* Culture: consists of the beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics common to the members of a particular group or society. * Through culture, people and groups define themselves, conform to society's shared values, and contribute to society. Thus, culture includes many societal aspects: language, customs, values, norms, mores, rules, tools, technologies, products, organizations, and institutions.
* Cultural universals = common to all cultures.
* Material and Non‐Material Culture
* Material culture refers to the physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture. These include homes, neighborhoods, cities, schools, churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, offices, factories, etc.. * Material culture helps to define its members' behaviors and perceptions. * Non-material culture refers to the nonphysical ideas that people have about their culture, including beliefs, values, rules, norms, morals, language, organizations, and institutions.
* Cultural diversity, or the presence of multiple cultures and cultural differences within a society.
* Dominant culture: the culture of the most powerful group in society * Subcultures: the culture of groups whose values and norms of behavior are somewhat different from those of the dominant culture. * Smaller cultural groups that exist within but differ in some way from the prevailing culture interest sociologists. * Members of subcultures typically make use of distinctive language, behaviors, and clothing, even though they may still accept many of the values of the dominant culture. * Countercultures: subculture created as a reaction against the values of the dominant culture * A counterculture comes about in opposition to the norms and values of the dominant culture. *
Members of counterculture reject dominate group.
* Ethnic groups: a social category of people who share a common culture. * Ethnocentrism: is an attitude of...
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