Curriculum Approaches

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Curriculum Approach

Each curriculum describes several and different approaches which reflect the developer’s view of reality, philosophy, history, psychology, social issues, and the domains of knowledge. For every approach, it expresses an orientation or perspective about curriculum development which impacts on the design of the curriculum, the role of schools, administrators, teachers, learners, curriculum specialists, and requirements for implementation and evaluation such as instructional materials, equipment and facilities.
There are two classifications of Curriculum Approaches
1. Technical-Scientific Approach
2. Non-Technical/ Non-Scientific Approach
Technical-Scientific Approach • It views curriculum development as something similar to engineering or architecture. • The basis for the procedure is the scientific method which involves a logical step-by-step procedure of problem solving. • The procedure is guided by well-defined objectives which are formulated based on the analysis of normative needs as defined by developmental and other psychological theories, rather than individual needs and interests. • It is a way of planning curricula to optimize students’ learning and to allow them to increase their output. • According to Ornstein and Hunkins, the roots of technical-scientific approach are found in the turn of Twentieth Century when schools attempted to “adapt the principles of bureaucracy to the methods that could be considered scientific.
Ralph Tyler - a well-known proponent of the technical-scientific approach discussed four basic principles in curriculum development in his book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction published in 1949.
Tyler stated his curriculum rationale in terms of four questions that, he argued, must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instructions:
1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? He proposes that educational objectives originate from

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