Cross Cultural Management: A Perspective in China
Management XXX Cross-cultural Management
Cross Cultural Management2
A significant amount of research that has been conducted in reference to cross-cultural issues in China. It shows the current practices on cross-cultural management in Chinese organizations; and then identifies future research needs on cross-cultural management in China. Empirical studies on cross-cultural management in China have been conducted since the 1990s, and numerous empirical studies have been done in the past two decades across different level of constructs and practices (individual, group and organization). Among all the intercultural research concerning China, there are mainly two common types: the first type focuses on foreign managers and employees, center on their adjustment and performance in Chinese culture; and the second type of study examines Chinese who work with these foreigners in the multinational management setting (Dong & Lui, 2010, p. 223).
Cross Cultural Management3Globalization is changing behavior, team composition and team dynamics in the workplace. Businesses of all sizes are increasingly seeing the entirety of the world as a source of business opportunities and one interconnected economy. Organizations that remain domestic-only are already falling behind their multinational competitor counterparts. With the progressive globalization of the workforce, businesses are more and more finding themselves working more often with culturally diverse employees and business partners, an experience that has proven to be rewarding and yet challenging (Dong & Lui, 2010, p. 224). In fact, the impact of cultural diversity on team productivity and organizational culture is not clear and yet doing so is becoming more the norm than it is the exception. While in some cases, research suggests that teams characterized by demographic heterogeneity have advantages over teams who are not demographically diverse (e.g. added ideas, approaches, perspectives), other research indicates that the multicultural aspect of a team creates potential for added conflict. Still further research offers that conflict itself is not a problem as long as it is constructively handled. To at least some extent, the notion of what constitutes constructive handling is subjective and culturally sensitive ((Dong & Lui, 2010, p. 225). Background
Culture acts as an external source of influence on employee behaviors on daily personal lives which consequently influences each person's behavior within the organization, since each person brings another piece of the "outside world" into the workplace. Collectively, the impact of culture on each individual creates a change in the culture of the organization itself. It is argued that organizational members cope with uncertainties and ambiguities individually and collectively based on attitudes and strategies that have been influenced by their culture. Managers from different nations vary in their decision-making choices. Understanding culture is important to multinational companies and managers to be prepared to compete with firms from other countries. Cross Cultural Management4
Culture, as the collective programming of the mind, distinguishes one group or category of people from another. The type of values and the importance placed on those values varies from culture to culture and is greatly influenced by its current and historical ecological and sociopolitical contexts. Cultural values play a significant role in shaping customs and practices that occur within organizations. Understanding cultural values is important in that it facilitates each team member's ability to properly identify, understand and response to differences in thinking, feeling and acting of potential team members around the globe. For companies that include members of varying cultures, knowledge and sensitivity of cultural values is a necessity that must be addressed in management practices and training (Dong & Lui, 2010, p. 227). . Summary
Empirical studies on cross cultural management in China have been conducted since the 1990s, and numerous empirical studies have been done in the past two decades across different level of constructs and practices (individual, group and organization). Among all the intercultural research concerning China, there are mainly two common types: the first type focuses on foreign managers and employees, center on their adjustment and performance in Chinese culture; and the second type of study examines Chinese who work with these foreigners in the multinational management setting. (Dong & Lui, 2010, p. 242). Research shortcomings include the following: insufficient systematic conceptual model development and assessment of important topics, such as teamwork, leadership, motivation, communication, as well as satisfaction in cross cultural environment. Although there is an increasing amount of comparative studies being done in China, very few studies have been conducted to study Chinese firms that are doing business abroad, which represents one of the most critical problems in the field of cross cultural management research in China (Dong & Lui, 2010, p. 243).
Cross Cultural Management6
Dong, K., Lui, Y. (2010). Cross Cultural Management in China. Cross Cultural Management. 17(3); p. 223-243. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/740189981/13190A438F980C4F94/1?accountid=8289