Cutting Tool

Topics: Cutting Pages: 17 (2661 words) Published: September 12, 2013
Engineering Production 1
(EngM 324)

Cutting Tool Angles and their Significance
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed, Ph.D.
Associate Professor

Importance of clearance angle in cutting process
P

Leading Edge

Cutting

F

Tool
Workpiece (a) Heel fouls work and prevents leading edge from cutting Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 2

Clearance Angle
 (a) Flat Surface (6o to 8o) P

F

Clearance angle (b) Heel cleared away allowing leading edge to enter the workpiece, cutting action. Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 3

Clearance Angle
 Clearance angle is defined as: the angle between the flank face of the tool and the tangent to the work surface originating at the cutting edge.

 All cutting tools must have clearance angle. However, an excessive angle will not increase the efficiency of cutting and may weaken the tool.  It is affected by the shape of the work. (a) Flat surfaces (shaping)

(b) External cylinders (turning)
(c) Internal cylinders (boring)
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 4

Clearance Angle
 (a) External Cylinder ( 5o to 7o )

P

F

Shape of work helps
to create Clearance
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Clearance Reduced

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 5

Clearance Angle
 (b) Internal Cylinder ( 8o upwards)

P

X
Primary Clearance
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

F

Secondary Clearance prevents fouling at point X through shape of work Cutting Tool Angles – Page 6

Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Single Point Cutting Tool
Right-Hand Cutting Tool

(a) Schematic illustration of a right-hand cutting tool for turning. Although these tools have traditionally been produced from solid toolsteel bars, they are now replaced by inserts of carbide or other tool materials of various shapes and sizes, as shown in (b). Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 7

Single Point Cutting Tool
Right-Hand Cutting Tool

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 8

Single Point Cutting Tool
Designations for a Right-Hand Cutting Tool Right-hand means the tool travels form right to left.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 9

Single Point Cutting Tool
General recommendations for tool angles in turning

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 10

Two-Dimensional Cutting Process
Schematic illustration of a twodimensional cutting process, also called orthogonal cutting: (a) Orthogonal cutting with a well-defined shear plane, also known as the Merchant Model.

Note that the tool shape, depth of cut, to, and the cutting speed, V, are all independent variables, (b) Orthogonal cutting without a well-defined shear plane. Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 11

Single Point Cutting Tool
Geometry of positive rake single point cutting tool
End cutting edge angle (ECEA)

Top View Nose Radius (NR) Side cutting edge angle (SCEA)

Back rake angle (αb) Side rake angle (αs)

Lip angle Front View Side View

Side relief angle (SRA)

End relief angle (ERA)

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University

Cutting Tool Angles – Page 12

Single Point Cutting Tool
Geometry of negative rake single point cutting tool
End cutting edge angle (ECEA)

Top View Nose Radius (NR) Side cutting edge angle (SCEA) Side rake angle (αs) Back rake angle (αb)

Lip...
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