Unit 6 Curriculum Development for Inclusive Practice
In education, the word “curriculum” is not new since the organisations of schooling and further education have long been associated with the idea of a curriculum. Before starting the assignment, we would like to find out what it means by “curriculum” and what is “curriculum development for inclusive practice”. By definition, in formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their contents offered at an educational institution. John Kerr defined “curriculum” and later taken up by Vic Kelly in his standard work on the subject as, “All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school.” (quoted in Kelly 1983; also, Kelly 1999). There are four ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice: 1. Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted
2. Curriculum as product, i.e. an attempt to achieve certain ends in students 3. Curriculum as process
4. Curriculum as praxis
We will express the later three ways in this assignment. These ways of approaching curriculum theory and practice can be also described in three disciplines: the theoretical, the productive and the practical. These are illustrated as the map below:
(Source: infed.org/ Curriculum theory and practice.)
Inclusive curriculum refers to the process of developing and designing a programme of study to limit the barriers that students may face in accessing the curriculum. Indeed, the curriculum created by the educational institution should aim to provide opportunities for all students to learn and to achieve. Also the curriculum should aim to promote students’ spiritual, moral, social and cultural development, to establish an entitlement and to establish standards. In this assignment, we will discuss how different theories, principle and models of curriculum have been developed and applied in a learning environment in order to achieve these. Particular in this essay, we will focus on the dental nurse training environment where all trainee dental nurses are expected to meet standard set by General Dental Council (GDC) at the end of training regardless their background and entry levels.
Analyse and discuss the influence of theories, principles and models of curriculum design with a view to promoting inclusive learning. Curriculum as product
Curriculum as product model is also known as behavioural objectives model, as it heavily depends on the settings of behavioural objectives and it is interested in the product of curriculum. It is the dominant model of describing and managing today’s education. Because in modern education system throughout different stages and qualifications, certain standards or objectives are set and education institutions aim to draw up a plan to achieve these objectives and create methods in response to the plan. Outcomes reflecting on students’ learning abilities as well as efficiency of these plans and methods will be measured. From above, there are four fundamental questions for education practitioners: 1. What are the aims and objectives of curriculum?
2. Which plan and methods meet these aims and objectives?
3. How can these plans and methods be practiced?
4. How can the extent to these plans and methods be evaluated? (Adapted by Tyler 1949) Curriculum as product is strongly supported by the behaviourist model which believes knowledge is finite and learning supposes to be overt, observable and measurable. It also believes the statements of objectives of the education institution should be a statement of changes occurred to students. (Tyler 1949:44) Regarding to stimulation of positive changes to students, few major theorists have contributed to the behaviourist theory. Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) believed learning was a process of linking physical and mental events in various combinations. Also, learning is enhanced when bonds are made between the...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document