INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE & BIOLOGY 1560–8530/2002/04–3–420–428 http://www.ijab.org
Review Dairy Industry in Pakistan: A Scenario
SARWAR, M., M.A. KHAN, MAHR-UN-NISA AND ZAFAR IQBAL†
Departments of Animal Nutrition and †Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad–38040, Pakistan
Milk and its products provide nearly one third of world’s intake of animal protein (FAO, 1998). Milk and milk products represent 27% of total household expenditures on food items in Pakistan. Per capita availability of milk in Pakistan is 82.4 kg per annum. About 80 thousand tons of dry milk, worth rupees 1213.5 million, was imported to Pakistan during 1999-2000 to meet local demands of milk. Small herd, poor genetic potential of animals for milk, low quality feeds, high risks of epidemics, improper marketing channels, lack of technical man power for dairy industry, high environmental stress, reproductive failure and high udder abnormalities, lack of commercial rations, orthodox management practices and poor extension services are the major constraints of dairy sector in Pakistan. The buffalo is the main dairy animal in Pakistan that accounts for roughly 75% of all milk produced in the country. The milk production in excess during winter and less during summer months causes many problems in its marketing. Pacca dodhis (milk suppliers) supply their milk to collection center or milk shops, usually after decreaming. Peri urban milk producers usually sell their product directly to consumers, milk shops and to larger establishments through contracts. If the pacca dodhis sell their milk to decreamer or hire his services, the milk is separated into cream and skim milk. The skim milk is mixed with other whole milk and sold to urban milk shops. The producer appears not to receive a premium for summer milk or for milk with higher milk fat content except for that paid by the milk collection centers that are operated by processors. The milk products and byproducts produced in the country are pasteurized milk, ultra high temperature (UHT) milk, powder milk, cream, butter, ghee, yogurt and cheese. The price of UHT milk is nearly double the price of raw milk. Dairy animals with high genetic potential for milk production always remain the corner stone of dairy production strategy. The genetic potential for milk production in indigenous cattle and buffalo could be improved by selective breeding. Legume and grass fodder combination could improve the feeding status of livestock. Better feeding of livestock could be achieved if vertical expansion of livestock production is followed. Ensiling and hay making systems should be devised and extended to the farmers according to local livestock production system. Coordination of research and extension activities is needed for the progress of dairy sector. The rural small holders should be trained in the skills of efficient dairy production. There is no price motivation for the milk producers so most of the milk is produced on subsistence basis rather than commercial basis. Education of farmers regarding, mastitis, vaccination, metabolic, nutritional and reproductive problems is required to avoid monetary losses in dairy sector. Key Words: Dairy; Buffalo; Cow; Milk; Feeding
Agriculture sector with its integral component of livestock (animal agriculture) is regarded as most vital part of the national economy since the emergence of Pakistan. Agriculture not only contributed importantly to the national GDP of Pakistan during last five decades but also the provision of employment and food to rapidly growing nation remains important obligations of this sector. In the changing scenario of economy of Pakistan and other developing nations, agriculture is still the largest sector. In Pakistan, agriculture contributes slightly above 25% to GDP, employs around 44% of work force, is the main source of foreign exchange earnings and provides linkages through which it can...
References: Agriculture Statistics, 1999-2000. Govt. of Pakistan, Ministry of Food Agriculture and Cooperatives, Food and Agriculture Division, Islamabad, Pakistan.
(Received 05 May 2002; Accepted 10 June 2002)
Please join StudyMode to read the full document