message via a medium to the receiver producing some effect (Baran, 2002)

As stated in Baran (2002, p. 4), Harold Lasswell (1948) said that “a convenient way to describe communication is to answer these questions:
• Who?
• Says what?
• In which channel?
• To whom?
• With what effect?”

2. MASS COMMUNICATION

As stated in Severin and Tankard, Jr. (2001, p. 4) “mass communication could be defined by three characteristics:
1. It is directed toward relatively large, heterogeneous, and anonymous audiences.
2. Messages are transmitted publicly, are often timed to reach most audience members simultaneously, and are transient in character.
3. The communicator tends to be or operate within a complex organization that may involve great expense” (Wright, 1959, p. 15)

3. MASS MEDIA

Mass media can be defined as a thought of a source of the news and entertainment. They carry messages of persuasion. Thought it is often overlooked, mass media is how mass messages bind people into communities and also into the nations. It is pervasive in modern life. Through mass media, people can learn almost everything they knew about the world beyond their immediate environs. If it works well, people will be informed and involved citizenry is possible in modern democracy. The mass media is needed so that people can express their ideas widely. Without mass media, the expression would be limited. Powerful forces will use mass media to influence people with their ideologies and also for their commercial purposes. The media are the main tools for propagandists, advertisers and other persuaders (Vivian, 1999).

4. MAINSTREAM MEDIA

Based on Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000, p.807), mainstream can be defined as “the ideas and opinions that are thought to be normal because they are shared by most people; the people whose ideas and opinions are most accepted”.

Therefore, from my understanding and based on website Wikipedia (2011), mainstream media can be referred as media who disseminated news information via the largest distribution channels and they represented what the majority of media consumers are likely to encounter. Mainstream media also indicate those media who generally reflective of the predominant current thought, activity and influence.

The example of mainstream media are:
1) Newspaper: Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian as compared to KOSMO, Harian Metro
2) TV Stations: RTM, TV3 as compared to 8TV and NTV7.

5. ALTERNATIVE MEDIA

According to Vivian (1999), alternative media is a new emerging media which narrowly focused as an advertising vehicles. It is the latest trend in demassification has advertisers producing their own media to carry their messages by mail to their potential customers who through computer sorting and other mechanisms, are more precisely targeted than magazines, newspapers, television and radio could ever do. This is what they call the alternative media, it is not impossible the revenue base for magazines, newspapers, radio and television will decline.

The example of the new alternative media includes:
a) Flyers and direct mail catalogs send to the selected address
b) Television commercials at the point of purchase such as big screens in shopping malls
c) Place based media such magazines designed for distribution only in saloon or clinics
d) Web advertisement via the popular social networking site such as Facebook, Google and Yahoo Messenger
e) Telemarketing in which salespeople make their pitches by telephone to the respective individual by statistical profiles to be good potential customers

6. NEW MEDIA / ONLINE MEDIA

New media can be referred as a medium communication of news which encompasses computer-related technology. This communication technology includes internet, emailing, blogging, instant messaging, the influence of social networking sites, cell phones usage and also digital television. It has been identified mass communication as communication to a large audience through a multiple channels of communication (West and Turner, 2010).

As stated in Severin and Tankard, Jr. (2001), some of the characteristics of the new media are the following (McManns, 1994):
a) Previously distinct technologies such as printing and broadcasting are merging.
b) We are shifting from media scarcity to media abundance.
c) We are shifting from content geared to mass audiences to content tailored for groups or individuals.
d) We are shifting from one-way to interactive media.

Online media has some similarities to the mediums of print, radio and television. It still involves the communicating of news and current affairs but the medium has some unique differences. Characteristics specific to online media include by pretext, interactivity and multimedia. Use of multimedia is another vital element of online media.

What gave online media such popularity was the abundant sources the internet has offered. Currently, online media is one of the top new sources, bringing the news to a huge audience.

The example of new/online media are:
a) Malaysia Kini
b) Malaysia Digest
c) Utusan Online
d) You Tube
e) Prime Minister’s Blog

7. OLD/CONVENTIONAL/TRADITIONAL MEDIA

With reference to website Wikipedia (2010), the old media or conventional media are “traditional means of communication and expression that have existed since before the advent of the new medium of the Internet”.

The example of the old media are:
a) Broadcast
b) Cable television
c) Radio
d) Movie
e) Music studios
f) Books
g) Newspapers
h) Magazines
i) Most print publications

Old media also can be defined as a term that refers to the three television network evening newscasts, the three major news magazines and the ordinary daily newspapers (Severin and Tankard, Jr., 2001).

REFERENCES:

Anonymous. (2011, January 12). Alternative media. January 25, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_media

Anonymous. (2011, January 14). Mainstream media. January 25, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainstream_media

Anonymous. (2002-2010). Online media. January 25, 2011, http://www.ntchosting.com/multimedia/online-media-tools.html

Anonymous. (1997, May 11). Communication and leadership. January 25, 2011, http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcom.html

Anonymous. (2011, January 23). Mass media. January 25, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_media

Anonymous. (2011, January 21). New media. January 25, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_media Anonymous. (2010, August 25). Old media. January 25, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_media Anonymous. (2011, January 6). Mass communication. January 25, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_communication

Baran, S.J. (2002). Introduction to mass communication: media literacy and culture (2nd Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill

Severin, W.J. & Tankard, Jr. J.W. (2001). Communication theories: origins, methods, and uses in the mass media (5th Edition). New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc

Vivian, J. (1999). The media of mass communication (5th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

West, R. & Turner, L.H. (2010). Introducing communication theory: analysis and application (4th Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill

References: Anonymous. (2011, January 12). Alternative media. January 25, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_media Anonymous Anonymous. (2002-2010). Online media. January 25, 2011, http://www.ntchosting.com/multimedia/online-media-tools.html Anonymous Anonymous. (2011, January 23). Mass media. January 25, 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_media Anonymous Baran, S.J. (2002). Introduction to mass communication: media literacy and culture (2nd Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill Severin, W.J Vivian, J. (1999). The media of mass communication (5th Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon West, R

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Definition and Term

    • 874 Words
    • 4 Pages

    How to Write a Definition Essay In a definition essay, you explain the meaning of a certain term by giving a detailed description of it, and support your definition with clear examples or facts. Such explanations are needed if a term is special, abstract, disputed or does not have a common meaning. For instance, individuals can interpret the definition of the words ‘freedom’ or ‘abuse’ quite differently. ------------------------------------------------- Steps for Writing a Definition Essay 1…

    • 874 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Definition of Terms

    • 1329 Words
    • 6 Pages

    ____________ Chapter 1 Introduction This Chapter contains the Introduction, Background of the Study, and Statement of the Problem, Significance of the Study and the Scope and Limitation. Filipinos love eating different types of food, the reason why they can easily find restaurants around the country. But starting up a restaurant is not as easy. A…

    • 1329 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Definition of terms

    • 493 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Definitions Term Definition ActionScript Adds interactivity and/or playback efficiency to a movie via coding. Similar to JavaScript, ActionScript is an object-oriented programming language. Alpha effect Adjusts the transparency of an instance. Bitmaps Images using colored dots, called pixels, arranged within a grid. Typical of most web graphics. Breaking apart Converts symbols into basic shapes so that shape tweening can be used. Button symbol Used to create interactive buttons…

    • 493 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    definition of terms

    • 2336 Words
    • 7 Pages

    (kay rap)DEFINITION OF TERMS AC (alternating current) - In electricity, alternating current (AC) occurs when charge carriers in a conductor or semiconductor periodically reverse their direction of movement. Household utility current in most countries is AC with a frequency of 60 hertz (60 complete cycles per second), although in some countries it is 50 Hz. The radio-frequency (RF) current in antennas and transmission lines is another example of AC. The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine…

    • 2336 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Definition of Terms

    • 261 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Definition of Terms Academic Performance- it is how the students cooperate/ perform in the school. - It measures students learning (grades etc.) - Determines how the students are doing in their studies and classes. Aggressiveness - effect of too much use of computer that may blur a child ability to distinguish real life from simulation. Computer- necessary for the development of the digital proficiency required of today’s citizen. - It serves as the sources of information and…

    • 261 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Definition of Terms

    • 271 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Definition of Terms American cockroach- the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana), also known as the waterbug or misidentified as the palmetto bug is the largest species of common cockroach, and often considered as pest. Breed- to produce offspring by hatching or gestation. Chitin- is a long chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world. Laboratory- is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which…

    • 271 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Definition of Terms

    • 327 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Definition of terms For a clearer understanding of this study the following terms were defined conceptually and operationally. Reproductive health- the right of men and women to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of fertility regulation of their choice, and the right of access to appropriate health care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant…

    • 327 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    A Practical Definition of Communication (Griffin’s (2012: 6) working definition of communication involves five features of communication: “Communication is the relational process of creating and interpreting messages that elicit a response.” Select two of the communication theories introduced in this course and discuss how this definition fits with the selected theories’ view of communication.) Student name: Alexander Dahl Jørgensen Study Program: BA Information Management…

    • 1214 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Definition of Communication: There are various definitions of communication. he word itself is derived from the Latin verb ‘communicare’, which means "to share" or "to make common". That derivation provides one half of the English meaning of communication. The other half of the meaning of communication has to do with information and meaning. The word ‘communication’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means common. Communication, thus, is the process of sharing facts, ideas…

    • 342 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Definition of Terms

    • 676 Words
    • 3 Pages

    1. Human Nervous System- the part of a body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of its body. Mostly, it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). 2. Central Nervous System- the processing center for the nervous system. It receives information from and sends information to the peripheral nervous system. The two main organs of the CNS are the brain and spinal cord. The brain…

    • 676 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays