Question 1.Explain Decision making process and various types of decision with examples?
Ans: Decision making can be regarded as the mental processes (Cognitive process) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice.
Developed by B. Aubrey Fisher, there are four stages that should be involved in all group decision making. These stages, or sometimes called phases, are important for the decision-making process to begin
Orientation stage- This phase is where members meet for the first time and start to get to know each other.
Conflict stage- Once group members become familiar with each other, disputes, little fights and arguments occur. Group members eventually work it out.
Emergence stage- The group begins to clear up vague opinions by talking about them.
Reinforcement stage- Members finally make a decision, while justifying themselves that it was the right decision.
When in an organization and faced with a difficult decision, there are several steps one can take to ensure the best possible solutions will be decided. These steps are put into seven effective ways to go about this decision making process.
An Example illustrating Decision Making Process in an Organization * The first step - Outline your goal and outcome. This will enable decision makers to see exactly what they are trying to accomplish and keep them on a specific path. * The second step - Gather data. This will help decision makers have actual evidence to help them come up with a solution. * The third step - Brainstorm to develop alternatives. Coming up with more than one solution ables you to see which one can actually work. * The fourth step - List pros and cons of each alternative. With the list of pros and cons, you can eliminate the solutions that have more cons than pros, making your decision