CYBER LAW AND GOVERNANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Categories of cyber crime.
Nature And Areas Of Cyber Crime./ types of cyber crime.
2. Cyber Law.
Need For Cyber Law.
Cyber Law VERSUS Conventional Law.
Cyber laws in the World.
4. Cyber Laws in Pakistan:
Electronic Crimes Bill 2007.
Electronic Transactions Ordinance, 2002.
Pakistan Telecommunication (Re-organization) Act, 1996.
Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1933.
Telegraph Act, 1885.
Federal Investigation Agency Act, 1974.
Payments & Electronic Fund Transfers Act, 2007.
5. Electronic Transaction Ordinance 2002.
6. Cyber Crime Bill 2007.
7. Crimes reported in PAKISTAN.
"A Prefix commonly used to indicate some association with the Internet."
CYBER CRIME :
Cybercrime, also known as computer crime, Any use of a computer as an instrument to further illegal ends, such as committing fraud, trafficking in child pornography and intellectual property, stealing identities, or violating privacy. Cybercrime, especially through the Internet, has grown in importance as the computer has become central to commerce, entertainment, and government.
Cyber crimes can be defined as :
"Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)".
"It is a criminal activity committed on the internet. This is a broad term that describes everything from electronic cracking to denial of service attacks that cause electronic commerce sites to lose money".
CATEGORIES OF CYBERCRIMES:
Cybercrimes can be basically divided into 3 major categories:
1. Cybercrimes against persons.
2. Cybercrimes against property.
3. Cybercrimes against government.
Cybercrimes committed against persons include various crimes like transmission of child-pornography, harassment of any one with the use of a computer such as e-mail. The trafficking, distribution, posting, and dissemination of obscene material including pornography and indecent exposure, constitutes one of the most important Cybercrimes known today. The potential harm of such a crime to humanity can hardly be amplified. This is one Cybercrime which threatens to undermine the growth of the younger generation as also leave scars and injury on the younger generation, if not controlled.
Information Technology is encapsulating all the aspects of life across the world. It has brought transition from paper to the paperless world. With the increasing usage of internet in the world, the criminals are also increasing in the field of information technology. The cyber criminals are able to use the software by creating it themselves and manipulating it for their own benefits. It is happening only because of the simplicity of crimes.
The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year 1820!
TYPES/NATURE/AREAS OF CYBER CRIMES:
Mobile/Credit Card / Balance Transfer Fraud
Bank Fraud Credit Cards/ ATM /Loan
Mobile Threatening through SMS/Calls
Tracing of IP/Email Address
Threatening /Abusive / Massages & Emails
Hacking /Illegal access of Websites
Hacking of Account/Email Address
Fraud through mobile messages regarding Winning of Vehicle
Misuse of Information on Internet
Lottery Award Cases
Electronic Money Laundering and Tax Evasion
Electronic Vandalism, Terrorism and Extortion
Sales and Investment Fraud
Illegal Interception of Telecommunications
Electronic Funds Transfer Fraud
Theft of Telecommunications Services
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