Top-Rated Free Essay

decolonization

Better Essays
Emily Maggioncalda
10 November
Decolonization
Empire building is a long-established theme throughout the history of the world. Societies have sought to dominate weaker nations with motives of obtaining natural resources, accruing wealth, and exhibiting nationalist power. Up until the mid 19th century most European nations dominated neighboring regions. Technological advancements and the need for industrial materials forced the Europeans to expand, they then set out to build empires all over the world. The French controlled three territories of Northern Africa: the Protectorates of Morocco in the West, Tunisia in the East, and Algeria in the center. The end of WWII brought with it a false sense of security for some, especially those ruled by Europeans powers. Post-war debt left most European colonies deprived. While the Europeans wanted to continue control of their territories natives thought otherwise, the end result was a demand for independence. Throughout the Second World War the colonies provided war materials and troops in hopes of a returned reward for their support. At the start of the war Western Officials had promised the Colonial people greater political rights. Complete autonomy was the ultimate goal of Algeria during the mid 20th century. During this time the United States produced a conductive environment for European withdrawal throughout the colonies. The United States primary objective during the Cold War was to ultimately contain Soviet expansion. Beginning in 1948, United States’ induced a massive aid relief to help rebuild the economies of Western Europe through the Marshall Plan. Factions were also set up in order to push the colonies towards self-reliance. The FLN (National Liberation Front) was established in 1954, it was a socialist political party in Algeria and fought for independence from France. In Taleb-Ibrahimi’s letter to Albert Camus he defends the goals of the Algerian revolution, while simultaneous mocking Camus for his lack of nationalistic character. He ensures Camus that the objective of the Revolution is not to rid Algeria of European inhabitants, but rather to win national independence. He proclaimed that with newfound freedom it will give the people of Algeria the opportunity to install a democratic, socialist republic that will guarantee equality to all citizens without discrimination. Independence from France was no peaceful protest for Algeria. Radical opposition of a joint Franco-Muslim society forced the French to send military control to Algeria. Turmoil was not only seen in France’s overseas territories but also on their home front. Sartre argued that the violence in Algeria was the French people's collective responsibility. He believed the initial and fundamental violence into the Algerian situation was because of colonialism. He argued that the colonial system was structured around ‘controlled’ violence, and this in turn taught the natives to understand only violence. He concluded that the French felt guilty for the bloodshed they’d caused, and that it was their ultimate responsibility for them to come to terms with their own hypocrisy. He implies the wrongdoings of the governing class ‘feeding’ inaccurate information to the general working class. He feels information presented in alternative news, and pamphlets are completely erroneous, ultimately encouraging individuals not to be ignorant and to question such statements. Albert Camus a political essayist and activist of the time strongly sided with the anti-colonial, humanistic movement. Camus was from a small city in the northeast region of French Algeria. He spent most of his literary career as a defender of freedom, and an enemy of terror. His logical interpretations opposed those of his peer, Jean Paul Sartre. Their opposing views on violence led them to react differently to the war in Algeria. Sartre accepted violent means as an acceptable tool in the fight for decolonization while Camus stood against the brutality of both sides. Much of Frantz Fanon’s life was spent fighting on the French side for the war. However in 1954 France responded to Algerian insurrection with brutal repression, this event altered Fanon’s political stance on independence. Fanon began secretly helping the FLN despite numerous death threats from the French. In Fanon’s essay, “This Is the Voice of Algeria” he states his belief that through appropriate assimilation people can transform into citizens of a new nation, he upholds this claim of transformation to the interest in “news”, and radio use. Before 1945, the French National Broadcasting system operating from Paris controlled much of what was broadcasted on the radio. The French controlled the economic stratification between the dominant and the dominated societies through radio. He asserted there was no claim for the organized resistant of the device, and blamed this for the state of condition his people were in. At the end of 1956 change was being implemented. Thousands of Algerian families bought battery powered radio sets in hopes of obtaining access to communication about the present Revolution. Through the process of decolonization most African territories, especially Algeria fought bloody cumbersome civil wars in hopes of total autonomy. Different regions of Africa experience varying degrees of success with independence. Decolonization seemed to produce brief moments of promise, however the sustained aftermath it brought in regards to economic and political success seem to remain contentious.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Decolonization

    • 1312 Words
    • 4 Pages

    In the years following WWII the process of decolonization began to take place on a large global scale. Previous to World War II much of the world was under a colonial power including India, Southeast Asia, and most of the African continent. As European powers were weakened by two world wars and a severe economic depression, their ability and desire to retain control over their colonies diminished. As former colonies were able to successfully gain independence, these regions suddenly had to transition…

    • 1312 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    refugee life in order to prove, critically, that the actions of the refugees and the manner in which he reiterates these atrocities is in fact a defiance against the subjugation and colonization of his people. To begin, in order to accomplish the decolonization of his people Montejo argues that a new form of Anthropology was used separating him from standard anthropological works. Focusing largely on the relationship between the anthropologist and the group of people being studied (the “other”); Montejo…

    • 2159 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Decolonization - Congo

    • 1376 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Why was process of decolonization peaceful in some countries and violent in others? (Before Independence) Brief historical background of colonization? (Historical Context) * What ignited calls for independence from colonial rule in __________ (your country)? A: Elections were held in rural areas(small cities) for reform and democratization of local government. 1958 was a year of vigorous political discussion at issues of society in Belgian Congo. The whole turning point of their advocacy for…

    • 1376 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Decolonization takes place when a settlement overturns the doings of colonial rule. In a sense, it holds true it sense of violence in every decolonization process, similar in context to a revolution. Many countries, many empires and many villages and settlements have undergone this transformation in government and jurisdiction, which usually is followed by a period known a post-colonialism. The causes of decolonization can be in fact a wide variety, ranging from outside interference to simple public…

    • 864 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Decolonization of Algeria and Mozambique Essay Preparation Draft Today, Algeria and Mozambique are independent countries in Africa, but before that, since the early 1900’s and earlier, both countries were under colonial rule. Before Algeria and Mozambique gained their independence as a country, Algeria was under the French rule, while Mozambique was under Portuguese rule. However, eventually in 1962, Algeria gained its independence and in 1974 Mozambique gained its independence. In terms of the…

    • 717 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Decolonization Class Notes

    • 3007 Words
    • 13 Pages

    ● ● ● ● ● Most familiar form of rule in the ancient times has been monarchy. The vast majority of people in the past lived under some form of imperial rule. The French Revolution of 1789 introduced the idea of Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood. Tom Paine’s pamphlet ‘The Rights of Man’ established the idea that men had basic human rights. In the nineteenth century, the British and French empires began to expand rapidly. These two traditional overseas empires developed alongside older imperial powers such…

    • 3007 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Decolonization in India

    • 377 Words
    • 2 Pages

    OXFORD UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION History, Politics & Society Summer School 2010 4-24 July 2010 British Politics, 1900-1945 Tutor: Dr Tom Buchanan British politics in this period witnessed great change: the impact of two world wars, the introduction of universal suffrage, the sudden arrival of the Labour Party as a governing force, and the rise (and fall) of trade union militancy. This course will examine the nature of these changes, as well as explaining the significant…

    • 377 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Decolonization was a period that followed the Second World War, and that lasted from 1945 to 1965. Many colonial empires were destroyed by European Powers, and in result the former colonies became independent. In the book Voices of Decolonization, written by Todd Shepard, many issues were examined in relation to the decolonization process. Issues such as race, the cold war, international institutions emerging, and national self-determination arguments were explained very clearly in this book. The…

    • 959 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Decolonization: The Underlying Factors Powering It. Decolonization is the process of removing, reversing, and/or reducing the ties binding a dependent Territory to a foreign power. While decolonization has been an ongoing process since at least the actions of the American Revolutionary war, the term is most often used in connection with the period following WWII. But why does the period of 1945 through 1975 see so many Neo-Imperial empires fall? Moreover why is the period from 1914 through 1975…

    • 1593 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Decolonization and the Rise of the Third World Where the Major factors leading to the first wave of decolonization in the 1950’s and 60’s Contents Page Introduction 2 History and origin of Decolonization 3 The Major factors leading to the first wave of 4 Decolonization in the 1950’s and 60’s Conclusion Bibliography…

    • 2036 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Powerful Essays