THE CURRICULUM (continuation…)
Jelina Mira C. Fernando, RN
CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
• is a field within education which seeks to research, develop, and implement curriculum changes that increase student achievement within and outside of schools
• focuses on how students learn and the best ways to educate
• is also interested in new trends in teaching and learning process. It tries to find answers to questions such as "why to teach", "what to teach", "how to teach" and "how to evaluate" in instructional process
• The relationship between curriculum and instruction is obviously a very close one. Curriculum is essentially a design, or roadmap for learning, and as such focuses on knowledge and skills that are judged important to learn. Instruction is the means by which that learning will be achieved.
What is Learning?
• A Change in response or behaviour caused partly or wholly by experience – Dictionary of Education
• The interaction of the learners with conditions in the environment which brings about a change in behaviour for the better outcome – CDS
What is Teaching?
• The process of “helping” the learners learn economically, efficiently, and effectively
• The process of “facilitating” learning
8 M’s of TEACHING
1. MILIEU: The Learning Environment
• The teacher must make the learning environment as stimulating as possible.
• The teacher should so arrange the classroom setting as to ensure learning. Every stimulus must contribute to learning, any stimulus that distracts the students or detracts from the learning objective must be removed or exclude.
• The teacher must pay attention to the material stimuli abounding in the classroom.
• There is also a need for the teacher to spot check the receptors of the learning stimuli, the senses especially those of sight and hearing.
2. MATTER: The Subject Content
• One very important rule of thumb is that of aiming for “mastery” of every lesson instead of its mere coverage by the class.
• The teacher should avoid giving “too much, too soon” and to teach only “little matter, but well mastered”
3. METHOD: Teaching-Learning Strategies
• Consists of purposeful, planned activities and tasks that are undertaken by the teacher and the students in the classroom to bring about the intended instructional objective.
• “Variety is the spice of teaching and familiarity breeds boredom”
• The strategy must be appropriate to the level of maturity and sophistication of the learners.
4. MATERIAL: The Resources of Learning
• Materials are resources available to the teacher and learners which serve as stimuli in the teaching-learning situation. This may be either a "human person" or a "physical object."
• Instructional materials represent elements found in that world are meant to help students understand and explain reality.
• Portraying reality can be by direct experience, reproduction, representation or abstraction
1. Direct Experience
• Using most, if not all the 5 senses
• Includes exposure to reality or true-to-life objects, and artifacts, resource persons in the classroom or in the field (ex. Educational field trip)
• Faithful impression of the real thing
• Somewhat limited to either or both of 2 senses: seeing and hearing
• Audio-visual materials (films, videos, cassette tapes)
• Limited to only 1 sense ( Sight!
• Illustrations, dioramas, mock-ups, puppets/moppets, maps/graphs
• Verbal symbols are used (ex. Lecture, teacher talk)
5. MEDIA: Communication in Teaching and Learning
• This pertains to the communication system in the teaching-learning situation. This serves dual purpose: to promote common understanding in instruction and to set and...
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