qChapter 11: Curriculum Development
Farid Ljuca, Srdjan Lozo, Vladimir Simunovic, Hans-Martin Bosse, Martina Kadmon 1. Introduction
Process of curriculum development is essential for successful achieving educational goals for medical students. It asks for systematic approach which should respect several aspects: the needs of patients, of the society, the students and teaching staff. This process should be maximal efficient and effective; it should be built upon previous work. Process itself should be done in a specific algorithm starting from the definition of final goals of the educational process, through the selection of the certain tools for achieving this goals, and integration of different elements inside one curriculum. Curriculum should present mosaics of different courses, learning and teaching strategies, and integrate it into one picture which is specific for a certain institution. It has to respect all existing material and human resources of the institution. Involvement of the key subjects in process of curriculum development should be from the first stage of process, and that first stage is creation of a mission statement of the institution. The student is the central figure in the process of education and modern education institutions use “student centered approach” as their main philosophy in process of curriculum shaping. Students should be involved in process of design and curriculum development. Representatives of students and their organizations should be involved in work of comities and bodies in charge for curriculum design. This fact that students are involved in shaping of their learning gives special quality to education process. All stakeholders of institution should be included in process of curriculum development, and they all should give their view of the reasons why the institution exists. The mission statement should partly give sort of picture, what kind of graduated student do we want. Curriculum development in medical education is a process that integrates a content area with educational theory and methodology and evaluates its impact. When curriculum development follows a systematic approach, it easily provides high-quality evidence of the impact of a faculty member’s efforts in order to improve educational process at the institution. One of the basics of curriculum development is the continual improvement of the outcomes the analysis of the processes and the decision to change. Perhaps one of the possible ways is to measure key outputs of one curriculum. We can measure several outputs such as: physical aspects, social aspects, interpersonal skills, continuing education, clinical problem solving, student satisfaction, costs of education. It is essential to estimate when is appropriate time for measuring of these outputs, whether it is during studying time, at the end of it, at early beginning of career as physician or after several years. Tools for measuring must be carefully selected. Curriculum is not something static, and permanent change is one of their key features. 2. Elements of curriculum
Curriculum in narrow view includes content and examination. In wider frame curriculum includes aims, learning methods and subject matter sequencing. Broader concept of curriculum describes it as a sophisticated blend of educational strategies, course content, learning outcomes, educational experiences, assessment, the educational environment and the individual students’ learning style, personal timetable and the program of work Curriculum not only covers the formal teaching/learning but also the other aspects of human development associated with institutional life. It will transform a student into a productive citizen. In the time of information explosion, the curriculum planners must not only decide what should be taught but also what can be eliminated from the curriculum, hence the need to define minimum essential knowledge and skills i.e. core knowledge and skills. The term curriculum is a...
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