Defects in Towels

Topics: Knitting, Yarn, Textile Pages: 21 (3269 words) Published: December 3, 2014


There is a large quantity of defective towels, fabrics, and yarns in storage which suffers from serious defects like pile height variation, cut uncut loops, pile density variation, designing mistakes, torn pieces, hemming defects, shade variation, high IPI, color contamination, low elongation, high Uster percentage, snarling, spirality, needle & sinker lines, holes, uneven dyeing and many more.

Big brands do not accept even small defects so it is not possible to use or sell those defective material or towels to those buyers/brands. With passing time, the defects are becoming worse and it will be impossible to sell them at lowest discounted prices.

So, based on current condition of the stocks, market price has been estimated taking in account the amount/ percentage of defect, type of defect, and effect it have on final use. These defects are classified as Defects in Yarns, Defects in Fabric, and Defects in Towels. Causes and Impacts of these defects are further explained and respective images are also attached with the defects.

Defects in knitted fabrics:
1. Needle & sinker lines:
Needle lines are prominent vertical lines along the length of the fabric which are easily visible in the grey as well as finished fabric. Sinker lines are prominent or feeble vertical lines appearing parallel to the Wales along the length of the knitted fabric tube.

Causes for needle lines:
Bent Latches, Needle Hooks & Needle stems
Wrong Needle selection (Wrong sequence of needles, put in the Cylinder or Dial) Broken needles

Causes for Sinker lines:
Bent or Worn out Sinkers
Sinkers being tight in the Sinker Ring grooves

Impact:
It affects the aesthetics of the fabric or garment.
It affects the wear ability of the garment produced from this kind of fabric.

2. Color bleeding:

It is defined as loss of colorant from a colored material in contact with a liquor, leading to an obvious coloration of the liquid, or of adjacent areas of the same or other materials.

Causes:
Poor wet fastness of dyeing or printing.
Use of poor quality dyes
Improper dyeing conditions
Improper fabric or fiber quality

Impact:
It affects the aesthetics (appearance & wearability) of the fabric or garment. If washed with other garments, there are chances that it may contaminate other garment as well. Poor quality dye also affects the human body as the dye molecules and heavy metal ions may be absorbed into the body through the skin against skin.

3. Uneven Dyeing (Shade variation):

Sometimes there appears to be a difference in the depth of shade between the roll to roll & from place to place in the same roll. The defect will show up clearly in the garments manufactured from such fabric. 

Causes:
Shade variation can be as a result of mixing of the, fabrics of two different lots. Shade variation is also caused, by the variation in the process parameters i.e. Time, Temperature & Speed etc. from one fabric roll, to the other. Shade variation can appear to be, in fabrics with GSM variation, caused due to the uneven stretching, unequal fabric overfeed % etc. Variation in dyeing recipes between batches

Impact:

It affects the aesthetic appeal and wearability of the garment if there is a variation within in color.

4. Crease marks, rope marks, folding marks:

Crease marks appear in the knitted fabric, as dark haphazard broken or continuous lines. It is a mark left in a fabric after a crease has been removed during fabric processing. In Knit dyeing it is a common dyeing fault.

Causes:
Damp fabric moving at high speed in twisted form, in the Hydro extractor (Centrifuge). Slack on tight selvedge causes creases at an angle to each selvedge Variation of heating and cooling rate
Improper fabric movement
Faulty plaiting device

Long, irregularly shifting, longitudinal markings on dyed or finished fabrics are called rope marks. This defect is frequently caused by...
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