# Data Collection Methods and Sampling Methods

Topics: Sampling, Cluster sampling, Sample Pages: 4 (1141 words) Published: October 10, 2012
Cluster Sampling
Cluster sampling, also called block sampling. In cluster sampling, the population that is being sampled is divided into groups called clusters. Instead of these subgroups being homogeneous based on selected criteria as in stratified sampling, a cluster is as heterogeneous as possible to matching the population. A random sample is then taken from within one or more selected clusters. For example, if an organization has 30 small projects currently under development, an auditor looking for compliance to the coding standard might use cluster sampling to randomly select 4 of those projects as representatives for the audit and then randomly sample code modules for auditing from just those 4 projects. Cluster sampling can tell us a lot about that particular cluster, but unless the clusters are selected randomly and a lot of clusters are sampled, generalizations cannot always be made about the entire population. For example, random sampling from all the source code modules written during the previous week, or all the modules in a particular subsystem, or all modules written in a particular language may cause biases to enter the sample that would not allow statistically valid generalization.

üThere is no need to have a sampling frame for the whole population. üusually less costly comparing to random sampling such as stratified üresearcher can increase sample size with this technique

üSelection may be biased since the sampling is not random
üTechnique is the least representative of the population
üThis is also probability sampling with a possibility of high sampling error Quota Sampling
In quota sampling, the population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups, just as in stratified sampling. Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. It...

Bibliography: David S. Moore and George P. McCabe (February 2005). "Introduction to the practice of statistics" (5th edition). W.H. Freeman & Company.
Freedman, David; Pisani, Robert; Purves, Roger (2007). Statistics (4th ed.). New York: Norton[->0].
www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_collection
[->0] - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._W._Norton_%26_Company