cryogenic engine

Topics: Rocket, Oxygen, Spacecraft propulsion Pages: 23 (5698 words) Published: January 9, 2014
Seminar Report on
“CRYOGENIC ENGINE IN ROCKET
PROPULSION”

CRYOGENIC ENGINE IN ROCKET
PROPULSION

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
a. CRYOGENICS
b. CRYOGENIC ENGINE
2. HISTORY
3. LIMITATIONS IN SLVs
4. CRYOGENIC FUELS
5. PRINCIPLE
6. CONSTRUCTION
7. COMPONENTS OF CRYOGENIC ENGINE
8. SPECIFICATIONS OF SSME

9. WORKING
10.EXPLODED VIEW OF A VEHICLE
11.ADVANTAGES
12.DISADVANTAGES
13.CONCLUSION

CRYOGENIC ENGINE IN ROCKET PROPULSION
INTRODUCTION
What is Cryogenics ?

Cryogenics is the study of the production of extremely cold temperatures. This field of science also looks at what happens to a wide variety of materials from metals to gases when they are exposed to these temperatures. Cryogenics is a branch of physics concerned with the production of very low temperatures and the effects of these temperatures on different substances and materials. The temperatures studied in cryogenics are those below 243.67 degrees Fahrenheit (120 Kelvin); such low temperatures do not occur in nature.

These low temperatures have been used to liquefy atmospheric gases like oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, argon, helium, and neon. The gases are condensed, collected, distilled and separated. Methane is used in liquid natural gas (LNG), and oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen are used in rocket fuels and other aerospace and defense applications, in metallurgy and in various chemical processes. Helium is used in diving decompression chambers and to maintain suitably low temperatures for superconducting magnets, and neon is used in lighting.

Cryogenics is the study of how to get to low temperatures and of how materials behave when they get there. Besides the familiar temperature scales of Fahrenheit and Celsius (Centigrade), cryogenicists use other temperature scales, the Kelvin and Rankine temperature scale. Although the apparatus used for spacecraft is specialized, some of the general approaches are the same as used in everyday life. Cryogenics involves the study of low temperatures from about 100 Kelvin to absolute zero.

One interesting feature of materials at low temperatures is that the air condenses into a liquid. The two main gases in air are oxygen and nitrogen. Liquid oxygen, "lox" for short, is used in rocket propulsion. Liquid nitrogen is used as a coolant. Helium, which is much rarer than oxygen or nitrogen, is also used as a coolant. In more detail, cryogenics is the study of how to produce low temperatures or also the study of what happens to materials when you have cooled them down.

CRYOGENIC ENGINE INTRODUCTION

The use of liquid fuel for rocket engines was considered as early as the beginning of 20th century. The Russian K.E.Ziolkowsky, the American H.Goddard and the German-Romanian H.Oberth worked independently on the problems of spaceflight and soon discovered that in order to succeed, rockets with high mass-flow were mandatory. Already then the combustion of liquid fuels seemed the

most
promising method
of
generating
thrust.
However it was not later until these pioneers made their attempts, the first big liquid powered rocket the German A-4 became reality in the midforties. This rocket became successful as the V-2 weapon. Liquid oxygen was used as the oxidizer and ethyl alcohol as the fuel which gave the rocket more than

300KN
of
thrust.
It`s
range
was
300km.
As the development of rocket engines continued, higher thrust levels were achieved when liquid oxygen and liquid hydrocarbon were used as fuel. This allowed the construction of the first intercontinental rocket with a range of more than 10,000km.

Under normal atmospheric conditions, at temperature 300k and pressure 1 bar, these substances are in gaseous state. One cannot remedy the low density by increasing the pressure because the required tank structures would end being too heavy. The answer is to liquefy the fuels by cooling them down. This is why the fuels are also called cryogenic fuels. In the sixties, the steadily increasing...
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