Topics: Temperature, Cryogenics, Thermodynamic temperature Pages: 3 (823 words) Published: January 25, 2013
In Physics, Cryogenics is the study of the Production of Very Low Temperature (Below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K) and the Behavior of Materials at those Temperatures. A person who studies Elements under Extremely Cold Temperature is called a Cryogenicist. Rather than the Relative Temperature Scales of Celsius and Fahrenheit, Cryogenicists use the Absolute Temperature Scales. These are Kelvin (SI units) or Rankine scale (Imperial & US units). Cryogenics: The Branches of Physics and Engineering that involve the Study of Very Low Temperatures, How to Produce Them, and How Materials Behave at those Temperatures.Cryobiology: The Branch of Biology involving the Study of the Effects of Low Temperatures on Organisms (Most Often for the Purpose of Achieving Cryopreservation).Cryonics: The emerging Medical Technology of Cryopreserving Humans and Animals with the Intention of Future Revival. Researchers in the Field Seek to Apply the Results of Many Sciences, Including Cryobiology, Cryogenics, Rheology, Emergency Medicine, etc.Cryoelectronics: The Field of Research Regarding Superconductivity at Low Temperatures.Cryotronics:The Practical Application of Cryoelectronics. The word Cryogenics Stems from Greek and means "The Production of Freezing Cold"; However the Term is used Today as a Synonym for the Low-Temperature State. It is not Well-Defined at what Point on the Temperature Scale Refrigeration ends and Cryogenics Begins, but most Scientists Assume it Starts at or below -240 °F (About -150 °C or 123 K). The National Institute of Standards and Technology at Boulder, Colorado has Chosen to Consider the Field of Cryogenics as that Involving Temperatures Below −180 °C (93.15 K). This is a Logical Dividing Line, since the Normal Boiling Points of the So-Called Permanent Gases (Such as Helium, Hydrogen, Neon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Normal Air) Lie Below −180 °C while the Freon Refrigerants, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Other Common Refrigerants have Boiling Points Above −180 °C. The...
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