Ma. Angelica L. Tolentino BSE-Social Studies 3-2
“The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence.” (Daniel Tanner, 1980) Curriculum refers to the means and materials with which students will interact for the purpose of achieving identified educational outcomes. The concept of curriculum is as dynamic as the changes that occur in society. In its narrow sense, curriculum is viewed merely as a listing of subject to be taught in school. In a broader sense, it refers to the total learning experiences of individuals not only in schools but in society as well. Curriculum comes from the Latin root, "currere" which means "to run", which later came to stand as the "course of study." Curriculum is the sum total of all learning content, experiences, and resources that are purposely selected, organized and implemented by the school in pursuit of its peculiar mandate as a distinct institution of learning and human development. Robert M. Hutchins views curriculum as “permanent studies” where the rule of grammar, reading, rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized. Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum as “all experiences children have under the guidance of teachers”. This definition is shared by Smith, Stanley and Shores when they defined “curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting” Marsh and Willis on the other hand view curriculum as all the “experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students. 2. Development
the act or process of growing or causing something to grow or become larger or more advanced the act or process of creating something over a period of time the state of being created or made more advanced
a statement that describes how to do something
the action or process of teaching : the act of instructing someone advice and information about how to do or use something
4. Relationship of Curriculum, Development and Instruction
Curriculum is literally defined in education as a set of courses regarding different classes or subjects offered in different educational institutions such as a school or a university. Embedded in its process are different specific classes for minor and major aspects that are all conjoined in adherence to the course objective of the entire curriculum This is actually formulated and expressed in terms of its learning outcomes and for the development of the students taking up the said curriculum.
Curriculums in general , whatever its subject or class is , are all created to envelope the learning process of individuals learning their specific course to develop and acquire valuable and relevant skills in that specific field . The main learning approach commonly used in the curriculum teaching is based on a set of instruction, which are all directed to guide the students in the gradually process of learning in the curriculum
Instructions are a basic aspect of the learning process. They are all formulated to guide students in their gradual learning process in their respective fields. In educational curriculum, instructions serve as a form of communicated information that has a command and explanation nature. Thus, instructions are descriptive explanations for how an action, behavior, method, or task is to be begun, completed, conducted or executed
Because of their significant relevance to the learning process of individuals, instructions are explicitly used in the approach system and learning process in a curriculum. Learning instructions are generally formulated and given to students to guide them in discovering and thus...
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