# Cryptography

**Topics:**Cryptography, Public-key cryptography, Digital signature

**Pages:**8 (2044 words)

**Published:**May 17, 2013

A Survey on the Applications of Cryptography

Shivangi Goyal

University School Of Information Technology Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University 16-C, Dwarka, Delhi

ABSTRACT

This paper gives a brief summary of cryptography, where it is applied and its usage in various forms. Cryptography is a way of safeguarding the crucial data from unauthorized access. It has emerged as a secure means for transmission of information. It mainly helps in curbing intrusion from third party. It provides data confidentiality, integrity, electronic signatures, and advanced user authentication. The methods of cryptography use mathematics for securing the data (encryption and decryption). Keywords: Cryptography, Data Confidentiality, Integrity, Electronic signatures, Authentication, Encryption, Decryption

1. INTRODUCTION

Information security plays a pivotal role during internet communication in today’s era of technology. It is tremendously important for people committing etransactions. For naïve people it may seem to be not that necessary orincreased security may provide comfort to paranoid people but the truth is that it is absolutely essential when communication is carried between tens of millions of people daily. There are various cryptography methods that provide a means for secure commerce and payment to private communications and protecting passwords. Cryptography is necessary for secure communications; it is not by itself sufficient. The reader of this paper will find variants of cryptography and their applications. This paper has two major purposes. The first is to provide some real examples of cryptography in use today. The second is to provide tabular summarization and conclusion. Curious readers should check out some of the web pages and pdf in the bibliography below for further detailed — and interesting! — background information.

There are different types of cryptography. There is a sender, receiver, intruder of information and cryptographic tool that prevents intruder from trespass the sensitive information.

2.1 Types of Cryptography 2.1.1 Public Key Cryptography

It involves two pairs of keys: one for encryption and another for decryption. Key used for encryption is a public key and distributed. On the other hand key used for decryption is private key.

2.1.2

Key Escrow Cryptography

2. WHAT IS CRYPTOGRAPHY?

Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adversaries’. Typically, it is about constructing and analyzing protocols that overcome the influence of adversaries and which are related to various aspects in information security. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering.

This technology allows the use of strong encryption, but also allowsobtaining decryption keys held by escrow agents (third party-entrusted key escrow). The decryption keys are split into parts and given to separate escrow authorities. Access to one part of the key does not help decrypt the data; both keys must be obtained.

2.1.3

Translucent Cryptography

In this scheme the government can decrypt some of the messages, but not all. Only p fraction of message can be decrypted and 1-p cannot be decrypted. This is advantageous over key escrow or no key escrow cryptography as entire information is not at security risk.

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International Journal of Science and Technology (IJST) – Volume 1 No. 3, March, 2012

2.1.4

Symmetric Key Cryptography

Technique uses same key for encoding and decoding information. The sender and recipient of data must share same key and keep information secret preventing data access from outside.

but not perfect privacy, translucent cryptography provides some communications privacy, but not perfect privacy. In this scheme the degree of...

References: [1] http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/92f9ye3s.asp [2] http://www.garykessler.net/library/crypto.html [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography

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International Journal of Science and Technology (IJST) – Volume 1 No. 3, March, 2012 [4] http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-12/80012-html/chapter19.html [5] http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/authent ication [6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authentication [7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_signature#Digital _signatures_vs._ink_on_paper_signatures [8] http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/digitalsignature [9] https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/1930 7/1/Zhao_Yi_200911_PhD_Thesis.pdf [10] http://www.academypublisher.com/proc/wisa09/paper s/wisa09p363.pdf [11] http://electronicsbus.com/?s=Application+Of+Crypto graphy+Include+Credit+Cards [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encrypting_File_System [13] http://technet.microsoft.com/en/us/library/cc700811.as px

[14] https://developer.mozilla.org/en/Introduction_to_Publi c-Key_Cryptography [15] http://www.garykessler.net/library/crypto.html [16] http://www.ccavenue.com/content/faq_ecommerce.jsp [17] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_cryptography [18] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_key_distributio n [19] http://www.networkworld.com/news/2007/101007quantum-cryptography-secure-ballots.html [20] http://www.cki.au.dk/experiment/qrypto/doc/QuCrypt/ b92coding.html [21] http://www.networkworld.com/newsletters/optical/20 04/0419optical2.html [22] http://www.academypublisher.com/proc/wisa09/paper s/wisa09p363.pdf

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