D171 Introduction to Counselling Tma01

Topics: Psychology, Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud Pages: 9 (1284 words) Published: June 26, 2013

Throughout history, people have strived to determine the origin of mental illness. Since the19th

century psychologists have debated the issue, which eventually led to the development of

psychological theories. At the fore front of these developments was Freud who essentially saw

mental illness arising from childhood trauma and such trauma could be cured by the encouraging

the client to recal past experiences.

In the first half of this essay I will describe and compare both Psychodynamic and Cognitive-

behavioural approaches, before contrasting the differences between both psychological practices.

Psychodynamic counselling is defined as a "Psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious

dynamics within the individual, instinctual Psychodynamic perspective is mostly centered on inner

conflicts and how such conflicts affect development through out life. Sigmund Freud founded the

general basis of this theory, believing that inner conflicts will normally arise from childhood and

can often lead to mental illness. This is done by impeding the balanced development of the three

systems that constitute the human Psyche. These three systems are the ID, which is the innate

sexual and aggressive drives; the ego, which is the conscious part of the brain that mediates

between reality and unconscious, and finally the super ego, this controls primitive impulses of the

Id and can represents moral ideals.

Many psychologists believe that mental disorders are the direct result of psychodynamic conflicts

that cannot be dealt with by the clients own coping mechanism; they do not satisfy both the

superego and the ID. For some people these internal mechanisms are insufficient. This in turn

often leads to illness. The psychodynamic approach still believes that solutions lie in child hood

and the clients are not aware of their real motivation.



It is worth mentioning that Cognitive-behavioural is an umbrella term as it coprises several

different approaches. cognitive-behaviour therapy is the psychological approach that emphasizes

in mental processes, “Socratic” thinking, language, problem solving, and pathways of thinking

which affect us on a day to day basis and also by observing visible behaviour. Although cognitive

therapy can be traced to the origins of psychology it is still relatively new. There have been

significant points that over lap and influence both cognitive and behavioural therapies this can be

see in the works of (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979). The cognitive-behavioural aproach consists

of a wide variety of techniques such as home work assignments, self-monitoring , relaxation

exercises and relapse prevention.

'Psychodynamic' or 'Freudian' methods utilise a close careful interaction with client and his/her

psyche, which of necessity involves the client reliving early trauma.

Whereas the more recent developments in 'cognitive-behavioural' therapy tend to avoid how the

problem developed historically and emphasises how the problem can be alterd and improved in

the present.

As the study of the human mind progressed different theories and treatments evolved, some of

which involved the analyst or therapist interviewing and interreacting with the client to effect a

cure. One main method used to this end is “free association” or as Freud and his mentor and co-

worker Breuener coined it the “talking cure”. In this technique the clients speak for themselves

and are encouraged to express their thoughts and feelings. One could say that 'free association'

was the first instrument for the scientific examination of the human mind. Cognitve-behavioural

method, as in the “talking cure”, has one key feature, which is the...

References: *Freud,S.(1917/1979) 'The case of Dora ', Pelican Freud Library Vol; 8 Case History I, Harmonsworth Penguin.
*Beck,A. (1979) Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
*Cognitive Therapy of Depression: Aaron T. Beck, A. John Rush, Brian F. Shaw and Gary Emery, Guilford Press, New York, 1979, 425 pp.
*Jung, C.G. (1963) Menoriies, Dreams, Reflections (ed. A. Jaffe), New York, NY,Pantheon Books.
*D,G. Myers. Exploring Psychology + Psychinquiry 7 Macmillan Higher Education, 2008
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