top-rated free essay

Crop Production

By jyotsna07 Feb 28, 2014 99385 Words
 

Crop Production Techniques of

Horticultural Crops

2013

HORTICULTURAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE
TAMIL NADU AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
COIMBATORE – 641 003

 

 

Contents

Part I - Fruits

Page No.

Chapter A - Tropical and Sub Tropical Fruits
Mango .................................................................................................................. Banana ................................................................................................................ Acid Lime ............................................................................................................. Sweet Orange ..................................................................................................... Mandarin Orange ................................................................................................. Grapes ................................................................................................................. Guava ................................................................................................................... Pineapple ............................................................................................................. Sapota .................................................................................................................. Papaya ................................................................................................................. Pomegranate ....................................................................................................... Jack ..................................................................................................................... Ber ........................................................................................................................ Amla ..................................................................................................................... Chapter B - Temperate Fruits

Apple .................................................................................................................... Pear ...................................................................................................................... Plum ..................................................................................................................... Peach .................................................................................................................. Chapter C - Minor Fruits

Part II – Vegetables
Chapter A - Fruit Vegetables
Tomato…………………………………………………………………………….. Brinjal....................................................................................................................... Bhendi…………………………………………………………………………….. Chillies…………………………………………………………………………….. Capsicum………………………………………………………………………… Paprika…………………………………………………………………………….. Pumpkin…………………………………………………………………………….. Snake gourd………………………………………………………………………… Ribbed gourd……………………………………………………………………… Bottle gourd………………………………………………………………………… Bitter gourd………………………………………………………………………… Ash gourd……………………………………………………………………………  

 
Cucumber……………………………………………………………………………. Gherkin………………………………………………………………………………. Watermelon…………………………………………………………………………. Muskmelon…………………………………………………………………………. Tinda………………………………………………………………………………… Chow chow………………………………………………………………………….. Cluster beans………………………………………………………………………… Vegetable Cowpea…………………………………………………………………… Lab lab or Dolichos bean…………………………………………………………….. French bean…………………………………………………………………………… Broad beans…………………………………………………………………………… Peas…………………………………………………………………………………… Annual moringa……………………………………………………………………….. Baby corn…………………………………………………………………………….. Chapter B Cole Vegetable

Cabbage………………………………………………………………………………. Cauliflower……………………………………………………………………………. Chapter C - Root and Tuber vegetables
Carrot………………………………………………………………………………… Radish………………………………………………………………………………… Beet root……………………………………………………………………………… Potato………………………………………………………………………………… Sweet potato…………………………………………………………………………. Tapioca……………………………………………………………………………….. Elephant foot yam…………………………………………………………………… Colocasia ………………………………………………………………………………. Dioscorea……………………………………………………………………………… Chinese potato………………………………………………………………………… Chapter D - Bulb vegetables

Common Onion - Small onion...................................................................................... Bellary onion-Big onion………………………………………………………………. Chapter E - Leafy vegetables
Amaranthus…………………………………………………………………………….. CurryLeaf………………………………………………………………………………. Chapter F – Minor Vegetable Crops
Part III – Spices and Condiments
Chapter A - Major Spices
Pepper………………………………………………………………………………….. Cardamom ……………………………………………………………………………… Turmeric ………………………………………………………………………………... Ginger…………………………………………………………………………………… Chapter B -Tree Spices
Clove ……………………………………………………………………………………  

 
Nutmeg………………………………………………………………………………….. Cinnamon ………………………………………………………………………………. Tamarind ……………………………………………………………………………….. Allspice…………………………………………………………………………………... Chapter – C Seed Spices
Coriander ………………………………………………………………………………. Fenugreek ………………………………………………………………………………. Fennel …………………………………………………………………………………... Chapter – D Other Spices
Vanilla ………………………………………………………………………………….. Paprika…………………………………………………………………………………… Part IV - Plantation crops
Tea ……………………………………………………………………………………… Coffee …………………………………………………………………………………... Cashew ……………………………………………………………………………… Cocoa……………………………………………………………………………………. Rubber…………………………………………………………………………………… Coconut………………………………………………………………………………….. Arecanut ………………………………………………………………………………… Oil palm…………………………………………………………………………………. Palmyrah………………………………………………………………………………... Betel vine……………………………………………………………………………….. Part V - Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Chapter A - Medicinal Plants
Gloriosa superba………………………………………………………………… Coleus forskohlii…………………………………………………………………. Senna ................................................................................................................... Periwinkle ............................................................................................................. Medicinal solanum ............................................................................................... Chapter B - Aromatic Plants

Lemongrass ......................................................................................................... Citronella .............................................................................................................. Palmarosa............................................................................................................ Geranium ............................................................................................................. Patchouli .............................................................................................................. Mint ....................................................................................................................... Production techniques for others important medicinal plants ........................................ Part VI - FLORICULUTRE

Chapter A - Loose Flowers
Rose………………………………………………………………………………. Malligai (Gundumalli)…………………………………………………………… Mullai…………………………………………………………………………….. Jathi malli (Pitchi)………………………………………………........................... Crossandra………………………………………………………………………… Chrysanthemum…………………………………………………………………..  

 
Marigold (African marigold)……………………………………………………... Tuberose…………………………………………………………………………. Nerium…………………………………………………………………………… Golden Rod……………………………………………………………………… Chapter B - Cut Flowers
Cut Roses…………………………………………………………………………. Cut Chrysanthemum………………………………………………………………. Carnation …………………………………………………………………………. Anthurium………………………………………………………………. ………… Dendrobium orchid………………………………………………………………… Lilium ………………………………………………………………………………. Gladiolus ……………………………………………………………………………. Gerbera……………………………………………………………………………… China Aster………………………………………………………………………….. - Particulars on improved Varieties of Horticultural Crops ................................. - Drip irrigation for Fruit Crops .................................................................... - Organic Cultural Practices ......................................................................... - Protected Cultivation of Vegetables (for Information) ............................. - Seed Production Technology of Horticultural Crops

- Important Plant Nutrients Their Deficiency Symptoms and Remedial Measures ................................................................................... Part XIII - Mushroom Cultivation ..................................................................... Part XIV - Season of Flowering and Fruiting of Fruit Crops ........... Part XV - Chemical and Commercial Names of Insecticides and Nematicides ............ Part XVI - Chemical and Commercial Names of Fungicides .................. Part XVII - Weed Management and Herbicides usage in Horticultural crops............ Part XVIII - Cultural tips for F1 hybrid vegetables ................................................ Part XIX - Farm implements for Horticultural crops ......................... Part XX - Food Processing Technologies

Part XXI - Soil Test Crop based Integrated Plant Nutrition System for Horticultural Crops (STCR-IPNS)................................................................. Part XXII - Appendices.............................................................................................. Part VII

Part VIII
Part IX
Part X
Part XI
Part XII

 

 

Part I
Fruits
Chapter A

Tropical and Sub Tropical Fruits
Mango: Mangifera indica L.; Anacardiaceae
Varieties: Neelum, Bangalora, Alphonso, Rumani, Banganapalli, Kalepad, Peter, PKM 1, PKM 2, Sendura, Jahangir, Mulgoa, Himayuddin, Paiyur 1, Mallika, Amrapali and Salem Bangalora, Arka Anmol, Arka Aruna, Arka Neelkiran, Arka Puneeth.

Processing varieties
Export varieties

: Alphonso, Banganapalli, Totapuri
: Alphonso, Banganapalli, Sendura

Soil and Climate: Red loamy soil with good drainage is preferable. pH range 6.5 to 8. Season of planting: July to December.
Planting material: Use plantable size grafts propagated through approach, soft wood or epicotyl grafting.
Field preparation: Dig pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m in size. Fill in with topsoil mixed with 10 kg of FYM and 100 g of Lindane 1.3% dust per pit.
Planting: Plant the grafts at the centre of the pits with ball of earth intact and keeping the graft union 15 cm above the ground level. Stake and water the plants immediately after planting. Spacing: Adopt any one of the following spacing depending on requirements. 1. Under conventional system of planting: 7-10 m either way

2. High Density Planting : 5 m x 5 m (400 plants / ha)
3. Double hedge row system : Adopt a spacing of 5 m x 5 m within double rows and 10 m between sucessive double rows (266 plants / ha)
Irrigation: Regular watering till establishment. For cultivation under irrigated conditions, adopt drip system of irrigation.
Intercropping: Short duration crops like legumes, vegetables, groundnut etc. can be raised during pre- bearing age.

 

 
Manures and Fertilizers (Kg per tree)
Manures and
Fertilizers

1st Year

Annual
increase

6th year onwards

FYM

10.00

10.00

50

N

0.20

0.20

1.0

P

0.20

0.20

1.0

K

0.30

0.30

1.5

Manures and fertilizers may be applied during September – October, 45 – 90 cm away from the trunk upto the peripheral leaf tip and incorporated.
Fertigation technology under HDP
Apply 1.0:0.5:1.0 kg of NPK / bearing tree / year under HDP through drip fertigation adopting the following schedule:
Stage of application *
Immediately
PreFlowering to
Fruit
Nutrient
after harvest
flowering
fruit set
development
Total
(2 months)
(2months)
(2 months)
(4 months)
N
25 %
40 %
20 %
15 %
100 %
P
50 %
30 %
20 %
100 %
K
25 %
20 %
25 %
30 %
100 %
* At each stage, the above schedule has to be split into six or more doses and applied at weekly intervals
* Avoid irrigation and fertigation for 30 days for induction of stress before flowering season; resume as soon as flowering commences.
Canopy management:
Remove root stock sprouts and low lying branches nearer to ground to facilitate easy cultural operations. Remove overlapping, intercrossing, diseased, dried and weak branches in old trees to get good sunlight and aeration. Carry out judicious pruning of the internal branches during August – September, once in three years. Do not allow flowering upto three years by removing the inflorescences as and when they appear. Retain two healthy shoots by trimming away the weak shoots among the crowded terminal shoots during August-September annually. Prune back 20 cm of annual growth of the terminals immediately after harvest. Top working of senile orchards for rejuvenation:

Use scions of choice varieties like Alphonso and Banganapalli for top working. Behead the trees to be top worked portion during July- August leaving the main trunk at a convenient height and allow for new shoots to develop. Adopt cleft method of grafting or softwood grafting on the emerging shoots on the main stem from the cut end during September- October. Growth regulators: Spray NAA @ 20 ppm at flowering to increase the fruit retention. During February 0.5% Urea (5 g / lit.) or 1% Potassium nitrate (10 g / lit.) may be sprayed to induce flowering, if trees do not flower by that time. Spray 2% KNO3 at mustard size to increase fruit set  

 
and retention of fruits. Spray 2 % Sulphate of potash at pea stage and 15 days after to improve yield and quality.
Apply Paclobutrazol @ 0.75 g a.i. per meter of canopy radius in full bearing tree during first fortnight of September to get maximum number of fruits and yield during off years. Off-season crop induction: This technology is recommended only for irrigated conditions to shift production from on- season to off- season. To induce off-season flowering, heading back of 10 cm terminal growth after the emergence of new growth (vegetative and floral growth) during December to January along with soil application of Paclobutrazol @ 0.75g a.i. per tree during March and April is recommended for mango cv.Neelum. Keeping good soil moisture conditions and nutrient health status of the plant are very important when Pacloburazol application is resorted.

Plant Protection
Pests
 Removal of criss-cross branches, infested shoots, dense branches and proper training and pruning reduces the hopper infestation
 Apply Metarhizium anisopliae @ 1x 10 8 cfu/ml or Beauveria bassiana @ 108 cfu /ml on tree trunk once during off season and twice at 7 days interval during flowering season  Spray any of the following insecticides first at the time of panicle emergence and the second two weeks after first spray. Neem oil @ 5 ml/lit of water can be mixed with any insecticides for the control of hopper.

Insecticide
Dose
Buprofezin 25 % SC
1.5 ml/lit.
Dimethoate 30 % EC
1.6 ml/lit.
Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL
3.0 ml/10 lit.
Malathion 50 % EC
1.5 ml/lit.
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 %
1.0 ml/lit.
EC
Phosalone 35 EC
1.5 ml/lit
Phosphamidon 40 SL
2.0 ml/lit
Spray volume of 5-15 litres of water per tree is required
Leaf galls and Aphids:
Spray monocrotophos 36 % SL @ 1.0 ml/lit
Mealy bug:
 Dissolve Fish oil rosin soap @ 25g /lit, initially in luke warm water, then in required quantity of spray fluid in the sprayer.
 Release Australian ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10 beetles/tree or 1500/ha
 Band the trees with 20 cm wide 400 gauge polythene sheets  Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5 ml/lit or any one of the following insecticide Insecticide
Dose
Dimethoate 30 % EC
1.6 ml/lit.
Malathion 50 % EC
1.5 ml/lit.
Monocrotophos 36 %
1.0 ml/lit.
SL
Flower webber: Spray phosalone 35 EC @ 2ml/lit.
 

 
Stem borer:
Padding with monocrotophos 36 WSC @10 ml in 25 cm² per tree soaked in absorbent cotton when the trees are not in bearing stage. Application of carbofuran 3 G @ 5g per bore hole and plugging with mud after mechanically removing or killing the grub by introducing a needle or wire.

Shoot borer: Spray monocrotophos 36 % SL @ 1.0 ml/lit
Fruit fly:
 Plough the inter spaces to expose pupae.
 Prepare bait with methyl eugenol 1% solution mixed with malathion @ 2.0 ml/lit. Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them in 25 different places in one hectare between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m. Collect and destroy the fallen fruits.

 Spray Neem oil @ 3.0 % as need based
Sooty mould:
Spray Maida 5% (1 kg Maida or starch) boiled with 1 lit of water and diluted to 20 litres. Avoid spraying during cloudy weather.
Diseases
Powdery mildew: Apply Sulphur dust (350 mesh) in the early morning to protect new flush or spray Wettable sulphur 0.2% or Tridemorph 0.05%.
Anthracnose and Stalk end-rot: Spray Mancozeb 2 g / lit or Carbendazim 1 g / lit or Thiophanate methyl 1 g / lit or Chlorothalonil 2 g / lit as pre-harvest spray, 3 times at 15 days interval (or) Spray chitin based Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf 7) immediately after flowering @ 5 g / lit five times at 21 days interval.

Sooty mould: Spray phosphamidon 40 SL @ 2 ml / litre + Maida 5% (1 kg Maida or starch) boiled with 1 lit of water and diluted to 20 litres. Avoid spraying during cloudy weather. Harvest Season: March to June.

Harvest: Yield varies with varieties and spacing adopted. 8 -10 t / ha upto 15 years; 15-20 t / ha from 15-20 years.
o

Post harvest treatment: Dip the fruits in 52 ± 1oC hot water immediately after harvest for 5 minutes followed by 8% plant wax (Fruitox or Waxol) to reduce anthracnose disease in mango during storage. Two pre-harvest sprays of 0.2% Mancozeb (2.0 g / lit) will also reduce the incidence.

Waiting Period
Methyl demeton 0.05%
Fenthion 0.05%
Quinalphos 0.05
Lindane 300 g a.i /ha

- 14 days
- 14 days
- 12 days
- 2 days

Market Information
Growing Districts
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu

 

Krishnagiri, Vellore, Dindigul, Thiruvallur, Dharmapuri,
Theni
Theni, Dharmapuri, Salem, Tirunelveli.

 
Preferred Varieties and Hybrids
Grade Specification

Export Market

 

Banganapalli, Bangalora, Neelum, Rumani, Mulgoa,
Alphonso, Totapuri
Firmness, lack of decay / defects, uniformity of size
and shape, skin color, flesh color and flavor
Small
- Less than 200 g
Medium
- 201- 400 g
Large
-401- 600 g
Extra-large - 601 - 800 g
UAE, Kuwait and other Middle East countries.

 

Banana: Musa sp; Musaceae
Varieties
Dessert : Grand Naine, Robusta, Dwarf Cavendish, Rasthali, Vayal vazhai, Poovan, Nendran, Red Banana, Karpooravalli, Udhayam, CO 1, Matti, Sannachenkadali and Ney poovan. Cavendish groups are generally preferred for export.

Culinary: Monthan, Nendran, Vayal vazhai, Ash Monthan and Chakkia. Hill areas: Virupakshi, Sirumalai and Namaran, Red Banana, Manoranjitham (Santhana vazhai) and Ladan.
Soil and Climate: Well drained loamy soils are suitable. Alkaline and saline soils should be avoided.
Season of planting
Wet lands: Feb – April: Poovan, Rasthali, Monthan, Karpooravalli and Ney poovan. April – May: Nendran and Robusta
Garden lands: January – February and November – December. Padugai lands: January – February and August – September. Hill Banana:

April – May (lower Palani hills); June – August (Sirumalai)

Selection and pre-treatment of suckers: Select sword suckers of 1.5 to 2.0 kg weight, free from diseases and nematodes.
Trim the roots and decayed portion of the corm, cut the
pseudostem leaving 20 cm from the corm and grade the suckers to size. To avoid wilt disease, infected portions of the corm may be pared, dipped for 5 minutes in Carbendazim 0.1% (1 g in 1 lit of water) for Rasthali, Monthan, Neyvannan, Virupakshi and other wilt susceptible varieties. Pralinage with 40 g of Carbofuran 3 G granules per sucker (Dip the corm in slurry solution of 4 parts clay plus 5 parts water and sprinkle Carbofuran to control nematodes). Alternatively, dip the corm with 0.75% Monocrotophos, shade dry for atleast 24 hours and plant. Sow Sunhemp on 45th day; incorporate it after about a month. This operation reduces nematode build up. Use well hardened tissue cultured banana plants with 5-6 leaves. At the time of planting, apply 25 g Pseudomonas fluorescens / plant.

Field preparation
Wet lands: No preparatory cultivation is necessary.
Garden land: 2 – 4 ploughings.
Padugai : One deep mammutti digging.
Hill Banana: Remove scrub jungle and construct contour stone walls. Wet lands: Place the suckers at ground level and earth up.

 

 
Digging pits
Garden land, Padugai and Hill Banana: Dig pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm in size. The pits are refilled with topsoil, mixed with 10 kg of FYM, 250 g of Neem cake and 50 g of Lindane 1.3 %. Spacing (Conventional method)

Variety

Spacing

No. of plants / ha

Garden land

Robusta, Nendran,,
Dwarf Cavendish

1.8 x 1.8 m
1.5 x 1.5 m

3086
4444

Wet land

Poovan,
Monthan,
Rasthali,
Neyvannan,
Ney poovan

2.1 x 2.1 m

2267

Hills

Virupakshi (Sirumalai),
Namarai and Ladan

3.6 x 3.6 m
(When
coffee)

750
mixed

with

Adopt high density planting for higher productivity - Plant 3 suckers / pit at a spacing of 1.8 x 3.6 m (4600 plants / ha) for Cavendish varieties and 2 m x 3 m for Nendran (5000 plants / ha).
Irrigation: Irrigate immediately after planting; give life irrigation after 4 days; subsequent irrigations are to be given once in a week for irrigated plantations of garden lands and once in 10 – 15 days for wet lands. Irrigate the fields copiously after every manuring. Use drip irrigation @ 15 litres / plant / day from planting to 4th month, 20 litres / plant /day from 5th month to shooting and 25 litres / plant / day from shooting till 15 days prior to harvest.

Application of fertilizers
Details

N

P
(g / plant / year)

K

Garden land
Varieties other than Nendran
Nendran

35*
90

330*
300

Wet land
Nendran, Rasthali
Poovan,Robusta

 

110*
150
210
210
160

35
50
50

450
390
390

 
Hill bananas
After forming semi circular basins on uphill side, apply 375 g of 40:30:40 NPK mixture, plus 130 g muriate of potash per clump per application during October, January and April. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria 20 g each at planting and 5th month after planting preceding chemical fertilizer application.

Apply N as Neem coated urea. Apply N and K in 3 splits on 3rd, 5th and 7th month, Phosphorous at 3rd month of planting. Apply 20 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria at planting and five months after planting (This should be applied prior to chemical fertilizer application). * For Tissue culture banana, apply 50% extra fertilizers at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th month after planting.

Fertigation
For maximizing productivity follow fertigation technique - Apply 25 litres of water / day + 200:30:300 g N: P2O5: K2O / plant using water soluble fertilizers.
For economizing the cost of fertilizers, fertigate using normal fertilizers (Urea and Muriate of potash) with 50% of the recommended dose along with recommended dose of phosphorus as basal at 2nd month after planting. Fertigate at weekly intervals as per the following schedule: Fertigation schedule

Weeks after planting

N (% )

P2O5 (% )

K 2O (% )

9-18 (10 weeks)

30

100

20

19-30 (12 weeks)

50

--

40

31-42 (12 weeks)

20

--

32

43-45 (3 weeks)

--

--

8

Total

100

100

100

Aftercultivation
Garden Land: Give mammutti digging at bi-monthly intervals and earth up. Prune the suckers at monthly intervals. The dry and diseased leaves are removed and burnt to control the spread of leaf spot diseases. Male flowers may be removed a week after opening of last hand. The plants at flowering may be propped. Cover the peduncle with flag leaf to prevent stalk end rot. Cover the bunches with banana leaves to avoid sun scald.

Wet land: Form trenches in between alternate rows and cross trenches at every 5th row. The trenches are periodically deepened and the soil is spread over the bed. Surface diggings may be given at bi-monthly intervals and desuckering at monthly intervals. Remove the male flower a week after opening of last hand. Prop plants at or prior to flowering. Cover the peduncle with flag leaf and the bunch with leaves to avoid sun scald. For ratoon crops, in respect of Poovan, Monthan and Rasthali allow the follower at flowering of the mother plant and remove the other suckers at harvest.

 

 

Perennial banana: Give surface digging with mammutti once in two months. Give one deep digging with mammutti during January – February. Other operations as in garden land. Hill banana: Give four forkings in January, April, July and October. Remove outer sheaths to keep the corm inside the soil and ward off borer. Maintain two bearing plants and two followers per clump along the contour.

Growth regulators: To improve the grade of bunches, 2,4-D at 25 ppm (25 mg / lit.) may be sprayed in Poovan and CO 1 banana after the last hand has opened. This will also help to remove seediness in Poovan variety. Spray CCC 1000 ppm at 4th and 6th month after planting. Spray Plantozyme @ 2ml / l at 6th and 8th month after planting to get higher yield. Micronutrients: Spray micronutrients viz., ZnSO4 (0.5%), FeSO4 (0.2%), CuSO4 (0.2%) and H3BO3 (0.1%) at 3rd, 5th and 7th MAP to increase yield and quality of banana. Bunch cover: Use transparent polyethylene sleeves with 2% (during cool season) and 4% (during summer season) ventilation to cover the bunches immediately after opening of the last hand Inter cropping: Leguminous vegetables, Beet root, Elephant foot yam and Sun hemp. Avoid growing Cucurbitaceous vegetables.

Plant protection
Pests
Corm weevil: Apply Lindane 1.3% @ 20 g / plant or Carbaryl @ 10 – 20 g / plant in the soil around the stem.
Stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis):
 Remove dried leaves periodically and keep the plantation clean.  Prune the suckers every month.
 Do not dump infected materials in the manure pit. Infected trees should be uprooted, chopped into pieces and burnt.
 Spray monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1 ml/lit of water.
 Alternatively, dilute 54 ml of monocrotophos 36 WSC with 350 ml of water and inject 4 ml (2 ml at 45 cm from the ground level another 2 ml 150 cm from the ground level) in the pseudostem at monthly interval from 5th to 8th month.

Rhizome weevil:
Trap adult weevils with pseudostem chopped into small pieces. Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 35 g /sucker or carbaryl @ 20 g/plant in the soil around the stem. Banana aphid:
Administer injection of monocrotophos 36 WSC 1 ml/plant (1 ml diluted in 4 ml of water) at 45 days interval from the 3rd month till flowering. Use ‘Banana injector’ devised by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.

Avoid injection of monocrotophos after flowering.
Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 35 g /sucker or phorate 10% G @ 15 g/sucker or spray any one of the following insecticide. The spray may be directed towards crown and pseudostem base upto ground level at 21 days interval atleast thrice.

 

 
Insecticide
Dimethoate 30%EC
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25%
EC

Dose
1.0 ml/lit.
2.0 ml/lit.

Thrips and Lace wing bugs: Spray any one of the following insecticide Insecticide
Dose
Dimethoate 30 %EC
1.0ml/lit.
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25% 1.0ml/lit.
EC
Quinalphos 25%EC
2.0ml/lit.
Bunchy-top:
The Banana Aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Bunchy-top virus disease. Spray phosphamidon 40 SL @ 2 ml/lit or methyl demeton 25 EC @ 2 ml/lit or monocrotophos @ 1 ml/lit. The spray may be directed towards crown and pseudostem base upto ground level at 21 days interval at least thrice.

Injection of monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1 ml/plant (1 ml diluted in 4 ml of water) at 45 days interval from the 3rd month till flowering is very effective. Use ‘Banana Injector’ devised by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Avoid injection of Monocrotophos after flowering. To prevent the disease,

i) Use virus-free suckers
ii) Paring and pralinage
Pare the corm and sprinkle 40 g of Carbofuran 3 G over the Corm (Before sprinkling, corm should be dipped in mud slurry).
iii) Destroy virus affected plants.
iv) Insert a gelatin capsule containing 200 mg 2,4 - D into the corm 7 cm deep using capsule applicator or inject 5 ml 2,4 - D solution (125 gm/lit of water) into the pseudostem by using the injection gun. The plant collapses and topples in 3 – 5 days. Nematode:

 Pare the corm and sprinkle 40 g of Carbofuran 3 G cover the corm. Before sprinkling, corm should be dipped in mud slurry (or) pare and dip the corm into 0.75 % (15 ml / lit water). Monochrotophos solution; shade dry and plate (or) Pare the corms and coat (Pralinage) with Bacillus subtilis (BbV 57) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1) each at 10 g / corm followes by soil application @ 1.25 kg each/ha.

 If pre-treatment is not done, apply 40 g Carbofuran around each plant twice at 1st and 3rd month after planting.
 Grow Sunhemp in and around the basin of plants and incorporate their biomass one month later (or) apply press mud @ 15 t per ha one month after planting (or) apply neem cake 1.5 t per ha one month after planting (or) Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1) liquid formulation @ 4 lit/ha at 2nd, 4th and 6th MAP through drip system to manage panama wilt and nematode complex.

Diseases
Sigatoka leaf spot: Remove affected leaves and burn. Spray any one of the following fungicides commencing from November at monthly interval. Carbendazim 1 g / lit., Benomyl 1 g / lit., Mancozeb 2 g / lit., Copper oxychloride 2.5 g / lit., Ziram 2 ml / lit, Chlorothalonil 2 g / lit. Alternation of fungicides prevents fungicidal resistance. Alternatively Alternatively spray Propiconazole 1 ml/lit or 0.5 ml/lit along with petroleum based mineral oil 10ml / lit or Pseudomonas flourescens (0.5%),  

 
three times at 15 days interval to effectively control sigatoka leaf spot incidence. Always add 5 ml of wetting agent like Sandovit, Triton AE, Teepol etc. per 10 lit of spray fluid. Bunchy-top: The Banana Aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Bunchy top virus disease. Spray any one of the following systemic insecticides to control it. Phosphamidon 1

ml / lit or Methyl demeton 2 ml / lit or Monocrotophos 1 ml / lit. The spray may be directed towards crown and pseudostem base upto ground level at 21 days interval atleast thrice. Injection of Monocrotophos 36 WSC 1 ml / plant (1 ml diluted in 4 ml of water) at 45 days interval from the 3rd month till flowering is very effective. Use ‘Banana Injector’ devised by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Avoid injection of Monocrotophos after flowering. To prevent the disease,

1.
2.
3.

Use virus-free suckers.
Paring and pralinage. Pare the corm and sprinkle 40 g of Carbofuran 3 G over the corm (Before sprinkling, corm should be dipped in mud slurry).
Destroy virus affected plants.Insert a gelatin capsule containing 200 mg 2,4 - D into the corm 7 cm deep using capsule applicator or inject 5 ml 2,4 - D solution (125 g / lit of water) into the pseudostem by using the injection gun. The plant collapses and topples in 3 – 5 days.

Panama Disease (Fusarium wilt): Uproot and destroy severely affected plants. Apply lime at 1 – 2 kg in the pits after removal of the affected plants.
Corm injection
Remove a small portion of soil to expose the upper portion of the corm. Make an oblique hole at 45° angle to a depth of 10 cm. Immediately insert a gelatin capsule containing 60 mg of Carbendazim or of 50 mg of Pseudomonas fluorescens or i n j e c t 3 ml of 2 % Carbendazim solution into the hole with the help of ‘corm injector’ on 2nd, 4th and 6th month after planting. Apply press mud at 5 kg per tree to reduce the wilt incidence (or) apply Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1) liquid formulation @ 4 lit/ha at 2nd, 4th and 6th MAP through drip system to manage panama wilt and nematode complex.

Kottaivazhai in Poovan: Spray 2,4 – D @ 25 ppm within 20 days after opening of last hand (1 g / 40 lit / 200 bunches) or 1.2 g of Sodium salt of 2,4 – D dissolved in 40 lit of water for 200 bunches. Crop duration: The bunches will be ready for harvest after 12 to 15 months of planting. Harvest: Bunches attain maturity from 100 to 150 days after flowering depending on variety, soil, weather condition and altitude.

Yield (t / ha / year):
Poovan & Rasthali
Monthan
Ney Poovan
Robusta
Grand Naine
Market information
 

:
:
:
:
:

40 – 50 t / ha
30 – 40 t / ha
30 – 35 t / ha
50 – 60 t / ha
70 – 80 t / ha; under HDP: 115-130 t / ha

 

Growing Districts
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred Varieties and Hybrids
Grade Specification

 

Coimbatore, Erode, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli, Trichy,
Vellore, Kanyakumari and Karur districts
Trichy, Coimbatore, Theni
Grand Naine, Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali,
Poovan, Nendran, Red Banana, Ney Poovan, Pachanadan,
Monthan, Karpuravalli
The hands are graded based on the number and size of
fingers in each hand.
Over ripe and injured fruits are discarded.
Banana is sent to the local market as bunches.

 

Acid Lime: Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle; Rutaceae
Varieties: PKM1, Vikram
Soil and Climate: Tropical and sub tropical. Can be grown up to 1000 m above MSL. Deep well drained loamy soils are the best.
Season: December – February and June – September.
Planting: Healthy seedlings may be planted during June to December at 5 to 6 m spacing in 75 cm x 75 cm x 75 cm pits.
Irrigation: Irrigate copiously after planting. After establishment, irrigation may be given at 7 – 10 days interval. Avoid water stagnation. Adopt drip system for new plantations. Manures and Fertilizers per plant: ‘N’ to be applied in two doses during March and October. FYM, P2O5 and K2O are to be applied in October.

Manures and
Fertilizers

Ist year

FYM
N

10 kg
200 g

5 kg
100 g

30 kg
600 g

P
K

100 g
100 g

25 g
40 g

200 g
300 g

Annual increase

From 6th year

Spray Zinc sulphate @ 0.5% (500 g /100 lit of water) thrice in a year (March, July and October) after the emergence of new flushes.
After cultivation: Remove branches of main stem up to 45 cm from ground level. Application of green leaves 30 kg per tree once in 3 months.
Intercropping: Legumes and vegetable crops can be raised during pre-bearing age. Growth regulator: To increase fruit set, spray 2, 4 – D @ 20 ppm (200 mg / 10 l) during flowering. For fruit retention, spray 2, 4 – D @ 20 ppm or NAA 30 ppm (300 mg / l) after fruit set (marble size).

Plant protection
Pests
Leaf miner:
Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 50 kg /ha or phorate 10 % G @ 15 kg/ha or spray neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) 5 % or neem cake extract or neem oil 3 % or imidacloprid17.8% SL @ 2.0 ml in 10 lit of water or Thiodicarb 75 WP @ 1g /lit.

Aphids :
Spray neem oil @ 3 ml/lit or Fish oil rosin soap 25 g/lit.
Rust mite :
Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 50 kg /ha or phorate 10 % G @ 15 kg/ha or dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2.5 ml/lit or imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 2.0 ml in 10 lit of water
 

 

Fruit sucking moth:
 Destroy Tinospora weed host.
 Bait with fermented molasses plus malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit.  Bag the fruits with polythene bags punctured at the bottom.  Apply smoke and set up light traps or food lures (pieces of citrus fruits). Shoot borer:

Prune the withered shoots 4 cm below the dried portions, Plug the fresh holes with cotton soaked in monocrotophos solution mixed @ 5 ml/20 ml of water.
Citrus Butterfly:
Spray two rounds of Bacillus thuringiensis @ 1g/lit or neem oil @ 10 ml/lit during new flush formation is recommended for the management of citrus butterfly Fruit fly
1. Set up bait with methyl eugenol 0.1% solution mixed with malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m.
2. Use polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal + 1 ml dichlorvas in cotton. 50 traps are required/ha, fish meal + dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

3.Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based
Mealy bugs
 Debark the branches
 Use sticky trap on the shoot bearing the fruits at a length of 5 cm.  Use dichlorvos (0.2%) in combination with fish oil rosin soap (25g/lit) as spray or for dipping the fruits for two minutes.

 Dissolve Fish oil rosin soap @ 25g /lit, initially in luke warm water, then in required quantity of spray fluid in the sprayer.
Tree banding:
 Band the trees with 20 cm wide alkathene or polythene (400 gauge) 50 cm above the ground level and just below the junction of branching and secure them with jute thread.  Apply a little mud or fruit tree grease on the lower edge of the band. Or, put a band of carbaryl swab around the tree trunk leaving 30 cm from the main stem  Follow ant control methods such as destruction of ant holes, red ant nests and skirting of citrus trees after fruit harvest which prevents the ant migration through side branches.  Release predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri beetles @ 10 beetles/tree once the patrolling of the ants on the trunk is stopped. Make one to three releases per annum depending on the mealy bug populations. Make periodic check during the first fortnight and put dried leaf mulch around the tree trunk 20 days after the release of the beetles to facilitate pupation of the full grown grubs.

Tristeza virus:
Remove the infected trees and destroy. Spray methyl demeton 25 EC or monocrotophos @ 1ml/lit to control the aphids which spread the disease. Use pre-immunized acid lime seedlings for planting.
Nematodes: Application of Carbofuran 3 G @ 75 g / tree to control citrus nematodes in severe infestations. Application of 20 g Pseudomonas fluorescens formulation per tree at a depth of 15 cm and 50 cm away from the trunk once in four months. Soil application of Phorate @ 2 g followed by drenching with Metalaxyl plus Mancozeb 72 WP @ 1 % 50 ml / cutting / poly bag / kg of nursery soil for citrus decline.

 

 
Diseases
Twig blight: Prune dried twigs and spray 0.3% Copper oxychloride or 0.1% Carbendazim at monthly intervals to reduce the spread of disease.
Scab: Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture.
Canker : Immediately after pruning one spray of Copper oxychloride (COC) 0.3% followed by 4 sprayings with Streptocyclin 100 ppm + COC 0.3 % at monthly intervals. Tristeza virus: Remove the infected trees and destroy. Spray Methyl demeton 25 EC or Monocrotophos @ 1ml / lit to control the aphids which spread the disease. Use pre-immunized acid lime seedlings for planting.

Harvest: Starts bearing from 3rd year after planting.
Post harvest treatment: Treating the fruits with 4% wax emulsion followed by pre-packing in 200 gauge polythene bags with 1 % ventilation improves the shelf life for more than 10 days. Yield: 25 t /ha /year.

Market information
Growing Districts
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred Varieties and Hybrids
Grade Specification

 

Dindigul, Tirunelveli, Trichy, Perambalur
Dindigul, Tirunelveli, Trichy, Perambalur
PKM 1, Vikram
Size and colour

 

Sweet Orange: Citrus sinensis; Rutaceae
Varieties: Sathugudi.
Soil and Climate: Deep well drained loamy soils are the best for the cultivation of Citrus. pH of soil should be 6.5 to 7.5 and EC of water less than 1.0. A dry climate with about 50 – 75 cm of rainfall from June – September and with well defined summer and winter season is ideal. Comes up well in tropical zone below 500 m.

Season: July to September.
Planting material: Budded plants (Root Stock: Rangpur lime is best, now Rough lemon is also preferred).
Preparation of field: Dig pits at 75 cm x 75 cm x 75 cm in size at 7 x 7 m spacing. Fill up the pits with top soil and 10 kg of FYM. Plant the budded plants in the centre of the pits and stake it. Irrigation: Immediately after planting irrigate copiously. Irrigations may be given once in 10 days. Avoid water stagnation near the plant.

Manures and Fertilizers per plant: N to be applied in two doses during March and October. FYM, P2O5 and K2O are to be applied in October.
Ist year
(kg)

Annual increase
(kg)

FYM

10.000

5.000

30.000

N

0.200

0.100

0.600

P

0.100

0.020

0.200

K

0.100

0.040

0.300

Manures and
Fertilizers

From 6th year
(kg)

Manures are applied in the basin 70 cm away from the trunk and incorporated in the soil. Spray solution containing Zinc Sulphate (0.5%), Manganese (0.05%), Iron (0.25%), Magnesium (0.5%), Boron (0.1%) and Molybdenum (0.003%) once in 3 months at the time of new flush production. In addition to that, apply 50 g in each of Zinc Sulphate, Manganese and Iron per tree per year. Plant protection

Leaf miner : Spray Dichlorvos 76 WSC @ 1 ml / lit or Dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml / lit or Fenthion 100 EC @ 1 ml / lit or Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1.5 ml / lit or 5% of Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) or Neem oil 3%.

Citrus root nematode: Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens at 20 g per tree at a depth of 15 cm and 50 cm away from the trunk for the management of slow decline due to the citrus root nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans). Soil application of Phorate @ 2 g followed by drenching with Metalaxyl plus Mancozeb 72 WP @ 0.1% 50 ml / poly bag / kg of nursery soil for citrus decline.

 

 
Little leaf malady: To control little leaf, spray Zinc sulphate at 1.0 per cent plus Teepol 1 ml / lit of solution at following stages.
1) New flush
2) One month after first spray
3) At flowering
4) Fruit set
After cultivation: Remove water shoots, rootstock sprouts, dead and diseased shoots. Remove laterals upto 45 cm from ground level.
Intercropping: Legumes and vegetable crops can be raised during pre-bearing age. Harvest: Starts bearing from 5th year after planting.
Yield: 30 t / ha.

 

 

Mandarin Orange: Citrus reticulata Blanco; Rutaceae
Varieties: Coorg Orange and Kodai Orange.
Soil and Climate: Sub tropical climate with an elevation of 500– 1500 m above MSL. A rainfall of about 150 cm to 250 cm is required. The winter should be mild and there should be no strong, hot winds during summer. Deep well drained loamy soils are the best. Soil pH should be between 5.5 and 6.5.

Season: November – December.
Planting: Seedlings and budded plants.
Spacing: 6 x 6 m, pit size 75 x 75 x 75 cm. Planting during May – June and September – October.
Manures and Fertilizers: Apply twice in a year during June and October. a) For Palani Hills
Manures &
Fertilizers

st

1 year

nd

2

year

rd

3

year

th

4

year

5

th

year

6th year
onwards

Kg / plant / year
FYM

10.000

15.000

20.000

25.000

25.000

30.000

N

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

0.500

0.600

P

0.040

0.080

0.120

0.160

0.160

0.200

K

0.050

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.300

0.400

a) For Shervaroyan hills (for trees above 6 years old):
Apply 700:375:600 g / tree NPK along with AM fungi (Glomus fasiculatus) @ 1 kg / tree. Manures are to be applied in the basin 70 cm away from the trunk and incorporated. Apply micronutrients as suggested for sweet orange. Apply agricultural lime or Dolomite at 4 kg / tree during January – February once in 2 – 3 years. This should not be combined with other chemical fertilizers.

After cultivation: Remove water shoots, root stock sprouts, dead and diseased shoots. Remove laterals of the main stem up to 45 cm from ground level. Basins should be provided for each tree with gradient slope.

 

 
Plant protection
Pests
Leaf miner:
Spray 5% of neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) or neem cake extract or neem oil 3%. Aphids :
Spray neem oil 3 ml/lit or Fish oil rosin soap @ 25 g/lit
Fruit sucking moth: Destroy Tinospora weed host. Bait with fermented molasses plus malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit.
Bag the fruits with polythene bags punctured at the bottom.
Apply smoke and set up light traps or food lures (pieces of citrus fruits). Shoot borer: Prune the withered shoots 4 cm below the dried portions Stem borer: Prune the branches containing grubs.
Fruit fly:
Collection and destruction of fallen fruits.
Set up methyl eugenol trap 0.1% solution mixed with malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m.
Use polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal + 1 ml. dichlorvos in cotton. 50 traps are required/ha, fish meal + dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively

.Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based
Green scale: Apply Carbofuran 3% G @ 15 g/plant
Safe waiting period: Methyl demeton and monocrotophos – 12 days. Sooty mould
Boil 1 kg Maida or starch with 5 lit of water, cool, dilute to 20 lit and spray. Avoid spraying during cloudy weather.
Diseases
Powdery mildew
Apply Sulphur dust 25 – 30 kg (350 mesh) in the early morning hours to protect new flush or spray Wettable Sulphur 0.3% (or) Triademefon 0.1% - 3 sprays at 15 days interval. Sooty mould
Spray Phosphamidon 40 SL @ 2ml / litre. Boil 1 kg Maida or starch with 5 lit of water, cool, dilute to 20 lit and spray. Avoid spraying during cloudy weather. Growth regulators: To increase the fruit retention spray the trees at flowering and again at marble stage with 2, 4 - D at 20 ppm or NAA 30 ppm.

Harvest: Budded plants start bearing from 3 – 5 years after planting while seedlings take 5-7 years.
Yield: 15 – 20 t / ha / year.

 

 

Grapes: Vitis vinifera; Vitaceae
Varieties: Muscat (Panneer), Pachadraksha, Anab-e-Shahi, Thompson Seedless, Arka Shyam, Arka Kanchan, Arka Hans, Manik Chaman, Sonaka, Sharadh Seedless and Flame Seedless. Muscat is the major variety grown in Tamil Nadu.

Soil and Climate: Well-drained rich loamy soil with a pH of 6.5 - 7.0 with low water table with less than 1.0. Soil depth should be atleast 1 m.

EC

Field preparation and Planting: Trenches of 0.6 m width and 0.6 m depth are to be dug at a distance of 3 m apart for Muscat and pits of 1m x 1m x 1m should be dug for other varieties. Well decomposed FYM or compost or green leaf manure has to be applied in the trenches or pits as the case may be and then covered with soil. Plant the rooted cuttings in June-July. Spacing: 3 x 2 m for Muscat, 4 x 3 m for other varieties.

Irrigation: Irrigate immediately after planting and on the 3rd day and then once in a week. Withheld irrigation 15 days before pruning and also 15 days before harvest. Training: The vines are trained with single stem upto pandal with a stalk on tipping at 2 m height. The main arms are developed and trained on opposite directions. On further tipping, secondary and tertiary arms are developed for spreading all over pandal. Pruning: In general four bud level of pruning for Muscat, Pachadraksha, Bangalore Blue, Anab- eShahi and Arka hybrids and two bud level for Thompson Seedless may be adopted. It is better to decide the level of pruning as per bud forecasting technique. Weak and immature canes should be pruned to one or two buds to induce vegetative growth. Pruning Season

Summer crop: Pruning in December – January and harvesting in April – May. Monsoon crop: Pruning in May - June and harvesting in August - September.

 

 
Manures and Fertilizers (Kg per vine)
Variety
Muscat
Pachadraksha
Thompson
seedless
Sonaka,
Manikchaman
Sharad
seedless, Anabe-Shahi

Green
leaves

FYM

N

P

K

I
50

II
50

III
100

I
50

II
50

III
100

I
0.10

II
0.20

III
0.20

I
0.08

II
III
0.16 0.16

I
II
0.30 0.40

III
0.60

50

50

100

50

50

100

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.08

0.16 0.24

0.40 0.80

1.20

50

50

100

50

50

100

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.08

0.16 0.24

0.40 0.80

1.20

The manures should be applied twice after pruning. Apply half the dose of potash immediately after pruning and the other half after 60 days of pruning. Foliar spray of 0.1% Boric acid + 0.2% ZnSO4

+ 1.0% Urea twice before flowering and 10 days after first spray to overcome nutrient deficiency.
Special practices: Tipping of shoots and tying of clusters in the pandal after the fruit set. Remove tendrils. Nipping the growing shoots of axillary buds and terminal buds at 12 to 15 buds. Thinning the compact bunches by removing 20 % of the berries at pea stage. Dip the clusters in solution containing Brassinosteroid 0.5 ppm and GA3 25 ppm at 10-12 days after fruit set to maintain vigour, yield and quality parameters.

Plant protection
Pests
Nematodes: Apply 60 g of Carbofuran 3 G or 20 g Phorate 10 G per vine a week before pruning and the plots are irrigated profusely. D o not disturb the soil for atleast 15 days. Thereafter normal manuring may be done. Apply of neem cake 200 g / vine or alternatively apply Pseudomonas fluorescens formulation in talc containing 15 x 108 colony forming units / g, 30 cm away from base of the vine atleast 15 cm depth at the time of pruning to control nematodes. Flea beetles: Spray Phosalone 35 EC (2 ml / lit of water) immediately after pruning and followed with The loose bark may be removed at the time of pruning to prevent egg laying. Spray Malathion 50 % EC @ 7.0 ml in 10 litres of water

Thrips:
Spray methyl demeton 25 EC or dimethoate @ 30 EC 2 ml/lit of water. Mealy bug:
Release Coccinellid beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10 per vine. Spray methyl demeton 25 EC or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2 ml/lit of water or spray dichlorvos 76 WSC @ 1 ml/lit with fish oil rosin soap @ 25 g/lit or Buprofezin 25 % SC @ 1.0 ml/lit. Stem girdler:

Swab the trunk with carbaryl 50 WP@ 2 gm/lit.
Safe waiting period: Five days for dimethoate and carbaryl
 

 
Diseases
Powdery mildew: Spray 0.3% Wettable sulphur or Dust sulphur @ 6-12 Kg / ha in the morning or Azoxystrobin @ 150 ai / ha (600 ml / ha) 30 days after pruning 5 sprays at 10 days interval. Downy mildew: Spray Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 20 g / lit on 25th and 45th days after pruning followed by spraying of Azoxystrobin @1 ml / lit on 35th and 55 days after pruning. Remove infected tendrils and spray Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 20 g / lit at 65 days after pruning (Or) Apply FYM @ 20 kg + Pf1 100 g/vine after pruning followed by spray with Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf 1) on 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 days after pruning to check the Downy mildew. Anthracnose: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Copper fungicide 0.25 % or Fluopicolide and Forestyl aluminium formulation (Profiler-Fluopicolide 4.44% + Fosetyl Aluminium 66.7% - 71.14% WG) @ 0.225 % three times [First spray 15 days after pruning (at 4-5 leaf stage) and the second and third spray at 10 days interval depending upon disease severity]. Depending upon the weather conditions the sprays have to be increased

Quality improvement: To get uniform ripening in Muscat, spray the bunches with 0.2% Potassium chloride (2 g / lit) at 20th day after berry set and followed by another spray on 40th day
Dip the clusters of Thompson seedless and other seedless varieties at calyptra fall stage with 25 ppm GA (25 mg / lit) and repeat again at pepper stage to increase the size of berries. Yield
Seedless
Muscat
Pachadraksha
Anab-e-Shahi and Arka hybrids

:
:
:
:

15t / ha / year
30t / ha / year
40t / ha / year
20 t / ha / year

Preparation of 1% Bordeaux mixture:
A quantity of 500 g of Copper sulphate should be dissolved in 25 lit of water and 500 g of lime in another 25 lit of water separately. The copper sulphate solution should be added to the lime solution constantly stirring the mixture. Earthern or wooden vessels and plastic containers alone should be used and metallic containers should not be used. To find out whether the mixture is in correct proportion, a polished knife should be dipped in the mixture for one minute and taken out. If there is reddish brown deposit of copper, additional quantity of lime should be added till there is no deposit in the knife.

 

 

Guava: Psidium guajava L.; Myrtaceae
Varieties: Allahabad, Lucknow 49, Arka Amulya, Arka Mridula, Banarasi, TRY(G) 1, Arka Kiran, Lalit.
Soil and Climate: Guava grows well both in wet and dry regions but it does better under irrigation in the dry tracts. It can be grown upto 1000 m altitude. Well drained soils are the best. Tolerates salinity and alkalinity. In saline soils add 3 kg Gypsum / plant during planting and once in three years after planting.

Planting material: Layers.
Season of planting: June - December.
Spacing: 5 – 6 m either way.
Planting: Plant the layers with the ball of earth in the centre of pit of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm size filled with FYM 10 kg, neem cake 1 kg and top soil + 50 g Lindane 1.3%. Irrigation: Irrigate copiously immediately after planting, again on third day and afterwards once in 10 days or as and when necessary.

Manures and Fertilizers: FYM 50 kg and one kg in each of N, P and K per tree in two split doses during March and October. To increase the yield, spray Urea 1 % + Zinc sulphate 0.5% twice a year during March and October. To correct the boron deficiency (reduction in size of leaves and fruit cracking and hardening), spray 0.3% borax (30 g / l) during flowering and fruit set stages.

Micronutrients spray for controlling bronzing of leaves: Spraying of a combination spray containing ZnSO4, MgSO4 and MnSO4 @ 0.5% and CuSO4 and FeSO4 @ 0.25 % plus Teepol @ 1ml per 5 lit of solution on various stages

1. New flush

2. One month after first spray

3. Flowering

4. Fruit set

Inter cropping: Legumes and short duration vegetable crops may be raised during pre-bearing stage.
After cultivation: Pruning of past season’s terminal growth to a length of 10-15 cm is to be done during September – October and February – March to encourage more laterals. The erect growing branches are to be bent by tying on to pegs driven on the ground. Old unproductive but healthy trees may be either pollarded or cut the trunks at 75 cm from ground level or dehorned by cutting the secondary branches at a distance of 75 cm from their origin. Plant protection

Pests
Tea Mosquito Bug:
Spray malathion 50 EC @ 2ml/lit or Spray Neem formulations @ 2ml/lit or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2ml/lit or neem oil 3 %. Spraying should be done in early mornings or late evenings, at least four times at 21 days interval during fruiting season.  

 
Aphid:
Spray Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1ml/lit or dimethoate 30EC @ 2ml/lit. Mealy bug:
Release Cryptolaemous predatory beetles @10/tree.
Fruit fly:
Collection and destruction of fallen fruits.
Set up methyl eugenol 0.1% solution mixed with malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m.
Use polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal + 1 ml. dichlorvos in cotton. 50 traps are required/ha, fish meal + dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

Stir the soil around the tree during pest incidence and dust carbaryl 10 D @ 10 kg/ac. Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based
Safe waiting period: Monocrotophos 36 WSC-10 days and malathion 50 EC – 9 days. Diseases
Red rust: Spray Copper oxy chloride 2.5 g / lit or Bordeaux mixture 0.5 % or Wettable sulphur 2 g / litre.
Harvest: Layers come to bearing in 2 - 3 years.
First crop
: February – July.
Second crop : September – January.
Yield: 25 t / ha.

Market information
Growing Districts
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu

 

Dindigul, Madurai, Virudhunagar,Villupuram, Vellore,
Tirunelveli
Palani, Madurai, Koyambedu Wholesale Market

 

Pineapple: Ananas sativus; Bromeliaceae
Varieties: Kew, Mauritius and Queen.
Soil and Climate: Mild tropical climate as found in the humid hill slopes is best suited. Can be grown in plains under shade. Elevation from 500 m to 700 m is ideal. A light well drained soil with pH of 5.5 to 7.0 is preferable. Heavy soils can also be used if drainage facilities are available. Spacing: Plant in double rows either in beds or in trenches with the plants into the second rows set in the middle of the plants in the first row. The spacing between two trenches will be 90 cm. Row to row spacing in the same bed per trench will be 60 cm and plant spacing within the row is 30 cm.

Planting: Use suckers and slips of 300-350 g weight for planting. Give a slanting cut to the suckers before planting and dip in Mancozeb 0.3 % or Carbendazim 0.1%. Season: July – September
Manures and Fertilizers: FYM 40-50 t / ha. N 16 g, P 4 g and K 12 g / plant in two equal splits at 6th and 12th month after planting. Apply as foliar spray 0.5% - 1.0 % Zinc sulphate and Ferrous solutions at 15 days interval to overcome the deficiencies in the early crop phase. After cultivation: To have uniform flowering, apply the following when the crop attains 35 – 40 leaf stage. NAA 10 ppm + 2 % urea (20 g in 1 lit of water) @ 50 ml / plant poured into crown or 2 % urea + 0.04 % Sodium carbonate + 20 ppm Ethephon (ethrel) @ 50 ml / plant poured into the crown. To increase the size of the fruit, 200 – 300 ppm NAA should be sprayed after fruit formation. To avoid calcium induced Iron chlorosis, provide adequate shade. Plant protection

Mealy bug: Spray Methyl demeton 2 ml / lit or Monocrotophos 36 WSC 2 ml / lit Crop duration: 18 – 24 months.
Harvest: Fruits can be harvested from 18 to 24 months. Slight colour change at the base of the fruit indicates maturity.
Yield: 50 t / ha.
A plant crop and two ratoon crops are normally taken and in Mauritius variety upto five crops can be taken.
Market information
Growing Districts
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade Specification

 

Namakkal, Dindigul, Kanyakumari
Koyambedu Wholesale Market, Coimbatore
Size, Shape, Maturity, free from disease, pest and
blemishes
Crowns should be trimmed to less than 10 cm and the stalk
end trimmed to 5 -7 cm

 

Sapota: Manilkhara achras; Sapotaceae
Varieties: Oval, Cricket Ball, Kirtibarti, Guthi, CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, P K M 1, PKM 2, PKM 3, PKM 4, PKM (Sa) 5 and Kalipatti.
Soil and Climate: It is a tropical crop and can be grown up to an altitude of 1000 m. It can be grown in all types of soils.
Planting materials: Grafted on Manilkhara hexandra (Pala) rootstock. Season of planting: June – December
Spacing: 8 x 8 m (156 plants / ha) for conventional planting. Adopt high density planting at 8 x 4 m (312 plants / ha) for high productivity Planting: Dig pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m in size. Fill up with top soil mixed with 10 kg of FYM, 1 kg of Neem cake and 100 g of Lindane 1.3%. Plant the grafts in the center of the pit with ball of earth intact. The graft joint must be atleast 15 cm above the ground level. Stake the plants properly to avoid bending or damage to graft joint.

Irrigation: Irrigate copiously immediately after planting and on the third day and once in 10 days afterwards till the graft establishes.
Manures and Fertilizers (Kg / tree)
Manures and
Fertilizers

Ist year
old

Annual increase

6th year onwards

FYM

10.000

10.000

50.000

N

0.200

0.200

1.000

P

0.200

0.200

1.000

K

0.300

0.300

1.500

Manures and fertilizers may be applied in September - October, 45 cm away from the trunk upto the leaf tip and incorporated.
After cultivation: Remove the root stock sprouts, water shoots, criss-cross and lower branches. Inter cropping: Legumes and short duration vegetable crops may be raised as inter crop during pre-bearing stage.

Plant protection
Pests
Leaf webber: Spray Phosalone 35 EC 2 ml / lit.
Hairy caterpillars: Spray Chloropyriphos 20 EC or Phosalone 35 EC 2 ml / lit of water. Bud worm: Spray neem seed kernel extract 5 %.

 

 
Diseases
Sooty mould: Boil 1 kg maida or starch with 5 lit of water, cool and dilute to 20 lit (5 %) and spray. Avoid spraying during cloudy weather.
Harvest: A mature fruit is dull brown in colour and the colour immediately below the skin when scratched is of lighter shade, while in the immature fruits it is green. The mature fruits are harvested by hand picking.

Season: February – June and September – October. Ripen the fruits in air tight room by keeping a beaker containing 5000 ppm Ethrel + 10 g NaOH pellets in an air tight chamber (5 ml Ethrel in one lit of water is 5000 ppm). Alternatively, fruits can be exposed to ethylene gas at 100 – 200 ppm for 18 – 20 hrs to induce ripening.

Yield: 20-25 t / ha / year.
Market information
Growing Districts
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred Varieties and hybrids
Grade Specification

 

Dindigul, Coimbatore, Virudhunagar, Theni, Namakkal
Dindigul, Coimbatore, Anna fruit market, Koyambedu,
Chennai
Cricket ball, PKM 1, Kalipatti, PKM 4
Based on size and shape, large, medium and small

 

Papaya: Carica papaya L.; Caricaceae
Varieties: CO 2, CO 3 , CO 4, CO 5, CO 6, CO 7 and TNAU Papaya CO 8, CO 3 and CO 7 are gynodioecious (bisexual + female) types highly suitable for table purpose and CO 2, CO 5, CO 6 and CO 8 are dual-purpose varieties for table and papain production. ‘Red Lady’ is also being grown for commercial purposes.

Soil and Climate: It is a tropical fruit and grows well in regions where summer temperature ranges from 35o C – 38o C. Tolerates frost and comes up to an elevation of 1200 m. Well drained soils of uniform texture are preferable. If drainage is not adequate, collar - rot disease may occur.

Sowing: 500 g of seeds is required for planting one ha. June - September is the best season for planting. Avoid planting in rainy season.
Nursery: Treat the seeds with Captan @ 2 g / kg of seeds. Dibble 5-6 seeds in dioecious varieties and 3-4 seeds in gynodioecious varieties in polythene bags at a depth not exceeding one cm. Raise the seedlings in a protected structure to avoid Papaya Ring Spot Virus incidence. Provide partial shade. Water the bags in rose can. Seedlings will be ready in about 60 days. Planting: Plant the seedlings at 1.8 m either ways in pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm size. Avoid planting in severe summer as well as in peak rainy season. Avoid water stagnation in the basin. Irrigation: Irrigate copiously after planting. Irrigate the field once in a week. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 10 kg / plant as basal. Apply 50 g in each of N, P and K per plant at bi-monthly intervals from the third month of planting after removing unwanted sex forms. Apply 20 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium at planting, again six months after planting.

Fertigation technique
Apply 10 litres of water per day + 13.5 g urea and 10.5 g muriate of potash / week through drip irrigation and soil application of super phosphate 300 g per plant at bimonthly intervals starting from 3-4 months after planting immediately after thinning of plants is recommended. After cultivation: Male trees should be removed after the emergence of inflorescence maintaining one male tree for every 20 female trees for proper fruit-set. In each pit only one vigorously growing female / hermaphrodite tree should be retained and other plants should be removed. In gynodioecious type like (CO 3, & CO 7) keep one hermophrodite type / pit and remove female trees.

Micronutrients: Spray 0.5% Zinc sulphate and 0.1% Boric acid at 4th and 8th MAP to improve growth and yield.

 

 
Plant protection
Nematodes: To control in the nursery, apply Carbofuran 3 G @ 1 g / polythene bag after germination. Apply Neemcake @ 250 g per plant + Carbofuran 3G 1 g a.i / plant + P. fluorescens @ 4 g / plant to minimize reniform nematode population.

Diseases
Root rot and wilt: In water stagnated areas root-rot may appear. It is advisable to drench the soil with 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Metalaxyl @ 0.2% 2 or 4 times at fortnightly intervals. Good drainage is vital.

Papaya ringspot virus disease: Raise papaya seedlings in insect proof net house. Grow two rows of border crop of maize one month before transplanting of seedlings. Apply FYM @10 kg / plant. For vector management, spray Dimethoate @1.5 ml / lit at monthly intervals up to 5 months after planting followed by Zinc sulphate(0.5%)+ Boran 0.1% at 4th and 7th month. Crop duration: 24 – 30 months.

Harvest: Fruits should be picked at colour break stage.
Yield: The average yield is as follows
CO 2 : 200 - 250 t / ha
CO 3 : 100 - 120 t / ha
CO 5 : 200 - 250 t / ha
CO 6 : 120 - 160 t / ha
CO 7: 200 - 225 t / ha
CO 8: 220 - 230 t / ha
Papain extraction: Papain has several industrial uses, the important one being in brewing industries. It is used as “meat tenderiser” and in textile and leather “sanforization” processes and drugs.The method of extraction of papain from papaya fruits is simple. The latex should be tapped from immature papaya fruits. Select 75 to 90 days old fruits. On the selected fruit, give incisions (cut) with a razor blade or stainless steel knife. The cuts should be given from stalk to tip of the fruit. The depth of the cut should not be more than 0.3 cm. Four such cuts are given spaced equally on the fruit surface. Tap the latex early in the morning and complete the tapping before 10.00 a.m. Repeat the tapping four times on the same fruit at an interval of three days. The cut should be given on the fruit surface in places not covered by previous cuts. The latex collected from all the trees in a day should be pooled, shade dried in an aluminium pan or tray and passed through a 50 mesh sieve to remove all foreign matter. In large plantations, vacuum driers can be adopted with advantage. Papain produced by artificial heating will have better colour and high quality. Add Potassium meta-bi-sulphite (KMS) at 0.5 % for better colour and keeping quality. The latex should be dried very rapidly at temperatures of 50 to 55oC. Stop drying when the dried product comes off as flakes having a porous texture. Powder the dried papain by means of wooden mallets or in electrically operated granulators and sieves the powder through 10 mesh sieve. Pack the powder in polythene bags in convenient quantities and seal them. Put the sealed bags in a tin container and seal it after evacuating air. Exposure to air deteriorates the quality of papain and vacuum sealing is therefore necessary. For large scale manufacture of papain, vacuum sealing machine and a granulator will be useful.The green papaya fruits after extraction of papain can be used for pectin manufacture and “tuity fruity” or they can be allowed to ripen and made into other products. The CO 2, CO 5 and CO 8 varieties of papaya released by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore are ideal for papain production.  

 

Yield: The yield of crude papain is as follows: CO 2: 600 kg / ha, CO 5 & CO 8: 800 kg / ha. Seed Technology
Germination improvement: Store the seeds in airtight containers. Soak t h e seeds in 100 ppm GA3 for 16 hours or in 2% fresh leaf extract of arappu or 1% pungam leaf extract or pellet the seeds with arappu leaf powder.

Optimum depth of sowing: Sow seeds at 1 cm depth for better germination and seedling growth.
Grading: BSS 6 wire mesh sieve.
Storage: Dry seeds to 8-10% moisture and treat with halogen mixture containing CaOCl2, CaCO3 and arappu leaf powder (at 5:4:1 ratio) @ 3 g / kg and pack in cloth bag to maintain viability upto 5 months.

Invigoration of old seeds
Stored seeds can be invigorated by soaking them in dilute solution of disodium phosphate (10-4 M) adopting 1:8 seed to solution ratio for 4 hours followed by drying back to original moisture content.

 

 

Pomegranate: Punica granatum L.; Punicaceae
Varieties: Jyothi, Ganesh, Araktha, Rudhra, Mirudhula, Bhagwa, Ruby. Soil and Climate: It is grown in a wide range of soils; drought resistant and tolerant to salinity and alkalinity. Cool winter and dry summer are necessary for p r o d u c t i o n of high quality fruits. It performs well upto 1800 m elevation.

Planting: Rooted cuttings or layers of 12 to 18 months age can be planted during June to December in pits of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm at 2.5 to 3 m spacing either way. Irrigation: Copious irrigation is essential during fruiting season. Application of fertilizers (kg / plant)

Manures and
Fertilizers

1st year
(kg)

2nd to 5th year
(kg)
20.00

6th year onwards
(kg)

FYM

10.00

30.00

N

0.20

0.40

0.60

P
K

0.10
0.40

0.25
0.80

0.50
1.200

Training and pruning: Fruits are borne terminally on shoot emerging f r o m mature wood. To promote new shoots on all sides annual pruning is done after harvest is completed during December by shortening of past season shoot by removing one third of the shoot. Besides, dried, diseased and criss-cross branches and root suckers are removed. The tree is trained to get a single stem upto 60 cm with 3 or 4 scaffold branches. Thinning of flower clusters ensures better size of the fruit. Spraying liquid paraffin at 1 % concentration at 15 days interval twice during June reduces fruit cracking.

Plant protection
Pests
Aphids:
Release of first instar larvae of green lace wing predator Chrysopherla carnea @ 50 grubs/flowering branch four times at 10 days interval starting from flower initiation during April. Fruit Borer:

 Remove calyx to discourage egg laying wherever possible
 Cover fruits with neem oil dipped cloth bags during flowering period to prevent egg-laying when the fruits are upto 5 cm diameter.
 Spray neem oil 3 % or NSKE 5% or spinosad @ 0.4 ml/lit at the time of butterfly activity. Repeat it if necessary twice at an interval of 15 days.
 Adopt ETL (5 eggs/plant with bearing capacity of 60 fruits)  When the fruits are in marble stage, release T. chilonis @ 1 lakh/acre Scales: Spray quinalphos 25 EC @ 2.5 ml per lit. of water
Yield: 20-25 t / ha / year.

 

 
Market information
Growing Districts
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred Varieties and Hybrids
Grade Specification

 

Dindigul, Erode, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli
Coimbatore, Chennai
Bhagwa, Ruby (IIHR)
Size, Shape , Colour, Softness of seeds

 

Jack: Artocarpus heterophyllus; Moraceae
Varieties: Velipala, Singapore, Hybrid jack, Panruti selection, Thanjavur jack, Burliar 1, PLR 1 and PLR (J) 2 and PPI 1.
Soil and Climate: Deep well drained soil is necessary. Soil pH around 5.5 at the time of planting is desirable. Otherwise treat the soil with 1% Aluminium sulphate in the pit to reduce the pH. Comes up well in the plains and upto an elevation of 1200 m. Propagation

Soft wood grafting: Large scale propagation of jack can be done by cleft grafting during July - August on 4 month old seedling rootstock
Preparation of field and planting: Dig pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m in size. Fill up the pits with top soil mixed with 10 kg of FYM and 1 kg of Neem cake per pit. Apply Lindane 1.3% @ 100 g / pit and mix it thoroughly. Plant preferably grafts during June – December at 8 x 8 m spacing. Irrigation: Once in a week till the plant is established. Thereafter irrigate as and when necessary. Manures and Fertilizers: To be applied in two splits during May - June and September - October. Sl. No

1
2
3
4

Manures &
Fertilizers
FYM
N
P
K

1 year old
(kg)
10.00
0.15
0.08
0.10

Annual Increase
(kg)
10.00
0.15
0.08
0.10

6th year and
above (kg)
50.00
0.75
0.40
0.50

Plant protection
Pest
Fruit borer: Apply Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g / lit.
Spittle bug: Spray Methyl parathion 50 EC @ 2 ml / lit or Methyl demeton 25 EC @ 2 ml / lit Phosphamidon 40 SL @ 2 ml / lit or Dust Methyl parathion 2 D or Quinalphos dust 1.5 D. Diseases
Rhizopus rot: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Copper oxychloride 2.5 g / lit three sprays at 15 days interval.
Harvest: Yield commences from 5th year in grafts and 8th year in seedling trees. Harvest during March-July.
Yield: 30-40 t / ha.
Market information
Growing Districts
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred Varieties and Hybrids

 

Cuddalore, Kanyakumari, Dindigul, Pudukottai,
Namakkal, Tirunelveli, Nilgiris
Panruti, Coimbatore
PLR 1 and Local

 

Ber: Zizyphus mauritiana Lam; Rhamnaceae
Varieties: Kaithali, Umran, Gola and Banarasi.
Soil and Climate: The ber plant comes under arid and semi-arid situation. Tolerates salinity and alkalinity.
Planting material: Budded plants.
Planting: Plant during July - August with a spacing of 7 x 7 m in pits of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm. 8 x 3 m for Kaithali and 8 x 4 m for Banarasi.
Irrigation: Irrigate the plants initially for establishment. Provide 5 % slope towards the base of the tree for in situ water harvesting.
Manures and fertilizers (kg / plant / year)

20.00

2nd year onwards
(kg)
50.00

N

0.20

0.50

P

0.10

0.20

K

0.20

0.50

Manures and
Fertilizers
FYM

1st year (kg)

Manuring to be given immediately after pruning. Spray 2% KNO3 January, February and March.

thrice at monthly intervals in

Training and Pruning: Remove the root stock sprouts and have a straight stem upto 75 cm from the ground level. It is very important in the early years to build up a strong framework and in later years to maintain vigour to improve fruit size and quality. During February - March prune and thin the crowded branches to provide maximum fruit bearing area in the tree. Plant protection

Pests
Fruit fly: Destroy infested fruits.
Use polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal + 1 ml. dichlorvos in cotton. 50 traps are required/ha, fish meal + dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

.Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based
Scale insects:
During pruning all the affected materials should be collected and burnt. Spray quinalphos 25 EC @ 2.5 ml /lit of water
Leaf hopper: Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC @1.5 ml per litre of water

 

 
Diseases
Black leaf spot: Spray Carbendazim 1 g / lit or Chlorothalonil 2 g / lit or Propiconazole or Difenconazole 1 g / lit twice at 15 days interval from the initial appearance of the symptom. Powdery mildew: Spray Dinocap 1 ml / litre

Yield: 70 - 80 kg of fruits / tree / year
Seed Technology: Seeds of Ber attain physiological maturity 13 weeks after anthesis. It is indicated by yellowish red colour of fruit pericarp. Stones can be size graded using 22 / 64" round perforated metal sieve. Ber stones can be stored upto 30 months without any treatment under ambient conditions.

 

 

Amla: Phyllanthus emblica; Euphorbiaceae
Varieties: Banarasi, NA 7, Krishna, Kanchan, Chakaiya, BSR 1 Soil and Climate: Amla is a sub tropical plant and prefers dry climate. Hardy plant, it can be grown in variable soil conditions. Tolerates salinity and alkalinity. Planting material: Seedlings, Grafts, Buddings

Planting: Plant during July - August with a spacing of 6 m x 6 m in pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m or 1.25 m x 1.25 m x 1.25 m.
Irrigation: Irrigate the plants initially for establishment. No irrigation is required during rainy and winter season. Drip irrigation is appropriate with water saving of 40-45%. Manures and fertilizers (kg / plant / year)

Manures and Fertilizers

Bearing tree (kg)

FYM

10.00

N

0.20

P

0.50

K
0.20
Manuring to be given immediately after pruning.
Training and Pruning: The main branches should be allowed to appear at a height of 0.75-1 m above the ground level. Plants should be trained to modified central leader system. Two to four branches with wide crotch angle, appearing in the opposite directions should be encouraged in early years. During March – April, prune and thin the crowded branches to provide maximum fruit bearing area in the tree.

Plant protection
Pests
Gall caterpillar:
Young caterpillars bore into the apical portion of the shoot during rainy season and make tunnel. Due to this, apical regrowth is checked, side shoots develop below the gall and subsequent growth in following season is greatly hampered. Cut the infected apices Bark eating caterpillar:

Damages the stem and branches of grown up trees by eating bark. Affected portion should be cleared and a few drops of kerosene should be applied in holes to keep this in control. Disease
Rust: Rust appear as circular reddish solitary or gregarious pustules on leaves and also on fruits. Spray 0.2 per cent Mancozeb at an interval of 7 to 28 days during July to September Yield: 100 kg / tree annually

Market information
Growing Districts
Tirunelveli, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Thoothukudi
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu
Koyambedu market, Chennai, Ottanchathiram
Preferred Varieties and Hybrids
BSR 1, NA-7
 

 

Chapter B
Temperate Fruits
Apple: Malus sylvestris; Rosaceae
Varieties: Warm winter resistant varieties with low chilling requirements alone are suitable to the hills of Tamil Nadu.
Early varieties: Irish Peach and Zouches Pipin.
Yield: April – May.
Mid season varieties: Carrington and Winterstein.
Yield: June – July.
Late varieties: Rome Beauty, Parlin’s Beauty and KKL 1.
Yield: August – September.
Soil and Climate: Red lateritic soils with good drainage and high organic matter are more suitable. The soil pH should be around 5.8 to 6.2. Can be grown from 1200 to 2000 m. Planting material: One year old grafts on M.778 and M.779 rootstocks during June – July. Season: June to December.

Spacing: 4 x 4 m in pits of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm.
Irrigation: Water the plants till establishment.
Application of fertilizer: Apply FYM 25 kg. N 500 g and 1 kg in each of P and K per bearing tree.
Training and Pruning: The tree is trained to open center system. Prune the tree every December – January.
Plant Protection
Pests
Wooly aphids:
Use resistant rootstalks M 778, M 799, MM 104, MM 110, MM 112, MM 113, MM 114 and MM115.
The parasite Aphelinus mali and the coccinellid predators should be conserved in the field. Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 166 g/tree or phorate 10 % G @ 100 g/tree or spray any one of the following insecticide

Insecticide
Dose
Chlorpyrifos 20%EC
2.5 ml/lit.
Malathion 50%EC
1.0 ml/lit.
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25% EC 1.0 ml/lit.
Quinalphos 25%EC
2.0 ml/lit.
Disease
Apple scab: To control apple scabs follow the spray schedule: 1. Silver tip to green tip
: Captafol or Mancozeb or 2 g / lit.
2. Pink bud or after 15 days : Mancozeb 2 g / lit.
3. Petal fall
: Carbendazim 0.5 g / lit.
4. 10 days after petal fall
: Mancozeb 2 g / lit.
5. 14 days after fruit set
: Captafol 2 g / lit.
 

 

Add stickers like Triton AE or Teepol at 10 ml / 10 lit of spray fluid. Use low volume sprayers. Lichens: Spray quick lime 1 kg / 20 lit of water after pruning to control lichens growth. Yield: 10 – 20 kg / tree / year. The tree starts bearing from 4th year of planting.

 

 

Pear: Pyrus communis L.; Rosaceae
Varieties: Common pear, Kieffer, New Pear, William and Jargonelle. Soil and Climate: Red laterite soil with good drainage and high organic matter content. Can be grown at an elevation of above 1200 m. pH 5.8 to 6.2.

Planting material: Plant one year old grafts / rooted cuttings. Planting season: June - December.
Spacing: 5 x 5 m or 6 x 6 m in pits of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm in size. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 25 kg, N 500 g and 1 kg in each of P and K per bearing tree / year.
Training and Pruning: Remove stock sprouts regularly. Train the plants to open centre system and prune every year in November - December. Top working on country pear with choice varieties can be done during December - January with cleft grafting.

Plant protection: Prophylactic spraying with methyl demeton after pruning can be given. Harvest: Early varieties will come to harvest in May – June and late varieties in July – October. Yield: 100 to 120 kg per tree per year in common pear, 70 to 80 kg per tree per year in Kieffer and New Pear and 30 to 40 kg per tree per year in William and Jargonelle.

 

 

Plum: Prunus salicina L. ; Rosaceae
Varieties
Early: Rubio.
Mid - season: Hale, Gaviota and Abundance.
(June – July)
Late: Shiro, Kelsey and Satsuma. Hale has to be planted along with other varieties to enhance pollination and fruit set (July – August).
Soil and Climate: Red lateritic soil with good drainage. The soil pH should be around 5.8 to 6.2 and rich in organic matter. Can be grown above 1200 m elevation. Planting material: One year old budded plants may be planted during June - July or October December with a spacing of 4 x 4 m in pits of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm in size. Planting season: June - November.

Application of fertilizer: Apply FYM 30 kg and 500 g of N and 1 kg in each of P and K for bearing tree during October – November.
Training and Pruning: The growing points tipped at a height of 50 – 60 cm to allow the side shoots to develop. Train to open centre system. Prune the trees during December – January. Dried, dead, diseased water shoots and criss-cross branches are removed. Plant protection

Pests
Fruit fly: Set up methyl eugenol 1 % trap with malathion 50 EC 1 ml/lit between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m. Use polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal + 1 ml. dichlorvos in cotton. 50 traps are required/ha, fish meal + dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based
Yield: 25 – 30 kg / tree / year.

 

 

Peach: Prunus persica; Rosaceae
Varieties
Early: Floridasun.
(April – May)
Mid season: Shaw Pasand.
(June – July)
Late: Red Shanghai.
(July – August)
Soil and Climate: Red lateritic soil with good drainage and high organic matter is suitable. Grown at an elevation of 2000 m. Soil pH should be around 5.8 to 6.2. Planting material: One year old budded plants.

Planting season: June – December.
Spacing: 4 x 4 m in pits of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm.
Manures and Fertilizers: Apply FYM 25 kg. N 500 g and 1 kg in each of P and K per bearing tree.
Training and Pruning: Train to open centre system. The trees are pruned annually during December – January. Dried, diseased, water shoots and criss-cross branches may be removed. Plant protection
Lichens: Against lichens growth, spray 1 kg of quick lime / 20 lit of water immediately after pruning.
Pest
Fruit Fly: Set up methyl eugenol 1 % trap with malathion 50 EC @ 2 ml/lit between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m.
Use polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal + 1 ml. dichlorvos in cotton. 50 traps are required/ha, fish meal + dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

.Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based
Leaf curl aphids
Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 33 kg /ha or spray Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC @ 1.0 ml per litre of water
Diseases
Leaf curl: To control aphids spray Methyl dimeton 25 EC @ 2 ml / lit. Powdery mildew: Spray Carbendazim @ 0.5 g / lit or use Sulphur dust @ 25 kg / ha. Yield: 10 – 15 kg / tree / year. 
 

 

 

 

Chapter C

Minor Fruits
Name of fruit
with
Botanical
Name

Varieties

Method of
propagation

Spacing

1

2

3

4

Mangosteen
(Garcinia
mangostana)

Straw berry
(Fragaria
vesca)

Seedlings

Phenomenal, Majestic,
Runners/
Chandler,
Slips
Labella,
Sujatha,
Winter,
Sweet
charley

Passion fruit Purple for
(Passiflora
hills, yellow
edulis Sims.) for plains
cavery

Rooted
cuttings or
seedlings

 
 

 

 

7 x7 m

Manure and
fertilizers

After
cultivation
(Spl.
practices if
any)

Plant
protection

Harvest

Yield

Remarks

5

6

7

8

9

10

FYM, 75 kg N
: 1 kg P : 0.8 Potting of
kg & K : 3.0 plants at two
Kg/treeJune - leaf stage
July.

-

April – June
August October

500 600 fruits /
tree

-

Spray Methyl
demeton
FYM : 3kg/m²
against
N:8gP:8g
Removal of
mealy bugs
and K:8
flower buds
40 x 25
Harvest at
and aphids.
1 kg/m² or 10
g/plant, apply till Jan.
cm(double
three months
Spray
t/ha
row planting) during
after planting
Mulching with
Copper
October and dry grass
fungicides
February
against leaf
diseases

2 x2 m

Spray Methyl
FYM 10 kg, N
demeton
May 20 g, P 20 g Tying vine on
against
trellies
September
and K 15
mealy bug
g/plant
and aphids

60 - 80
fruits/vine

Train on
trellies or
pandal.

 
Name of fruit
with Botanical
Name

Litchi (Litchi
chinensis
Sonner.)

Bilimbi
(Averrhoa
bilimbi)

Varieties

Muzafarpur,
Dehradun,
Calcutta,
seedless
late and
Rose
scented
Cauvery
Swuarna
roopa

Method of
propagation

Seedlings /
Budded
plants/layers

Spacing

10 x 10 m

-

Seedlings

-

Carambola
(Averrhoa
carambola)

Sour and
sweet

Seedlings

-

Karonda
(Carissa
caranda)

Green, pink, Seedlings &
white
layers

Loquat
(Eriobotrya
japonica)

 
 

Mammoth,
Safed batia,
Golden red,
Tanaka,
California,
Advance,
Pale yellow,
Golden
yellow

Seedlings /
Rooted
cuttings /
Grafts /
Buddings

2 x2 m

-

After
cultivation
(Spl.
practices if
any)

Manure and
fertilizers

FYM : 60 kg,
N:100 g, P:40 g
and K:400
g for 10 year old
tree. Apply N in
two split
doses in Feb.
& April. FYM, P
and K to
be applied in
Dec.
N : 80 gP :
50 gK : 100 g/
bearing
tree/year
N : 100 g,P :
50 g andK :
100 g/Plant
FYM : 10 kg/
plant

N : 50 g,P :
30 g,K : 150
g and Ca : 40 g
per tree

Plant
protection

Harvest

Yield

For Zinc
deficiency
spray Zinc
sulphate
(0.5%)

Spray dicofol
18.5 EC 2.5
ml/lit against Harvest from
mites. Use
6th year
fumigants
onwards
against bark
borers

-

-

-

50 kg/tree

-

-

-

-

Irrigation
weekly

-

Aug-Sep

2 to 4
kg/tree

-

-

Yield after
third year

Remarks

80 100
kg/tree

40 kg/tree

-

-

-

 

Name of fruit
with
Botanical
Name

Jamun
(Eugenia
jambolana)

Varieties

Local,
Seedless,
large

Method of
propagation

Seedlings/
grafts

Spacing

10 x 10 m

After
cultivation
(Spl.
practices if
any)

Manure and
fertilizers

FYM : 20 kg,
N : 100 g,
P : 100 g and
K : 100 g/tree

Plant
protection

Harvest

Yield 8 - 10
100 g
years after
Lindane 1.3
planting,
D pit against
harvest in
white ants
June - July

Pruning at
one m height;
dormant
during Dec Jan. Irrigation once in 7
to 10 days in
summer

2 x2 m

N : 50 g, P :
20 g andK :
50 g/plant

Mulberry
Black
(Morus nigra) mulberry

Seedlings /
Rooted
cuttings /
Budlings

Pits by0.5 x
0.5 mat 7 m
apart

FYM : or Tank
silt10 kg,
Pruning in
N:50g, P:50 December g and K:50 g January
per plant

-

West
IndianCherry
(Malphigia
punicifolia)

Seedlings/
grafts / layers
2 x2 m
/ rooted
cuttings

FYM 10 kg,
N:200 g,P:50 Training and
g and K:100 pruning
g/tree

Spray Methyl
demeton 2
Harvest in
ml/lit against
Dec-Jan
mealy bugs
and aphids

-

-

 
 

 

 

50 - 80
kg/tree

Remarks

-

Yield in third
year pick ripe 2 - 3 kg/bush,
fruits on
fruits mature alternate
by May, June
days

Seedlings /
Rooted
Cuttings /
layers

Phalsa
(Grewia
asiatica)

Yield

-

4 - 8 kg/tree

-

10 - 15
kg/tree

-

 
Name of fruit
with
Botanical
Name

Annona
(Annona
squamosa;)
(A.cherim
noya;
A.reticulata)

Varieties

Balanagar,
Mammoth,
Atemoya,
APK-1

Method of
propagation

Seedlings
/ grafts

Malta,
Nepali
oblong,
Nepali
round,
Rajamundry,
Lemon (Citrus
Lisbon,
Layers
limon)
Willafranka,
Italin, Eureka,
Seedless,
Seville Mayor

 

Spacing

5 x5 m

5 x5 m

Manure and
fertilizers

After
cultivation
(Spl.
practices if
any)

Plant
protection

Harvest

Yield

FYM : 10 kg,
neem cake
one kg, BHC
10 % 100 g,
N:250 g,
P:125 g and
K:250
g/treeApply
30 gm each
of
Azotobacter,
VAM,
Azospirillum,
Phosphobacteria and
50% of
125:65:125 g
N, P2O5,
K2O per tree.

-

Yield after 4 - 80 - 100
Nos./tree
5 years

FYM:30 kg N
400 g, P :
200 g and K :
300 g/tree
twice in a
year

Spraying
Zinc,
Manganese,
Iron,
Magnesium
at 0.125 %

Harvest 1 1/2
to 2 years
50 kg/tree
after planting

Remarks

-

-

 
Name of fruit
with
Botanical
Name
Rambutan
(Nephelium
lappaceum)

Varieties

-

Method of
propagation

Spacing

Avocado
(Persea
americana)

Fig (Ficus
carica)

Capri fig,
Smyrna fig,
White San
Pedro

Inarching,
soft wood
grafting or
budding on
own root
stock

Cuttings

 
 

 

 

Manure and
fertilizers

Plant
protection

Harvest

Yield

Remarks

-

Crops are
obtained in
September
and
December

10-20 kgs of fruits per tree.

N - 38.3P 8.2K - 20.9
kg/ha(bearing
tree)

Dieldrin at
0.3-0.5% to
control hawk
moth.

August September

40-50 fruits
per tree

-

5 x5 m

40-45 kg
FYM1 kg
urea1kg
Super
phosphate

-

-

AugustSeptember

200-300
fruits/tree

-

4 x4 m

36 kg
FYM2.25 kg
Neem
cake680 g
sulphate of
Ammonia

-

Phospotoxin
1 tablet /hole
to control
stem borerTo
control fig
rust spray
bordeaux
mixture

Layering and
inarching on
7 x 10 m
own root
stock

Seeds,
Inarching on
its own root
Specific
Durian (Durio varieties are stock as well 10 x 10m,
as on
not
zebethinus)
12x 12 m
seedling of
available
Cullenia
excelsa
TKD-1
Pollock,Fuerte and
Peradenia
Purple
Hybrid

After
cultivation
(Spl.
practices if
any)

-

-

10-12 kg/tree

-

 
Name of fruit
with Botanical
Name
Persimmon
(Diospyros
kaki)
Kiwi
(Actinidia
delicious)

Varieties

Dai Dai
Maru,
Tanenashi,
Martoria
Abbott,
Allison,
Bruno,
Hayward,
Monty,
Tomuri

After
cultivation
Manure and
Plan
Method of
Spacing
(Spl.
propagation
t
fertilizers
practices if
protec
any)
tion
Inarching on 5 x 5 m
Tipping past
its own
season shoots
rootstock
annually in
December
T baror Pergola
20 kg FYM
system of
basal
training
dose,0.5 kg
NPK mixture .Pruning in
containing 15 winter for 4-5
Stem
6 x 6m
% N is applied fruiting
cuttings
each year. Afte shoots at 4-5
years,N- 850- bud interval
900gP - 500- between 2
600gK- 800- such shoots
900g/vine

Apricot
(Prunus
americana)

Alfred, Baiti, Grafting or
Beladi
budding

Bread fruit
(Artocarpus
incise)

-

Egg fruit (Pouteria
campechian- a) -

 

6 x6m

Trained to
40 kg FYMN- open vase and
500gP2O5- modified
250gK- 200g leader
system25-30
% thinning of
old shoots or
1/3rd hedding

25 kg FYM7:
Rootcuttings10 : 5 NPK
.Air layeing
10 x 10 m
mixure @ 1-2
kg/plant

Seeds,
grafting,
budding

6 x 6m

-

-

-

Spray
Bordea
ux
mixture
1%
to control
-

Harvest

-

Yield

20-25 kg
/tree

Harvest from
50-100kg
5th year
/vine
onward
s

Harvest from
50-80 kg /
7th year
tree
onward
s

Remark
s
-

-

-

Harvest from
3rd year
500-2000
onwardsFeb fruits/
-- Mar-June- tree
Au- gust

-

Harvest from
300-400
3-4 year
fruits/tree
onwards

-

 

Part II
Vegetables
Chapter A

Fruit vegetables
Tomato: Solanum lycopersicum L.; Solanaceae
Varieties
PKM 1, CO 3 (Marutham) and Paiyur 1
Hybrids
COTH 2 and TNAU Tomato Hybrid CO 3
Soil
Well drained loamy soil rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6.5 - 7.5. Season of sowing
May - June and November - December
Nursery bed preparation
Apply FYM 10 kg, Neemcake 1 kg, VAM 50 g, enriched Superphosphate 100 g and Furadon 10 g per square metre before sowing.
Seed rate
Varieties
Hybrids

: 300-350 g / ha
: 100-150 g / ha

Seed treatment
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g or Carbendazim 2 g per kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing. Just before sowing, treat the seeds with Azospirillum @ 40 g / 400 g of seeds. Sow in lines at 10 cm apart in raised nursery beds and cover with sand.

Protected nursery
 Prepare the nursery area of 3 cents with slanting slope of 2 % for the seedling production to cover 1 ha.
 Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net.
 Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at 2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months.  Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with 5 kg neem cake along with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg. Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling one protray. 238 protrays (98 cells) are required for the production of 23,334 seedlings, which are required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 60 cm in paired row system.

 

 
 Sow the treated seed in protrays @ one seed per cell.
 Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts
 After six days, place the protrays with germinated seeds individually on the raised beds inside the shade net
 Water with rosecan everyday and drench with NPK 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days after sowing
Field preparation
Plough the land to fine tilth. Thoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant 25 days old seedlings on the sides of ridges. Life irrigation to be given on 3rd day of planting. Spacing for varieties

PKM 1, Paiyur 1, COTH 2, TNAU Tomato Hybrid CO 3
CO 3

: 60 x 45 cm
: 45 x 30 cm

Mulching
Mulch with black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm
Weed control
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i / ha as pre-emergence herbicide, followed by hand weeding once at 30 days after planting. Irrigation
After establishment of seedlings, irrigate at weekly intervals. Layout and planting for drip irrigation & fertigation
 Apply FYM @ 25 t / ha as basal before last ploughing.
 Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM.  Apply 75 % total recommended dose of superphosphate ie 1172 kg / ha as basal.  Install the drip irrigation with main and sub main pipes and place lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m.

 Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
 Form raised beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.
 Before planting, wet the beds using drip system for 8-12 hrs.  Planting to be done at a spacing of 90 x 60 x 60 cm in the paired row system, using ropes marked at 60 cm spacing.
 Spray Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i / ha as pre-emergence herbicide at 3rd day after planting.
 Gap filling has to be done at 7th day after transplanting.

 

 
Manuring
Varieties
Basal dose

: FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 75:100:50 kg / ha
Borax 10 kg and Zinc sulphate 50 kg / ha
: 75 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting or during earthing up.

Top dressing
Hybrids
Basal dose

: FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 50:250:100 kg/ha
Borax 10 kg and Zinc sulphate 50 kg/ha
: N and K each 150 kg/ha in 3 equal splits at 30, 45 and 60
days
after planting.

Top dressing

Fertigation schedule for tomato hybrids
Recommended dose: 200:250: 250 kg / ha
Stage

Crop stage

Duration
in days

Fertilizer
grade

Total
Fertilizer
(kg/ha)

19:19:19
13:0:45
Urea
(46%N)

65.78
27.77
8.44

12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea
(46%N)

40.98
222.22
100.27

19:19:19
13.0:45
Urea
(46%N)

65.78
138.88
63.90

Nutrient applied
N

P

% of requirement
K

Flower
initiation
flowering

2.

Flowering
fruit set

3.

10

to

30

to

30

Alternate day
from picking

4.

80

12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea
(46%N)

12.50
12.50
-

19.99

12.50

4.92
28.89
46.12

25.00
-

100.00
-

25.00
12.50
-

12.50
62.50
-

12.50

75.00

2.46
14.44
23.06
39.96

12.50
12.50
62.50

10.00

5.00

10.00

40.00

10.00

40.00

30.00

5.00

30.00

50.00
50.00

20.00

5.00

20.00

250.00

100

25

100

75% of RD of P applied as superphosphate as basal application= 1172 kg/ha 1.

=

132 kg / ha

2.

12:61:0

=

62 kg / ha

3.

13:0:45

=

500 kg / ha

4.

 

19:19:19

Urea

=

223 kg / ha

K

100.00

12.50
18.05
29.39

P

25.00

79.93

20.49
111.11
50.14

12.50
-

199.82
or
200.00

1.

12.50
3.61
3.88

59.94

Transplanting
to
plant
establishment
stage

N

 
Growth regulators
 Spray 1.25 ppm (625 ml in 500 litres of water) Triacontanol at 15 days after transplanting and at full bloom stage to increase the yield.
Training of hybrids
 Stake the plants 30 days after planting with 1 - 1.5 m tall stakes.  Remove the side branches up to 20 cm from ground level.
Micronutrient spray
 Foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.5 per cent thrice at 10 days interval from 40 days after planting.
 Spray 19:19:19 + Mn @ 1 % at 60 days after planting.
Protected cultivation
Production practices for cultivation of tomato under shade net During summer, the hybrid tomato can be grown in a shade level of 35 per cent under paired row planting system (80 x 40 x 60 cm - between pairs, rows and plants) with a basal application of 50 kg each of N and K and 250 kg of P / ha and fertigation of 200 kg each of N and K through straight fertilizers.

Protected cultivation of tomato in polyhouse
During rainy season, the indeterminate tomato hybrid has to be grown in the medium consisting of FYM : composted coir pith: sand (2:1:1) with irrigation regime of 20kPa and basal application of 50kg each of NPK/ha as straight fertilizers and 250 kg each of NPK as water soluble and straight fertilizers through fertigation along with black polyethylene mulch (50 microns)

Plant protection
Pests
Fruit borer: Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (common for both)  Grow simultaneously 40 days old American tall marigold and 25 days old tomato seedlings @ 1:16 rows.
 Set up pheromone traps @ 12/ha.
 Collect and destroy damaged fruits and grown up caterpillars.  Release Trichogramma pretiosum @ 1 lakh. /ha/release at an interval of 7 days starting from flower initiation stage.
 Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 50,000/ha/ release, coinciding with flowering time and based on ETL of 10% damage.
 For Helicoverpa armigera: H.a.NPV 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha ie NPV of H. armigera 0.43% AS @ 3.0 ml/l or 2 % AS @ 1.0 ml per l
 For Spodoptera litura: S.l. NPV 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha.
 Provide poison bait with carbaryl 50 WP 1.25 kg, rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 l/ha.
 Spray Bacillus thuringiensis 2g/l or any one of the following insecticide.

 

 
Insecticide
Azadirachtin 1.0 % EC (10000 ppm)
Indoxacarb 14.5 % SC
Flubendiamide 20 WG
Flubendiamide 480 SC
Novaluron 10 % EC
Phosalone 35 % EC
Quinalphos 20 % AF
Quinalphos 25 % EC

Dose
2.0 ml/ l
8 ml/10 l
5 g/10 l
2.5 ml/10 l
7.5 ml/10 .
13 ml/10 l
1.5 ml/ l
1.0 ml/ l

Serpentine leaf miner
Spray Neem Seed Kernel Extract 5 %.

Whitefly
1. Install yellow sticky traps @ 12 /ha to attract the adult. 2. Remove alternate weed host Abutilon indicum
3. Apply carbofuran 3 G @ 40 kg /ha or spray any one of the following insecticides Insecticide
Dose
Dimethoate 30 % EC
1.0 ml/l.
Malathion 50 % EC
1.5 ml/ l.
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC
1.0 ml/ l.
Thiamethoxam 25 % WG
4.0 ml/10 l.
Nematode
Soil application of Bacillus subtilis (BbV 57) or Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed treatment @ 10 g/kg of seeds and soil application (SA) @ 2.5 kg / ha for the management root knot and reniform nematode infestation in soil and root.Application of liquid formulation of Bacillus subtilis (BbV 57) or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 1000 ml/ha through drip irrigation for the management of root knot nematode in tomato.

Diseases
Damping off (nursery): Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens through soil @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM. Avoid stagnation of water. Drench with Copper Oxychloride at 2.5 g/l @ 4 l/sq.m.

Leaf spot: Spray Zineb or Mancozeb @ 2 g/l.
Fusarial wilt and Root knot nematode: Soil solarization before preparation of nursery bed. Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens (PF) @ 10 g /kg of seed, followed by nursery application of Pf1@ 20 g/m2 and seedling dip with Pf1 @ 5g/l along with soil application of Pf1 @ 2.5 kg mixed with 50 kg FYM /ha at 30 days of transplanting. Leaf curl: Spray systemic insecticides like Methyl demeton or Dimethoate at 2 ml/l. to kill the insect vector, whitefly.

Tomato spotted wilt virus:
Carbofuran 3 G @ 33 kg/ha in nursery at sowing and second application @ 40 kg /ha on 10 days after transplanting in main field and 3 sprays of phosalone 35 EC @ 1.5 ml/lit @ 25, 40, 55 days after transplanting.

 

 
Peanut bud necrosis virus: Selection of healthy seedlings and rouging of PBNV infected plants up to 45 days of planting. Apply Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg a.i./ha in nursery at sowing and second application at 1.25 kg a.i./ha 10 days after transplanting in mainfield and 3 sprays of Dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/l or Methyl demeton 25 EC 1 ml/l or Phosphomidan 1.0 ml/l @ 25, 40 and 55 days after transplanting.

Duration
110- 115 days from transplanting (135 - 140 days from sowing) Yield
Varieties
: 30-40 t / ha
Hybrids
: 80-95 t / ha
Boom flower – N spray at 2ml / litre in three sprays – 30 days, 55 days and 75 days after planting increase the yield.

IPM Package for Tomato
 Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/kg of seeds  Nursery application with Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens  Application of Neem cake @ 250kg/ha
 Soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2.5kg/ha
 Selection of good and virus disease free seedlings for planting  Roguing out of virus infected plants upto 45 days of transplanting  Grow marigold as a border crop
 Set up Helicoverpa / Spodoptera pheromone traps @ 12 numbers / ha  Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 50000/ha
 Install yellow sticky traps
 Spraying Neem formulations (1%) / Neem seed kernel extract (5%)  

 

 

Brinjal: Solanum melongena L. ; Solanaceae
Varieties
CO 2, MDU 1, PKM 1, PLR 1, PLR (B) 2, KKM 1, PPI 1, Annamalai and TNAU Brinjal VRM 1, hybrids coBH 2.
Soil
Well drained soil rich in organic matter with pH of 6.5-7.5. Season of sowing
December – January and May – June
Nursery bed preparation
Apply FYM 10 kg, neem cake 1 kg, VAM 50 g, enriched super phosphate 100 g and furadon 10 g per square metre before sowing. Area required for raising seedling for planting 1.0 ha is 100 sq.m.
Seed rate
Varieties
Hybrids

: 400 g / ha
: 200 g / ha

Seed treatment
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g / kg of seed. Treat the seeds with Azospirillum @ 40 g / 400 g of seeds using rice gruel as adhesive. Irrigate with rose can. In raised nursery beds, sow the seeds in lines at 10 cm apart and cover with sand. Transplant the seedlings 30 – 35 days after sowing at 60 cm apart in the ridges.

Protected nursery
 Prepare the nursery area of 3 cents with slanting slope of 2 % for the seedling production to cover 1 ha.
 Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40 / 50 mesh insect proof nylon net.
 Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at 2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months.  Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with neem cake 5 kg along with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg. Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling one protray. 200 protrays are required for the production of 18,700 seedlings, which is required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 75 cm in paired row system.  Sow the treated seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell.

 Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts.
 After 6 days, place the protrays with germinated seeds individually on the raised beds inside the shade net.
 Water with rose-can everyday and drench with 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days after sowing.

 

 
Field preparation
Thoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t / ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg / ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg / ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant 30-35 days old seedlings at 60 cm apart on the ridges.

Spacing
Varieties

: 60 x 60 cm

Hybrids

: 90 x 60 cm

Mulching
Mulch with black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm.
Weed control
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i / ha as pre-emergence herbicide, followed by hand weeding once at 30 days after planting. Irrigation
After establishment of seedlings, irrigate at weekly intervals. Layout and planting for drip irrigation and fertigation
 Apply FYM @ 25 t / ha as basal dose before last ploughing.  Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM.  Apply 75 % total recommended dose of superphosphate i.e. 703 kg / ha as basal.  Install the drip irrigation with main and sub main pipes and place lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m.

 Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
 Form raised beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm and place the laterals at the centre of the each bed.
 Before planting, wet the beds using drip system for 8-12 hrs.  Planting to be done at a spacing of 90x60x75 cm in the paired row system, using ropes marked at 75 cm spacing.
 Spray Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i/ha as pre-emergence herbicide at 3rd day after planting.
 Gap filling to be done at 7th day after transplanting.
Manuring
Apply 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria in the mainfield at planting. Varieties
Basal dose
Top dressing

: FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 50:50:30 kg/ ha.
: 50 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting or during earthing up.

Hybrids
Basal dose
: FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 100:150:100 kg/ha.
Top dressing
: 100 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting or during earthing up. Fertigation schedule for hybrids
 

 
Recommended dose: 200:150: 100 kg / ha
Stage

Crop stage

Duration
in days

Fertilizer
grade

Total
Fertilizer
(kg/ha)

Nutrient applied

% of requirement

3.

30

Flower
initiation
to
first picking

Harvesting

4.

30

80

K

39.47

7.50

7.50

7.50

5.50
25.65
Subtotal
24.50
88.89
142.4

0.70
11.80
20.00
2.94
11.56
65.50

7.50
15.00
-

2.50
10.00
40.00
-

80.00

15.00

40.00

19:19:19
+MN
13.0:45
Urea

39.47

7.50

7.50

7.50

50.00
100.00
subtotal

6.50
46.00
60.00

7.50

22.50
30.00

12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea

12.30
44.40
71.13

1.48
5.80
32.72

7.50
-

subtotal

Vegetative
stage

2.

10

P

subtotal

Transplanting
to
plant
establishment
stage

1.

N

40.00
200.00

7.50
37.50

19:19:19
+MN
13:0:45
Urea
12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea

H

P

K

10.00

5.00

10.00

40.00

10.00

40.00

30.00

5.00

30.00

20.00
-

20.00
-

5.00

20.00

20.00
100.0
0

100

25

100

75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 703 kg / ha. 1. 19:19:19
=
79 kg / ha
2. 13:0:45
=
189 kg/ ha
3. 12:61:0
=
37 kg / ha
4. Urea
=
340 kg / ha
Growth regulators
Spray 2 ppm (1 ml in 500 lit) Triacontanol plus Sodium Borate or Borax 35 mg/l of water 15 days after transplanting and at the time of full bloom to increase the yield. After cultivation
Hand weeding, top dressing and earthing up on 30th day of planting. Plant protection
Pests
Epilachna beetle
1. Collect the beetles, grubs, pupae and destroy.
2. Spray any one of the following insecticide
Insecticide
Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP (300
ppm)
Quinalphos 20 % AF
Triazophos 40 % EC
 

Dose
5.0 g/lit.
1.7 ml/lit.
2.5 ml/lit.

 

Whitefly
Monitor the whitefly with yellow sticky trap @ 12/ha. Spray Neem oil 3% plus Teepol 1 ml/lit or spray Neem Seed Kernel Extract 5 % or spray any one of the following insecticides. .
Insecticide
Diafenthiuron 50 % WP
Phosphamidon 40 % SL
Thiamethoxam 25 % WG

Dose
8.0 g/10 lit.
1.5 ml/lit.
4.0 g/10 lit.

Shoot & fruit borer
1. Remove the affected terminal shoot showing boreholes.
2. Remove the affected fruits and destroy.
3. Avoid using synthetic pyrethroids.
4. Spray Neem Seed Kernel Extract 5 % or any one of the following chemicals starting from one month after planting at 15 days interval
Insecticide
Azadirachtin 1.0% EC (10000 ppm)
Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP (300 ppm)
Chlorpyrifos 20 % EC
Dimethoate 30 % EC
Emamectin benzoate 5 % SG
Flubendiamide 20 WDG
Phosalone 35 % EC
Quinalphos 20 % AF
Quinalphos 25 % EC
Thiodicarb 75 % WP
Thiometon 25 % EC
Trichlorofon 50 % EC
Triazophos 40 % EC

Dose
3.0 ml/lit.
5.0 g/lit.
1.0 ml/lit.
7.0 ml/10 lit.
4 g/10 lit.
7.5 g/10 lit.
1.5 ml/lit.
1.7ml/ lit.
1.5 ml/lit.
2.0 g/lit.
1.0 ml/lit.
1.0 ml/lit.
2.5 ml/lit.

Aphid: Release 1st instar larvae of Green lace wing predator (Chrysoperla carnea) @ 10,000/ ha. Apply phorate 10 % G @ 15 kg /ha or spray any one of the following insecticide. Insecticide
Phosphamidon 40 % SL
Thiometon 25 % EC

Dose
1.5 ml/lit.
1.0 ml/lit.

Red Spider mite:
Apply phorate 10 % G @15 kg /ha or spray any one of the following insecticide Insecticide
Dose
Dicofol 18.5 % SC
2.0 ml/lit.
Spiromesifen 22.9 % SC
8.0 ml/10 lit.

 

 
Diseases
Damping off: Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM. Stagnation of water should be avoided. Drench with Copper Oxychloride at 2.5 g/lit at 4lit /sq.m.

Leaf Spot: Spray Mancozeb @ 2 g/lit.
Little Leaf: Remove the affected plants in the early stages and spray dimethoate 30 EC @ 1.0 ml/lit. to control the vector.
Yield:
Varieties
Hybrids

: 25 - 30 t/ha
: 60 - 80 t/ha

Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade Specification

Vellore, Salem, Krishnagiri, Dindigul, Coimbatore
Ottanchatram, Dindigul, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and
Nagercoil
Colour, Size, Glossy, smooth and tender.
Colour: light purple or dark purple, green, purple
coloured with white stripes.
Size: 25-30 cm long, oblong or round.

IPM Package for Brinjal




Soil application with Neemcake @250 kg/ha



Maize as boarder crop against movement of whiteflies/ Liriomyza



Use of yellow sticky traps against White flies and Liriomyza



Clipping of shoot borer infested terminals



Leucinodes adult monitoring with pheromone traps



Trichogramma release after each brood emergence of Leucinodes



 

Nursery + seedling dip treatment with Pseudomonas @ 10 g/ lit of water



 

Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride (4g/kg) and Pseudomonas @ 10 g/ kg of seed

Application of Neem oil formulations 10000ppm @1% / Neem seed kernel extract (5%)

 

Bhendi: Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench; Malvaceae
Varieties
Arka Anamika, Arka Abhay and Parbhani Kranti
Hybrid
COBhH 1
Soil
It is adaptable to a wide range of soils from sandy loam to clayey loam. Season of sowing
June - August and February
Seed rate
Varieties
Hybrids

: 8.0 kg / ha
: 2.5 kg / ha

Seed treatment
Seed treatment with Tricoderma viride @ 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/ kg of seeds and again with 400 g of Azospirillum using starch as adhesive and dried in shade for 20 minutes. Sow three seeds per hill at 30 cm apart and then thin to 2 plants per hill after 10 days.

Field preparation
Plough the land 4 - 5 times and form ridges and furrows at 45 cm apart. Sowing
Sow three seeds per hill at 30 cm apart and then thin to 2 plants per hill after 10 days. Spacing : 45 x 30 cm
Layout and sowing for drip irrigation and fertigation
 Apply FYM @ 25 t / ha as basal before last ploughing.
 Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM.  Apply 75 % total recommended dose of super phosphate ie 469 kg / ha as basal.  Form raised beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm.  Install the drip irrigation with main and sub main pipes and place lateral tubes at the centre of the each bed at an interval of 1.5 m.

 Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
 Before planting, wet the beds using drip system for 8-12 hrs.  Sowing to be done at a spacing of 90 x 45 x 45 cm in the paired row system, using ropes marked at 45 cm spacing.
 Spray Oxyflourfen at 0.15 kg ai / ha or Fluchloralin @ 1.0 kg ai / ha or Metolachlor @ 0.75 kg a.i / ha as pre emergence application on third day of sowing.  Gap filling to be done at 7th day after transplanting.

Irrigation
After germination, irrigate at weekly intervals.

 

 
Application of fertilizers
Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each at 2 kg/ha mixed with 100 kg of FYM before sowing.
Varieties
Basal dose FYM @ 25 t/ha, N @ 20 kg, P @ 50 kg and K @ 30 kg/ha as basal and 20 kg N/ha at 30 days after sowing.
Hybrids
Basal dose FYM @ 40 t / ha, N @ 100 kg, P @ 100 kg and K @ 100 kg/ha as basal and 100 kg N / ha 30 at days after sowing.
Foliar nutrition
1 % urea (10 g/l) + muriate of potash (10 g/l) on 30 and 45 days after planting. For hybrids, foliar application of water soluble fertilizer 19-19-19 three times @ 0.5% (5 g/l) at 10 days interval from 30 days after planting.

Fertigation schedule for hybrids
Recommended dose: 200:100: 100 kg / ha
Stage

Duration
in days

Crop stage

Fertilizer
grade

Total
Fertilizer
(kg/ha)

Nutrient applied

% of requirement

3.

4.

10

Flower initiation
to
flowering
stage

30

Flowering
fruit set

to

30

Alternate days
from picking

30

Total duration

100

K

26.30

7.50

5.00

5.00

5.50
25.65
Subtotal
16.39
88.88
144.52

11.10
29.48
20.00
1.97
11.55
66.48

5.00
10.00
-

5.00
10.00
40.00
-

80.00

10.00

40.00

19:19:19
+MN
13.0:45
Urea

26.30

5.00

5.00

5.00

55.55
103.87
Subtotal

7.22
47.78
60.00

5.00

25.00
30.00

12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea

8.20
44.44
72.26

0.98
5.78
33.24

5.00
-

Subtotal

2.

Sowing to plant
establishment
stage

P

Subtotal

1.

N

40.00
200.00

5.00
25.00

19:19:19
+MN
13:0:45
Urea
12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea

75% RD of Phosphorus applied as super phosphate = 469 kg/ha. 1. 19:19:19 =
54 kg / ha
2. 13:0:45
=
200 kg / ha
3. 12:61:0
=
25 kg / ha
4. Urea
=
350 kg / ha

 

H

P

K

10.00

5.00

10.00

30.00

10.00

30.00

30.00

5.00

30.00

20.00
-

30.00
-

5.00

30.00

20.00
100.0
0

100

25

100

 
Weed control
Spray Oxyflourfen @ 0.15 kg ai/ha or Fluchloralin @ 1.0 kg ai / ha or Metolachlor @ 0.75 kg a.i / ha as pre emergence application on third day after sowing. Herbicide application should be integrated with hand weeding once on 30 days after sowing. Plant protection

Pests
Fruit borers
Integrated pest management
1. Set up pheromone trap @ 12 / ha.
2. Collect and destroy affected fruits.
3. Release egg parasite Trichogramma chilonis @ 1.0 lakh / ha. 4. Release 1st instar larvae of green lace wing predator Chrysoperla carnea @ 10,000/ha. 5. Dust carbaryl 10 % DP @ 25 kg / ha or spray Bacillus thuringiensis @ 2 g/l or spray any one of the following insecticide:

Insecticide
Azadirachtin 0.03% WSP (300 ppm)
Azadirachtin 5% Neem Extract Concentrate
Emamectin benzoate 5 % SG
Phosalone 35 % EC
Pyridalyl 10 % EC
Quinalphos 20 % AF
Quinalphos 25 % EC

ml or g / l.
5.0 g / l.
5.0 ml /10 l.
3.0 g /10 l.
1.5 ml / l.
1.0 ml / l.
1.5 ml / l.
8.0 ml /10 l.

Leaf hopper
Treat the seeds with imidacloprid 48 % FS or 70 % WS @ 7 g / kg or Thiamethoxam 70 % WS @ 2.8 g / kg of seed.
Dust carbaryl 5 % DP @ 20 kg /ha or carbaryl 10 % DP @ 25 kg /ha or apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 33 kg /ha or spray any one of the following insecticides. Insecticide
Imidacloprid 70% WG
Imidacloprid 17.8% SL
Thiamethoxam 25%WG
Azadirachtin 0.03% WSP
Azadirachtin 5% Neem Extract
Concentrate
Dimethoate 30 % EC
Malathion 50 % EC
Oxydemeton – Methyl 25 % EC
Quinalphos 25 % EC

ml or g / l.
0.7 g /10 l.
2 ml/10 l.
1.0 g /10 l.
5.0 g / l.
5.0 ml /10 l.
2.0 ml / l.
1.25 ml / l.
1.6 ml / l.
1.0 ml / l.

Diseases
Yellow vein mosaic virus: Spray systemic insecticides like Methyl demeton or Dimethoate @ 2 ml / l to kill the insect vector, whitefly.

 

 
Powdery mildew: Dust Sulphur 25 kg / ha or spray Dinocap 2 ml / l or Tridemorph 0.5 ml / l or Carbendazim 1 g / l or Wettable sulphur 2 g / l or Triademephon 0. 5g / l immediately after noticing the disease and repeat after 15 days if necessary.

Yield
12 - 15 t / ha
Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade Specification

Vellore, Salem, Coimbatore, Dindigul
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu, Chennai
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore
Light green or dark green, hairy or tender smooth
surface, 5-ridged and remain tender for a longer
period, medium length.

IPM practices Package for Bhendi










 

Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride (4g/kg) and Pseudomonas (10 g/ kg) Soil application of Pseudomonas and Trichoderma (each2.5kg/ha) Soil application with Neem cake @250 kg/ha
Maize as border crop against movement of whiteflies/ Liriomyza Use of yellow sticky traps
Periodical removal of yellow vein mosaic virus infected plants Helicoverpa and Earias adult monitoring with pheromone traps Trichogramma release after each brood emergence of Helicoverpa and Earias Application of Neem oil formulations 10000ppm @1% / Neem seed kernel extract (5%)

 

Chillies: Capsicum annuum L.; Solanaceae
Varieties
K 1, K 2, CO 2, CO 4 (vegetable type), PKM 1, PMK 1 (for semi-dry conditions in Southern Districts), PLR1 (for coastal regions of North - East Tamil Nadu) and KKM (Ch) 1. Hybrids
TNAU Chilli Hybrid CO 1
Soil : Well drained loamy soil rich in organic matter with pH range 6.5-7.5. Season of sowing : January – February, June – July and September - October Seed rate
Varieties
Hybrids
Nursery area

: 1.0 kg / ha.
: 200 - 250 g / ha.
: 100 sq.m / ha.

Seed treatment
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/ kg and sow in lines spaced at 10 cm in raised nursery beds and cover with sand. Watering with rose can has to be done daily. Drench the nursery with Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/l of water at 15 days interval against damping off disease. Apply Carbofuran 3 G at 10 g/sq.m. at sowing.

Protected nursery
 Prepare the nursery area of 3 cents with slanting slope of 2 % for the seedling production to cover 1 ha.
 Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40 / 50 mesh insect proof nylon net.
 Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at 2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months.  Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with 5 kg neem cake along with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg. Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling one protay. 300 protrays (98 cells) are required for the production of 29,000 seedlings, which are required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 45 cm in a paired row system.

 Sow the treated seed in protrays @ 1 seed per cell.
 Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts.
 After 6 days place the protrays with germinated seedlings individually on the raised beds inside the shade net .
 Water with rose can everyday upto seed germination. Drench with 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days after sowing.
Field preparation
Thoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg / ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant 40-45 days old seedlings, with the ball of earth on the ridges.

 

 
Spacing
Varieties
Hybrids

: 60 x 45 cm
: 75 x 60 cm

Weed control
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha as pre-emergece herbicide followed by hand weeding once 30 days after planting. Irrigation
Irrigate at weekly intervals.
Layout and planting for drip irrigation and fertigation
 Apply FYM @ 25 t / ha as basal before last ploughing.
 Apply 2 kg / ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM.
 Apply 75 % total recommended dose of superphosphate i.e. 375 kg / ha as basal.  Install the drip irrigation with main and sub main pipes and place lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m.
 Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
 Form raised beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm and place the laterals at the centre of the each bed.
 Before planting wet the beds using drip system for 8-12 hrs.  Planting to be done at a spacing of 90 x 60 x 45 cm in the paired row system, using ropes marked at 60 cm spacing.
 Spray Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i / ha as pre-emergence herbicide at 3rd day after planting.
 Gap filling to be done at 7th day after transplanting.
Manuring
Varieties
Basal dose
Top dressing

: FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 30:60:30 kg/ ha.
Potassium as K2SO4 for quality improvement. Application of potassium in the form of potassium sulphate will increase quality of chilli. : 30 kg N/ha in equal splits on 30, 60 and 90 days after planting.

Hybrids
Basal dose
Top dressing

: FYM 30 t / ha, NPK 30:80:80 kg / ha.
: 30 kg N / ha in equal splits on 30, 60 and 90 days after planting.

 

 
Fertigation schedule
CHILLI F1 HYBRID
Recommended Dose: 120:80:80 kg / ha
Stage

4.

10

Flower
initiation
flowering

30
to

Fruit set to
first picking

Alternate day
from picking

30

80

19:19:19
MN
13:0:45
Urea
12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea

19:19:19
13.0:45
Urea

12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea

P

K

H

P

K

21.05

4.00

4.00

4.00

10.00

5.00

10.00

8.88
14.86
Subtotal

1.15
6.83
11.98

4.00

3.98
7.98

13.11
71.04
80.72

1.57
9.24
37.13

8.00
-

31.97
-

30.00

10.00

20.00

47.94

8.00

31.97

21.05
44.40
56.91

4.00
5.77
26.18

4.00
-

4.00
19.98

30.00

5.00

20.00

35.95

4.00

23.98

6.52
35.52
40.38
Subtotal

0.75
4.62
18.57
23.94

3.81
3.81

15.98
15.98

30.00

5.00

50.00

119.81
(or)
120.00

3.

Transplanting
to
plant
establishment
stage

Fertilizer
grade

N

Subtotal

2.

Duration
in days

Total
Fertilizer
(kg/ha)

Subtotal

1.

Crop stage

Nutrient supplied

% requirement

19.81
(or)
20.00

79.91
(or)
80.00

100.00

25.00

100.00

75% RD of Phosporous applied as superphosphate = 375 kg / ha 1.
19:19:19 =
42 kg/ha
2.
13:0:45
=
160 kg/ha
3.
12:61:0
=
20 kg/ha
4.
Urea
=
193 kg/ha

Effect of Endo root soluble and Mycorrhizae on Chilli
Apply 250g of Endo Roots Soluble in two splits doses at 15 DAT and 45 DAT along with 100 % N and K and 50% P for higher yield and saving of Phosphorous. Apply 250g of Mycorrhiza in two splits at transplanting and 30 DAT along with 100% N and K and 50% P for higher yield and saving of Phosphorous.

Growth regulators
 Spray Triacontanol @ 1.25 ml/l on 20, 40, 60 and 80th day of planting. Spray NAA 10 ppm (10 mg/l of water) on 60 and 90 days after planting to increase fruit set. Micronutrient spray
 Foliar spray of Zn SO4 @ 0.5 per cent thrice at 10 days interval from 40 days after planting.
 Spray 19:19:19 + Mn @ 1 % at 60 days after planting.

 

 
Weed control
Spray Fluchloralin @ 1 lit a.i/ha or Pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i/ ha. or Oxyflourfen @ 0.15 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergence herbicide and may be combined with hand weeding once and earthing up 45 days after planting. Raise intercrop of onion in paired row system to get additional income.

Plant protection
Pests
Fruit borer: Integrated pest management of fruit borer:
1. Set up pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera / Spodoptera litura @ 12 no. / ha. 2. Collection and destruction of damaged fruits and grown up caterpillars. 3. Spray Bacillus thuringiensis @ 2 g / lit.

4. Provide poison bait with carbaryl 1.25 kg, rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 lit / ha or spray any one of the following insecticide.
Insecticide
Emamectin benzoate 5 % SG
Fipronil 5 % SC
Flubendiamide 20 WDG
Flubendiamide 480 SC
Indoxacarb 14.5 % SC
Novaluron 10 % EC
Spinosad 45 % SC
Thiodicarb 75 % WP

Dose
4 g/10 lit.
2.0 ml /lit.
6.0 g /10 lit.
2.5 ml /lit
6.5 ml /10 lit.
7.5 ml /10 lit.
3.2 ml /10 lit.
2.0 g /lit.

Thrips:
 Grow Agathi as Intercrop.
 Treat seeds with imidacloprid 70% WS @ 12 g /kg of seed.  Apply carbofuran 3% G @ 33 kg /ha or phorate 10 % G @ 10 kg/ha or spray any one of the following insecticide.
Insecticide
Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL
Dimethoate 30 % EC
Emamectin benzoate 5 % SG
Ethion 50 % EC
Fipronil 5 % SC
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC
Phosalone 35 % EC
Spinosad 45 % SC
Thiacloprid 21.7 % SC

Dose
3.0 ml /10 lit.
1.0 ml /lit.
4 g /10 lit.
2.0 ml /lit.
1.5 ml /lit.
1.0 ml /lit.
2.0 ml /lit.
3.2 ml /10 lit.
6.0 ml /10 lit.

Aphids:
 Treat seeds with imidacloprid 70% WS @12 g /kg of seed.
 Apply phorate 10 % G @ 10 kg/ha or spray any one of the following insecticide.

 

 
Insecticide
Carbosulfan 25 % EC
Fipronil 5 % SC
Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL
Oxydemeton – Methyl 25% EC
Phosalone 35 % EC
Quinalphos 25 % Gel
Quinalphos 25 % EC

Dose
1.0 ml /lit.
1.0 ml /lit.
3.5 ml /10 lit.
1.6 ml /lit.
2.0 ml /lit.
1.0 ml /lit.
1.0 ml /lit.

Yellow Muranai mite:
Apply phorate 10 % G @ 10 kg/ha or spray any one of the following insecticide: Insecticide
Buprofezin 25 % SC
Diafenthiuron 50 % WP
Dimethoate 30 % EC
Ethion 50 % EC
Fenazaquin 10 % EC
Fenpyroximate 5 % EC
Hexythiazox 5.45 % EC
Milbemectin 1 % EC
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC
Phosalone 35 % EC
Propargite 57 % EC
Quinalphos 25 % EC
Spiromesifen 22.9 % SC

Dose
8.0 ml /10 lit.
8.0 g /10 lit.
1.0 ml /lit.
2.0 ml /lit.
2.0 ml /lit.
1.0 ml /lit.
8.0 ml /10 lit.
6.5 ml /10 lit.
2.0 ml /lit.
1.3 ml /lit.
2.5 ml /lit.
1.5 ml /lit.
5.0 ml /10 lit.

Aphids and Thrips:
Spray neem oil 1% or neem cake extract 5% to control aphids and thrips. Diseases
Damping off: Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM. Stagnation of water should be avoided. Drench with Copper oxychloride at 2.5 g /lit at 4 lit /sq.m.

Leaf spot: Spray Mancozeb @ 2 g/lit or Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/lit. Powdery mildew: Spray Wettable sulphur @ 3 g/lit or Carbendazim @ 1 g/lit, 3 sprays at 15 days interval from the first appearance of symptom.

Die-back and fruit rot: Spray Mancozeb 2 g/lit or Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/lit thrice at 15 days interval starting from noticing the die-back symptoms.
Chilli mosaic: Raise 2 rows of maize or sorghum for every 5 rows of chilli crop against wind direction. Spray recommendations given for controlling the vector. Yield
Varieties
 

: 2 - 3 t/ha of dry pods or 10 - 15 t/ha of green chillies.

 
Hybrids

: 25 t / ha of green chillies.

Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade Specification

 

Ramanathapuram
(samba),
Thoothukudi
(gundu), Sivagangai (samba), Virudhunagar
(samba), Tirunelveli (samba)
Virudhunagar, Chennai, Ramanad, Paramkudi,
Thoothukudi
i. Dry Chilli
Well dried -12 % moisture
Big size
Bright red colour without white chillies
Uniform size
Length - 1.5-2 inches
ii. Green Chilli
Pungency

 

Capsicum (Sweet pepper / Bell pepper): Capsicum annuum ; Solanaceae Varieties

: Arka Basant, Arka Gaurav, Arka Mohini, Green Gold, Bharath.

Soil

: Well drained loamy soil rich in organic matter.

Season of sowing

: September - February

Seed rate
Varieties
Hybrids

: 1.25 kg/ha
: 200 g / ha

Nursery
: 3 cents /ha
Treat the seeds with of Carbendazim @ 2 g /kg of seed and sow in lines across the bed at a spacing of 2.5 cm and then cover with top soil and then paddy straw. Watering with rose can has to be done daily. On 20th day of sowing, 300g of carbofuran 3G granules have to be applied in between the seedling lines across the bed, the soil has to be stirred and then the beds are irrigated.

Protected nursery
 Prepare the nursery area of 3 cents with slanting slope of 2 % for the seedling production to cover 1 ha.
 Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net.
 Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at 2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months.  Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with 5 kg neem cake along with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg. Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling one protray. 238 protrays (98 cells) are required for the production of 23,334 seedlings, which are required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 60 cm in a paired row system.

 Sow the treated seed in protrays @ 1 seed per cell.
 Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts.
 After 6 days, place the protrays with germinated seeds individually on the raised beds inside the shade net.
 Water with rose-can everyday and drench with 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days after sowing.
Preparation of field
Plough the field to a fine tilth. Form ridges and furrows 45 or 60 cm apart. Transplant 40-45 days old seedlings at 30 cm spacing.
Irrigation
Irrigation at weekly or 10 days interval.

 

 
Layout and planting for drip irrigation and fertigation
 Apply FYM @ 25 t / ha as basal before last ploughing.
 Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM.
 Apply 75 % total recommended dose of super phosphate ie 703 kg / ha as basal.  Install the drip irrigation with main and sub main pipes and place lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m.
 Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
 Form raised beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm and place the laterals at the centre of the each bed.
 Before planting, wet the beds using drip system for 8-12 hrs.  Planting to be done at a spacing of 90 x 60 x 60 cm in the paired row system, using ropes marked at 60 cm spacing.
 Spray Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. /ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i/ha as pre-emergence herbicide at 3rd day after planting.
 Gap filling to be done at 7th day after transplanting.
Application of fertilizers
Apply FYM 25 t/ha and NPK 40:60:30 kg /ha as basal and 40 kg N/ha each on 30, 60 and 90 days of planting as top dressing.
Fertigation schedule for capsicum F1 Hybrid
Recommended dose: 250:150:150 kg / ha
Stage

3.

4.

Transplanting
to
plant
establishment
stage

10

Vegetative
stage

30

Flower
initiation
to
first picking

30

95

Total

 

Harvesting
stage

165

N

P

K

N

P

K

19:19:19
MN
13:0:45
Urea

39.47

7.50

7.50

7.50

10.00

5.00

10.00

16.66
33.28
Subtotal

2.16
15.30
24.96

7.50

7.50
15.00

12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea

24.60
133.33
173.00

2.95
17.33
79.58

15.00
-

60.00
-

30.00

10.00

20.00

99.86

15.00

60.00

39.47
83.33
122.97

7.50
10.83
56.57

7.50
-

7.50
37.50
-

20.00

5.00

20.00

Subtotal

2.

Duration
in days

Total
Fertilizer
(kg/ha)

Subtotal

1.

Crop stage

Fertilizer
grade

74.90

7.50

45.00

12.30
66.66
86.51
Subtotal

1.48
8.67
39.79
49.94

7.50
7.50

30.00
30.00

40.00

5.00

50.00

249.66
(or)
250.00

37.50

150.00

100.00

25.00

100.00

19:19:19
13.0:45
Urea

12:61:0
13:0:45
Urea

Nutrient supplied

% requirement

 
75% RD of Phosporous applied as super phosphate = 703 kg / ha 1.
19:19:19 =
79 kg /ha
2.
13:0:45
=
300 kg /ha
3.
12:61:0
=
37 kg /ha
4
Urea
=
416 kg /ha

Weed control
On 30th day, hoeing and weeding has to be done once and the plants are earthed up. Growth regulator
Spray 1.25 ppm Triacontanol (12.5 mg /10 l of water) on 20th, 40th, 60th and 80th day after transplanting. Spray NAA 10 ppm (10 mg/l of water) on 60 and 90 days after planting. Diseases
Powdery mildew: Spray wettable sulphur @ 2g /l
Dieback and fruit rot: Spray Mancozeb @ 2g /l
Harvest and yield
Harvest fully matured green fruits before ripening. Yield: 15 tonnes/ha in 150-160 days.

 

 

Paprika: Capsicum annuum var. grossum; Solanaceae
Varieties

: KTPL-19

Soil
Well-drained sandy loam or clay saline free soil is preferable. It can be grown on any fertile well-drained soil suitable for chillies cultivation with pH 6.5 - 7.0. Season of sowing

: June - July.

Seed rate

: 500 g/ha.

Spacing

: 60 x 45 cm

Nursery
Prepare 10 - 12 beds of 7 m long 1.2 m wide and 15 cm height and sow the seeds in rows 10 cm apart on 0.5 cm deep. Apply 15 - 20 kg well decomposed compost and 500 g of 15:15:15 NPK complex fertiliser to each bed 15 to 20 days before sowing. Transplanting

Healthy seedlings may be transplanted at a spacing of 45 cm apart. Application of fertilizers
Apply FYM 20 - 25 tonnes / ha, 60, 100 and 60 kg NPK / ha as basal, 20 kg N and 20 kg K three weeks after transplanting and 40 kg N and 40 kg K / ha six weeks after transplanting as top dressing.
Diseases
Anthracnose: Spray Mancozeb 2 g/l.
Fruit rot: Spray Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/l.
Powdery mildew: Spray Wettable sulphur @ 0.3%.
Yield: 25 - 35 t/ha.

 

 

Pumpkin: Cucurbita moschata Poir.; Cucurbitaceae
Varieties: CO 1, CO 2, Arka Suryamuki and Arka Chandan.
Soil
Sandy loam rich in organic matter and with good drainage. The pH range from 6.5-7.5 is found ideal.
Season and sowing: June- July and December- January.
Soak the seeds in double the quantity of water for 30 minutes and incubate for 6 days. Sow the seeds (3 seeds/pit) treated with Azospirillum just before sowing and thin the seedlings to two per pit after 15 days.

Seed rate: 1.0 kg /ha.
Spacing: 2 m x 2 m. Pit size 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm.
Application of fertilizers
Apply 10 kg of FYM (20 t/ha) and 100 g of NPK 6:12:12 mixture as basal and 10 g of N per pit after 30 days of planting. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg/ha such and Pseudomonas 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing. After cultivation

Hoe and weed thrice. Spray Ethrel 250 ppm (2.5 ml per 10 l of water) four times at weekly intervals commencing from 10 to 15 days after sowing. Quality seedling production
Nursery raising
In hi-tech horticulture, use 12 days old healthy seedlings obtained from shade net houses for planting. Raise the seedlings in protrays having 98 cells. Use well decomposed cocopeat as medium. Sow one seed per cell. Water regularly twice a day. Fertigation

Apply a dose of 60:30:30 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application. Apply 75% of the phosphorus as superphosphate as basal dose. Pests and diseases
Beetles and caterpillars: Spray Dichlorvos 76% EC @ 6.5 ml/10 l or Trichlorofen 50% EC @ 1.0 ml/lit.
Fruit fly
1) Collect the damaged fruits and destroy.
2) The fly population is low in hot day conditions and it is peak in rainy season. Hence adjust the sowing time accordingly.
3) Plough the field to expose the pupae.
4) Use polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 g of wet fish meal + 1 ml dichlorvos in absorbent cotton. 50 traps are required per ha, fish meal + dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

5).Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based
 

 
Do not use, copper and sulphur dust. These are phytotoxic
Diseases
Powdery mildew: Spray Dinocap 1 ml/l or Carbendazim 0.5 g/l. Downy mildew: Spray Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil 2 g/l twice at 10 days interval. Yield: 18-20 t/ha in 140 days.
Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

Grade Specification

 

Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Theni, Dindigul
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore
Clean and glossy, bright appearance, peel
changes from green to yellow, yellowish flesh
colour

 

Snake gourd: Trichosanthes cucumerina. L. Cucurbitaceae
Varieties: CO1,CO 2, PKM 1, PLR 1 and PLR 2.
Soil
Sandy loam rich in organic matter with good drainage and a pH range of 6.5-7.5. Season and sowing: July and January.
Sow the seeds (3 seeds/pit) treated with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg or carbendazim @ 2 g/kg and thin the seedlings to two per pit after 15 days.
Seed rate: 1.5 kg/ha.
Preparation of field
Plough the field to fine tilth. Dig pits of size 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm at 2.5 x 2 m spacing and form basins.
Irrigation
Irrigate the basins before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once in a week. Application of fertilizers
Apply 10 kg of FYM, 100 g of NPK 6:12:12 mixture as basal dose per pit and N @ 10 g pit 30 days after sowing. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing. After cultivation

Hoe and weed thrice. Provide stakes for the plants to reach the pandal (2 m). Spray Ethrel 100 ppm (1 ml in 10 l of water) four times starting from 10 to 15 days after sowing at weekly intervals.
Quality seedling production
Nursery raising
Sow the snake gourd seeds in protrays containing well decomposed cocopeat medium. Sow only one seed per cell. Keep the trays under shadenet house. Water regularly with the help of rose can. Transplant about 12 days old seedlings to main field. Planting

Spread the lateral tubes on the raised beds of 120cm wide at 150cm spacing. Irrigate the beds by operating the drip system continuously for 8-12 hrs. Plant the seedlings in the holes made at 60cm spacing.

Fertigation
Apply a dose of 75:100:100 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application. Apply 75% of the phosphorus as superphosphate as basal dose.

 

 
Plant protection
Pests
Leaf beetles and leaf caterpillars: Spray Dichlorvos 76% EC 6.5 ml/10 lit or Trichlorofon 50% EC 1.0 ml/l.
Fruit fly
 Collect the damaged fruits and destroy.
 The fly population is low in hot day conditions and it is peak in rainy season. Hence, the sowing time may be adjusted accordingly.
 Expose the pupae by ploughing.
 Use 20 x 15 cm poly bags fish meal traps with 5 g of fish meal + 1 ml of dichlorvos in cotton @ 50 traps/ha. Fish meal and cotton are to be removed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.  Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based

 For management of Aphid vector, spray Imidachloprid @ 0.5 ml/lit along with sufficient quantity of stickers like Teepol, triton X100, apsa etc., for better adhesion and coverage. Do not use copper and sulphur dust. These are phytotoxic.Diseases Powdery mildew: Spray Dinocap 1 ml/l or Carbendazim 0.5 g/l. Downy mildew: Spray Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil 2 g/l twice at 10 days interval. Yield: 18 t/ha in 135 – 145 days.

Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

 

Cuddalore, Coimbatore, Dindigul
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore

 

Ribbed gourd: Luffa acutangula Roxb; Cucurbitaceae
Varieties: CO 1, CO 2 and PKM 1.
Soil
Sandy loam rich in organic matter with good drainage and a pH range from 6.5-7.5. Season of sowing
July and January.
Seed rate
1.5 kg/ha. Sow the seeds (3 seeds/pit) treated with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/kg of seeds and thin the seedlings to two per pit after 15 days.
Preparation of field
Plough the field to fine tilth. Dig pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size at 2.5 x 2 m spacing and form basins.
Irrigation
Irrigate the basins before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once a week. Application of fertilizers
Apply 10 kg of FYM, 100 g of NPK 6:12:12 mixture as basal per pit and N @ 10 g per pit 30 days after sowing. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing. Drip irrigation

Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m. Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.

Sowing
Dig pits of size 45 x 45 x 45 cm at spacing of 2 m in row spaced at 1.5 m. Sow three seeds in each pit. After germination, thin to 2 healthy seedlings. Instead of direct sowing, the seeds can be sown in poly bags @ 2 seeds / bag and 15 days after germination, they can be planted @ 2 seedlings per pit.

Fertigation
Apply a dose of 250:100:100 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application.

 

 
Fertigation Schedule- Ribbed gourd (Hybrid)
Recommended dose: 250:100:100 Kg/ha
Sl.
No.

Crop Stage

Duration
in Days

Total
Fertilizer
(Kg/ha)
32.79
22.00
39.49
Subtotal

Fertilizer
Grade

1.

Crop
establishment
stage

10

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

2.

Vegetative
stage

30

19:19:19
MN
Urea

3.

Flower
initiation
to
first picking

20

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

4.

Harvesting
stage

60

12-16-0
13-0-45
Urea

Total
duration

120 days

Total

+
157.89
97.67
Subtotal
49.17
44.00
137.52
Subtotal
32.79
88.00
129.39
Subtotal

Nutrient Supplied

% Requirement

N

P

K

N

P

K

3.93
2.87
18.20
25.00
29.99
45.00
74.99
5.91
5.72
63.84
75.47
3.93
11.44
59.63
75.00

5.00
5.00
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
5.00
5.00

10.00
10.00
29.99
29.99
20.00
20.00
40.00
40.00

10.00

5.00

10.00

30.00

7.50

30.00

30.00

7.50

20.00

30.00

5.00

40.00

250.46
(or)
250.00

25.00

99.99
(or)
100.00

100

25

100

*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 469 Kg/ha. 1. 19:19:19
=
158 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45
=
154 kg/ha
3. 12:61:0
=
115 kg/ha
4. Urea
=
405 kg/ha
After cultivation
Hoe and weed thrice and provide support for the plants to reach the pandal erected at a height of 2 m. Spray Ethrel 250 ppm (2.5 ml/10 lit. of water) four times commencing from 15th day of sowing at weekly interval to increase yield.

Plant protection
Pests
Beetles, fruit flies and caterpillars: Spray Dichlorvos 76% EC 6.5 ml/10 lit or Trichlorofon 50% EC 1.0 ml/l
Do not use copper and sulphur dust, which are phytotoxic.
Diseases
Powdery mildew : Spray Dinocap 1 ml/l. or Carbendazim 0.5 g/l. Downy mildew: Spray Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil 2 g/l. twice at 10 days interval. Yield: 14 – 15 t/ha in 125 days.

Market information
 

 

Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

 

Erode, Coimbatore, Tiruppur
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai, Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore

 

Bottle gourd: Lagenaria siceraria (Mol) Standl; Cucurbitaceae Varieties
Pusa Summer Prolific Long, Pusa Summer Prolific Round, Pusa Manjari, Pusa Megdoot and Arka Bahar.
Soil
Sandy loams rich in organic matter with good drainage and a pH range from 6.5 to 7.5. Season and sowing
July and January. Sow the seeds (3 seeds/pit) treated with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g or carbendazim 2 g/kg of seeds and thin the seedlings to two per pit after 15 days.

Seed rate
1.5 kg/ha
Preparation of field
Plough the field to fine tilth. Dig pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size at 2.5 x 2 m spacing. Irrigation
Irrigate the field before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once a week. Application of fertilizers
Apply 10 kg of FYM (20 t/ha) and 100 g of NPK 6:12:12 mixture as basal and 10 g of N per pit 30 days after sowing. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing. Drip irrigation

Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5m. Place the drippers at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4LPH and 3.5LPH capacities respectively.

Field preparation
Form raised beds of 120cm width and place laterals in the centre of bed. Nursery raising
In hi-tech horticulture, plant 15 days old healthy seedlings raised in shade net houses. Raise the seedlings in protrays having 98 cells or in polythene bags. Transplant about 15 days old seedlings in the main field.

Fertigation
Apply a dose of 200:100:100 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application.
After cultivation: Hoe and weed thrice.

 

 
Plant protection
Pests
Mites: Spray dicofol 18.5 % SC @ 2.5 ml per litre of water
Aphid: Spray Imidachloprid @ 0.5 ml/lit along with sufficient quantity of stickers like Teepol, triton X100, apsa etc., for better adhesion and coverage.
Diseases
Powdery mildew: Spray Dinocap 1 ml/l. or Carbendazim 0.5 g/l or Tridemorph l ml/l. Downy mildew: Spray Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil 2 g/l. twice at 10 days interval. Yield: 15 – 20 t/ha in 135 days.

Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

 

Dindigul,Thiruvallur,Coimbatore,Thoothukudi
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore

 
Fertigation Schedule-Bottle gourd (Hybrid)
Recommended Dose: 200:100:100 Kg/ha
Sl.
No.
1.

Crop Stage

Duration
in Days

Fertilizer Grade

Crop
establishment
stage

10

2.

Vegetative
stage

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

3.

Flower initiation
to first picking

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

4.

Harvesting
stage

45

19:19:19 + MN
13-0-45
Urea

Total duration
Total

115 days

19:19:19 + MN
13-0-45
Urea

Total
Fertilizer
(Kg/ha)
26.81
11.00
29.03
Subtotal
12.28
66.00
109.00
Subtotal
12.28
44.00
115.00
Subtotal

Nutrient Supplied

26.31
78.00
97.52
Subtotal

N

P

K

5.00
1.43
13.35
19.78
1.47
8.58
50.14
60.19
1.47
5.72
52.90
60.09

5.00
5.00
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50

5.00
4.95
9.95
29.70
29.70
19.80
19.80

5.00
10.14
44.86
60.00
200.06

5.00
5.00
24.98
(or)
25.00

5.00
35.10
40.10
99.35
(or)
100.0
0

*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 469 Kg/ha. 1. 19:19:19
=
53 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45
=
199kg/ha
3. 12:61:0
=
25 kg/ha
4. Urea
=
351 kg/ha

 

% Requirement
N

P

K

10.00

5.00

10.0
0

30.00

7.50

30.0
0

30.00

7.50

20.0
0

30.00

5.00

40.0
0

100

25

100

 

Bitter gourd; Momordica charantia L.; Cucurbitaceae
Varieties: CO 1, MDU 1, Arka Harit, VK1, Priya and Preethi.
Hybrids : COBgoH1
Soil
Sandy loam rich in organic matter with good drainage and pH range of 6.5-7.5. Season and sowing
July and January. Sow the seeds (3 seeds/pit) treated with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g or carbendazim @ 2 g/kg of seeds and thin the seedlings to two per pit after 15 days.

Seed rate
1.8 kg/ha.
Preparation of field
Plough the field to fine tilth. Dig pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size at 2 x 1.5 m spacing and form basins.
Irrigation
Irrigate the basins before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once in a week. Application of fertilizers
Apply 10 kg of FYM (20 t/ha) and 100 g of NPK 6:12:12 mixture per pit as basal and 10 g of N per pit 30 days after sowing. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas @ 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing.

Quality seedling production
Bitter gourd is a direct sown vegetable but polythene bag nursery is more advantageous to get early marketing and to avoid more gap filling. Use 200 gauge poly bags of 10 cm diameter x 10 cm height for sowing the seeds. Transplant about 15 days old seedlings to the main field.

Drip irrigation
Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5m. Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.

Field preparation
Form the raised beds of 120cm width (120 cm) and spread the lateral tubes in the centre of each bed. Irrigation is done in the beds by operating the drip system continuously for 8-12 hrs. Spray pre emergence herbicide like Pendimethalin @ 1 Kg a.i/ha just before planting. Planting or sowing is done at the holes made at 2 m distance. Fertigation

Apply a dose of 200:100:100 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application.
 

 
After cultivation
Hoe and weed thrice. Provide stakes for the plants to reach the pandal (2 m). Spray Ethrel 100 ppm (1 ml dissolved in 10 l of water) four times from 15th day after sowing at weekly intervals.
Plant protection
Pests
Mites: Spray dicofol 18.5 % SC @ 2.5 ml per litre of water
Aphid: Spray Imidachloprid @ 0.5 ml/lit along with sufficient quantity of stickers like Teepol, triton X100, apsa etc., for better adhesion and coverage.
Diseases
Powdery mildew: Spray Dinocap 1ml/l or Carbendazim 0.5 g/l.
Downy mildew: Spray Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil @ 2 g/l twice at 10 days interval. Yield
Varieties : 14 t/ha in 140 - 150 days.
Hybrids : 40 t/ha in 180 days
Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

Grade Specification

 

Coimbatore, Dindigul, Cuddalore,
Thoothukudi, Tiruppur
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore
20-25 cm long green fruits with short neck
and tubercles are preferred

 
Fertigation Schedule- Bitter gourd (Hybrid)
Recommended dose: 200:100:100 kg/ha
Sl.
No

Duration in
Days

Fertilizer
grade

Crop
establishment
stage

10

19:19:19
MN
13-0-45
Urea

2.

Vegetative stage

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

3.

Flower initiation
to first picking

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

4.

Harvesting stage

45

19:19:19
MN
13-0-45
Urea

Crop Stage

1.

Total duration

115 days

Total

Total
Fertilizer
(Kg/ha)
26.81
11.00
29.03

Nutrient Supplied
P

K

N

P

K

5.00
1.43
13.35

5.00
-

5.00
4.95
-

10.00

5.00

10.0
0

Subtotal
12.28
66.00
109.00
Subtotal
12.28
44.00
115.00
Subtotal

+

N

19.78
1.47
8.58
50.14
60.19
1.47
5.72
52.90
60.09

5.00
7.49
7.49
7.49
7.49

9.95
29.70
29.70
19.80
19.80

30.00

7.50

30.0
0

30.00

7.50

20.0
0

26.31
78.00
97.52
Subtotal

5.00
10.14
44.86
60.00
200.06

5.00
5.00
24.98
(or)
25.00

5.00
35.10
40.10
99.35
(or)
100.00

30.00

5.00

40.0
0

100

25

100

+

*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 469 Kg/ha. 1.
2.
3.
4.

 

19:19:19
13:0:45
12:61:0
Urea

=
=
=
=

53 kg/ha
199kg/ha
25 kg/ha
351 kg/ha

% Requirement

 

Ash gourd: Benincasa hispida Cogn; Cucurbitaceae
Varieties
CO 1 and CO 2.
Soil
A deep loamy soil with pH range of 6.5-7.5 is suitable.
Season and sowing
July and January. Three seeds are sown in each pit. The seeds are treated with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g or carbendazim @ 2 g/kg of seeds and after germination, the seedlings are thinned to two per pit. Seed rate

2.5 kg/ha. Soak the seeds in double the quantity of water for 30 minutes and incubate for 6 days.
Preparation of field
Plough the field 3 – 4 times. Dig pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm at a spacing of 2 x 1.5 m and form basins.
Irrigation
Irrigate the basins before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once a week. Application of fertilizers
Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas @ 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing. Apply 10 kg FYM and 100 g of 6:12:12 NPK mixture/pit as basal and 10 g N/ pit at 30 days after sowing. After cultivation

Hoe and weed thrice. Spray Ethrel 250 ppm (2.5 ml/10 lit of water) four times at weekly intervals commencing from 15th day after sowing.
Quality seedling production:
Nursery raising
In hi-tech horticulture, use 12 days old healthy seedlings obtained from shade net houses for planting. Raise the seedlings in protrays having 98 cells. Use well decomposed cocopeat is used as medium. Sow one seed per cell. Water regularly twice a day. Transplant about 12 days old seedlings in the main field

Fertigation
Apply 60:30:30 kg of NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application. 75% of phosphorus, is applied through superphosphate as basal dose.

 

 
Plant protection
Pests
Fruit fly
1. Collect the affected fruits and destroy.
2. The fly population is low in hot day conditions and it is peak in rainy season. Hence adjust the sowing time accordingly.
3. Expose the pupae by ploughing.
4. Use 20 x 15 cm polythene bags, fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal and 1 g of dichlorvos in cotton, 50 traps are required per hectare. Fish meal and dichlorvos impregnated cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively. 5. Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based

Aphid: Spray Imidachloprid @ 0.5 ml/lit along with sufficient quantity of stickers like Teepol, triton X100, apsa etc., for better adhesion and coverage.
Do not use copper and sulphur dust, as these are phytotoxic.

Diseases
Powdery mildew
Spray Dinocap 1 ml/l or Carbendazim 0.5 gm/l.
Downy mildew: Spray Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil 2 g/l twice at 10 days interval. Yield: 20 t/ha in 140 days.
Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred Varieties and hybrids

 

Erode, Coimbatore, Villupuram
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore
Co 1 and Co 2

 
Fertigation Schedule- Ash gourd (Hybrid)
Recommended Dose: 200:100:100 kg/ha
Sl.
No.
1.

Crop Stage

Duration
in Days

Fertilizer Grade

Crop
establishment
stage

10

2.

Vegetative
stage

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

3.

Flower initiation
to first picking

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

4.

Harvesting
stage

45

19:19:19 + MN
13-0-45
Urea

Total duration
Total

115 days

19:19:19 + MN
13-0-45
Urea

Total
Fertilizer
(kg/ha)
26.81
11.00
29.03
Sub total
12.28
66.00
109.00
Sub total
12.28
44.00
115.00
Sub total

Nutrient Supplied

26.31
78.00
97.52
Sub total

N

P

K

5.00
1.43
13.35
19.78
1.47
8.58
50.14
60.19
1.47
5.72
52.90
60.09

5.00
5.00
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50

5.00
4.95
9.95
29.70
29.70
19.80
19.80

5.00
10.14
44.86
60.00
200.06

5.00
5.00
25.00

5.00
35.10
40.10
100.0
0

*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 469 Kg/ha. 1. 19:19:19
=
53 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45
=
199kg/ha
3. 12:61:0
=
25 kg/ha
4. Urea
=
351 kg/ha

 

% Requirement
N

P

K

10.00

5.00

10.0
0

30.00

7.50

30.0
0

30.00

7.50

20.0
0

30.00

5.0

40.0
0

100

25

100

 

Cucumber: Cucumis sativus L.; Cucurbitaceae
Varieties: Japanese Long Green, Straight Eight and Poinsette. Soil: Sandy loam rich in organic matter with good drainage and pH range of 6.5-7.5. Preparation of field: Plough the field four times. Form long channels at 1.5 m apart. Season and sowing: Sow the seeds during June or January to April at 2.5 kg/ha after treating with Trichoderma viride 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g or carbendazim 2g/kg on one side of channel giving a spacing of 0.6 m between hills. Thin the seedlings to two per hill. Irrigation: Irrigate the field before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once in a week. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 40 t/ha as basal and 35 kg of N/ha at 30 days after sowing. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonoas 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing. Drip irrigation: Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5m. Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.

Field preparation: Form raised beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm and the laterals are placed at the centre of each bed.
Sowing: Sow the seeds at an interval of 60 cm distance at the centre of the bed along the laterals. Sow the seeds in polybags @ one per bag for gap filling. Spray pre emergence weedicide like fluchloralin 1 kg a.i. or metalachlor 0.75 kg a.i./ha on third day of sowing. Fertigation: Apply a dose of 150:75:75 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application for F1 hybrid. In respect of phosphorous, 75% has to be applied as a basal dose. After cultivation: Hoe and weed twice or thrice.

Plant protection: Pests
Fruit fly
1. Collect the affected fruits and destroy.
2. The fly population is low in hot day conditions and it is peak in rainy season. Hence adjust the sowing time accordingly.
3. Expose the pupae by ploughing.
4. Use 20 x 15 cm polythene bags, fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal and 1 g of dichlorvos in cotton, 50 traps are required per hectare. Fish meal and dichlorvos impregnated cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively. 5. Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based

Do not use copper and sulphur dust, as these are phytotoxic. Yield: 8 – 10 t/ha in 80 to 90 days for salad.
Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

 

Kanyakumari, Dindigul, Tirunelveli,Theni
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore

 
Fertigation Schedule - Cucumber (Hybrid)
Recommended Dose: 150:75:75 Kg/ha
Sl.
No.
1.

2.

3.

4.

Crop Stage
Crop
establishment
stage

10

Vegetative
stage

20

Flower
initiation
to
first picking

20

Harvesting
stage

40

Total
duration
Total

Duration
in Days

90 days

Fertilizer
Grade
19:19:19 +
MN
13-0-45
Urea
12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea
19:19:19 +
MN
13-0-45
Urea
19:19:19 +
MN
13-0-45
Urea

Total
Fertilizer
(Kg/ha)
19.72

Nutrient Supplied
N

P

K

3.75

3.75

3.75

8.24
22.11
Subtotal
9.21
49.49
95.27
Subtotal
29.61

1.07
10.19
15.01
1.09
43.91
45.00
5.62

3.75
5.63
5.63
5.63

3.75
7.50
22.49
22.49
5.63

20.61
80.00
Subtotal
6.13

2.62
36.71
45.00
0.73

5.63
3.75

9.37
15.00
-

66.00
77.47
Subtotal

8.57
35.69
44.99

3.75

30.00
30.00

150.00

18.75

75.00

N

P

K

10.00

5.00

10.00

30.00

7.50

30.00

30.00

7.50

20.00

30.00

*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 352 Kg/ha
1. 19:19:19
=
55 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45
=
144 kg/ha
3. 12:61:0
=
9 kg/ha
4. Urea
=
275 kg/ha

 

% Requirement

5.00

40.00

100

25

100

 

Gherkin: Cucumis sativus var. anguria; Cucurbitaceae
Hybrids.
Soil: Well-drained sandy loam with a pH range of 6.0 to 6.8 is optimum. Seed rate: 800 g per hectare.
Sowing: Sow the seeds at 30 cm spacing on sides of the ridges with 2 seeds per hill after treating with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g or Pseudomonas @ 10 g or carbendizim @ 2 g/kg of seeds.
Preparatory cultivation: Apply 25 t/ha of FYM. Prepare ridges and furrows one metre apart. Manuring: Apply N - 150 kg, P - 75 kg and K - 100 kg/ha in 3 equal splits i.e., basal, three and five weeks after sowing.

After cultivation: Earth up the plants 25 days after sowing. Provide support to plants as and when vines start trailing.
Drip irrigation: Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5m. Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.

Field preparation: Raise beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.
Fertigation: Apply the recommended dose of fertilizers viz., 150:75:100 Kg NPK / ha fertigate on every third day after sowing.
Plant protection
Pest
Minor pest: To control leaf miner, white fly, aphids and thrips spray Dimethoate 1.5 ml/l or Monocrotophos 1.5 ml/l or Malathion 1.5 ml/l.
Diseases
Spray Carbendazim 0.05 % (0.5 g/l) to control diseases.
Harvest: The crop is ready for harvest in 30-35 days. As the tender immature fruits are meant for canning the price of the produce is decided by the stage of maturity. Smallest fruit (stage 1) which will weigh approximately 4.0g (250 fruits per kg) will fetch the maximum price followed by stage 2 and stage 3. To maintain the grade the harvesting of fruits should be done every day. A day’s break would end up with outsized or overgrown gherkin means loss to farmer. Avoid sharp sun and high temperature while harvesting. For this picking of fruits must be none in the very early morning or late evening. Harvest the fruits by retaining the stalk on the plant. Harvested fruits must be collected under shade. Flower head has to be removed from fruit. Water should not be sprinkled on harvested fruits at any stage. Even if there is surface water during harvest it should be dried by aeration. For collection of fruits jute bags alone have to be used and plastic bags should be totally avoided. The harvested produce should be transported to the factory on the same day before dusk. Leaving the gherkin unprocessed overnight would result in poor quality produce.

Yield: 10 - 12 tonnes/ha in 90 days.

 

 

Watermelon: Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsum and Nakai; Cucurbitaceae Varieties: Sugar Baby and Arka Manik.
Hybrids: Arka Jyoti and Pusa Bedana.
Soil: Sandy loam rich in organic matter with good drainage and pH range of 6.5-7.5. Season and sowing: Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g or carbendazim 2g/kg of seed. Sow the seeds during November-December @ 3.5 kg/ha on one side of the channel with a spacing of 0.9 m between hills. Thin the seedlings 2 per hill

15 days after sowing.
Preparation of field: Plough the field to a fine tilth and form long channels 2.5 m apart. Irrigation: Irrigate the field before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once a week. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 20 t/ha, P 55 kg and K 55 kg as basal and N 55 kg/ha 30 days after sowing. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonoas @ 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake 100 kg before last ploughing. Nursery preparation: Nursery for watermelon can be prepared either with polythene bags of 200 gauge, 10 cm diameter and 15 cm height size or through protrays under protected nursery. In polybag nursery, fill the bags with 1:1:1 ratio of red soil, sand and farmyard manure mixture. Use protrays, each having 98 cells for raising seedlings. Transplant about 12 days old seedlings in the main field.

Drip irrigation: Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m. Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.

Field preparation: Raise beds of 1.2 m width and 30cm height for sowing. Planting: Spread the lateral tubes in the centre of each bed. Irrigate the beds by operating the drip system continuously for 8-12 hrs. Spray pre-emergence weedicide (Pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i/ha) just before planting. Plant the seedlings in the holes made at 60 cm distance. Fertigation : Apply a dose of 200:100:100 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application

After cultivation: Spray ethrel 250 ppm (2.5 ml/10 l of water) 4 times at weekly intervals commencing from 15 days after sowing. Hoe and weed thrice.
Plant protection
Pests
Fruit fly
1. Collect the affected fruits and destroy.
2. The fly population is low in hot day conditions and it is peak in rainy season. Hence adjust the sowing time accordingly.
3. Expose the pupae by ploughing.
 

 
4. Use 20 x 15 cm polythene bags, fish meal trap with 5 g of wet fish meal and 1 g of dichlorvos in cotton, 50 traps are required per hectare. Fish meal and dichlorvos impregnated cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

5. Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based
Do not use copper and sulphur dust, as these are phytotoxic
Yield: 25 – 30 t/ha in 120 days.
Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred Varieties and hybrids
Grade Specification

 

Kancheepuram, Villupuram, Thiruvallur
Coimbatore, Chennai
Mithila, Suganthi, Kiran, Simran, Vishal
Symmetrical and uniform in appearance.
The surface should be waxy and bright in
appearance devoid of scars, sunburn,
transit abrasions or other surface defects.

 
Fertigation Schedule
Watermelon
Recommended Dose: 200:100:100 Kg/ha
Sl.
No.

Duration
in Days

Fertilizer
Grade

Crop
establishment
stage

10

19:19:19 + MN
13-0-45
Urea

2.

Vegetative
stage

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

3.

Flower initiation
to first picking

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

4.

Harvesting
stage

45

19:19:19 + MN
13-0-45
Urea

1.

Crop Stage

Total duration
Total

115 days

Total
Fertilizer
(Kg/ha)
26.81
11.00
29.03
Subtotal
12.28
66.00
109.00
Subtotal
12.28
44.00
115.00
Subtotal

Nutrient Supplied

26.31
78.00
97.52
Subtotal

N

P

K

5.00
1.43
13.35
19.78
1.47
8.58
50.14
60.19
1.47
5.72
52.90
60.09

5.00
5.00
7.49
7.49
7.49
7.49

5.00
4.95
9.95
29.70
29.70
19.80
19.80

5.00
10.14
44.86
60.00
200.06

5.00
5.00
24.98
(or)
25.00

5.00
35.10
40.10
99.35
(or)
100.0
0

*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 469kg/ha.
1. 19:19:19
=
53 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45
=
199kg/ha
3. 12:61:0
=
25 kg/ha
4. Urea
=
351kg/ha

 

% Requirement
N

P

K

10.00

5.00

10.00

30.00

7.50

30.00

30.00

7.50

20.00

30.00

5.00

40.00

100

25

100

 

Muskmelon: Cucumis melo L; Cucurbitaceae
Varieties: Pusa Sharbati, Hara Madhu, Durgapura Madhu, Arka Rajhans and Arka Jeet. Soil: Sandy loam rich in organic matter with good drainage and pH range of 6.5-7.5. Season of sowing: November to February. Sow the seeds @ 3.0 kg/ha after treating with Trichoderma viride @ 4g or Pseudomonas fluroscens @ 10 g or carbendazim@ 2g/kg of seed on one side of the channel giving a spacing of 0.6 m between hills. Thin the seedlings after 15 days, to maintain two per hill.

Preparation of field: Plough the field to a fine tilth and form long channels at 2.5 m apart. Irrigation: Irrigate the field before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once in a week. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 20 t/ha, NPK 40:60:30 kg/ha as basal and N @ 40 kg/ha 30 days after sowing. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas @ 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake 100 kg before last ploughing. Nursery preparation: Nursery for muskmelon can be prepared either with polythene bags of 200 gauge, 10 diameter and 15 cm height size or through protrays under protected nursery. Use protrays, each having 98 cells for raising seedlings. Transplant about 12 days old seedlings in the main field.

Drip irrigation: Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5m. Place the drippers in lateral tubes are at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively. Sowing: Around 250 protrays are required for the production of 23,334 (22,223 + 5%) seedlings, which are required for one hectare at spacing of 1.5 m x 30 cm in a raised bed single row system. Raise beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed. Direct sowing or transplanting is done at a spacing of 1.5 m along the laterals and 30 cm interval in the raised bed single row system, using ropes marked at 30 cm spacing.

Fertigation : Apply a dose of 200:100:100 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application.
After cultivation: Hoe and weed thrice.
Plant protection
Pests
1. Collect the affected fruits and destroy.
2. The fly population is low in hot day conditions and it is peak in rainy season. Hence adjust the sowing time accordingly.
3. Expose the pupae by ploughing.
4. Use 20 x 15 cm polythene bags, fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal and 1 g of dichlorvos in cotton, 50 traps are required per hectare. Fish meal and dichlorvos impregnated cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively. 5.Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based

Do not use copper and sulphur dust, as these are phytotoxic. White fly: Spray neem seed kernel extract 5 %.
Yield: 20 t/ha in 120 days.

 

 
Fertigation schedule-Muskmelon
Recommended dose: 200:100:100 Kg/ha
Sl.
No.

Duration
in Days

Fertilizer
Grade

Crop
establishment
stage

10

19:19:19
MN
13-0-45
Urea

2.

Vegetative
stage

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

3.

Flower initiation
to first picking

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

4.

Harvesting
stage

45

19:19:19
MN
13-0-45
Urea

1.

Crop Stage

Total duration
Total

115 days

Total
Fertilizer
(Kg/ha)
26.81
11.00
29.03

Nutrient Supplied

% Requirement

P

K

N

P

K

5.00
1.43
13.35

5.00
-

5.00
4.95
-

10.00

5.0

10.00

Sub total
12.28
66.00
109.00
Sub total
12.28
44.00
115.00
Sub total

+

N

19.78
1.47
8.58
50.14
60.19
1.47
5.72
52.90
60.09

5.00
7.49
7.49
7.49
7.49

9.95
29.70
29.70
19.80
19.80

30.00

7.50

30.00

30.00

7.50

20.00

26.31
78.00
97.52
Sub total

5.00
10.14
44.86
60.00
200.06

5.00
5.00
24.98
(or)
25.00

5.00
35.10
40.10
99.35
(or)
100.0
0

30.00

5.00

40.00

100

25

100

+

*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 75 x 6.25 = 469 kg/ha. 1. 19:19:19
=
53kg/ha
2. 13:0:45
=
199kg /ha
3. 12:61:0
=
25kg/ha
4. Urea
=
351kg/ha

 

 

Tinda: Citrullus vulgaris var. fistulosus; Schrad Cucurbitaceae Varieties: Annamalai and Arka Tinda.
Soil: Sandy loam rich in organic matter with good drainage and pH range of 6.5-7.5. Season of sowing: January-February Sow the seeds on one side of the channel Seed and rate: 3.5 kg/ha.Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4g or Pseudomonas @ fluorescens 10 g or carbendazim 2g/kg of seed. Thin the seedlings after 15 days to maintain two per pit at 0.9 m spacing.

Preparation of field: Plough the field to fine tilth and form long channels at 1.5m apart. Irrigation: Irrigate the field before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once a week. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 10 t/ha, N 20 kg/ha as basal and N 20 kg/ha 30 days after sowing. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas @ 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing. After cultivation: Hoe and weed thrice.

Plant protection
Pest
Beetles: Spray malathion 50 EC 1 ml/l at weekly intervals.
1. Collect the affected fruits and destroy.
2. The fly population is low in hot day conditions and it is peak in rainy season. Hence adjust the sowing time accordingly.
3. Expose the pupae by ploughing.
4. Use 20 x 15 cm polythene bags, fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal and 1 g of dichlorvos in cotton, 50 traps are required per hectare. Fish meal and dichlorvos impregnated cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively. 5.Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based

Do not use copper and sulphur dust, as these are phytotoxic. White fly: Spray Neem Seed Kernal Extract 5 %.
Yield: 10 t/ha in 90 days.

 

 

Chow chow: Sechium edule; Cucurbitaceae
Varieties: Green fruited and White fruited.
Soil and climate: Requires well drained acidic soil with a pH of 5.5 - 6.5 and thrives best in a temperature range of 18 – 220C and at an altitude of 1200 - 1500m. In plains, it comes up well during winter season.

Preparation of field: Dig pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm at a spacing of 2.4 x 1.8 m. Fill up the pits with 10 kg of FYM, 250 g of urea, 500 g of superphosphate and 500 g of muriate of potash.
Season and sowing
Hills: April - May. Fully matured and sprouted fruits collected from high yielding vines are planted in pits @ 2 –3 per pit.
After cultivation: Hoeing and weeding are done as and when necessary. At initiation of vine growth, stake the plants. Provide pandal at a height of 2m. Prune the plants to ground level during winter from second year after planting. In hills, pruning period is January. Apply 250 g of urea to each vine after pruning and at the time of flowering. Plant protection

Pests
For scales, mealy bugs and aphids, spray Dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/l. Fruit fly
1) Collect the damaged fruits and destroy.
2) The fly population low in hot day condition and it is peak in rainy season. Hence adjust the sowing time accordingly.
3) Plough the field to expose the pupae.
4) Use 20 x 15 cm polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 g of wet fish meal + 1 ml. dichlorvos in cotton. 50 traps are required/ha, fish meal + dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

5) Neem oil @ 3.0 % as foliar spray as need based
Diseases
Mosaic: Spray dimethoate 30 EC @ 1.5 ml/lit or methyl demeton 25 EC @ 1.5 ml/lit. thrice at fortnightly intervals
Yield: 25 - 35 tonnes/ha.

 

 

Cluster beans: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L; Fabaceae
Varieties: Pusa Mausmi, Pusa Sadabahar and Pusa Naubahar.
Soil: Well drained sandy loam with pH range of 7.5-8.0. The crop tolerates salinity. Season and sowing: June - July and October - November. Dibble the seeds on the sides of the ridges 15 cm apart.

Seed rate: 10 kg per ha.
Seed treatment: Treat the seeds with Rhizobial culture @ 600 g/ha using rice gruel as binder. Dry the treated seeds in shade for 15 – 30 minutes before sowing. Preparation of field: Plough the field to fine tilth and form ridges and furrows 45 cm apart. Irrigation: Irrigate the field immediately after sowing then at weekly intervals. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 25 t, Azospirillum @ 2 kg and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg /ha, N 25, P 50 and K 25 kg/ha as basal and 25 kg N/ha 30 days after sowing. Plant protection

Pests
Leaf hoppers, aphids, and glasshouse whitefly
Spray methyl demeton 25 EC or dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/lit.
Ash weevils
Spray phosalone 35 EC @ 1.5 ml/lit.
Diseases
Leaf spot: Spray Mancozeb @ 2 g/l.
Powdery mildew: Spray Wettable sulphur @ 2 g/l or dust Sulphur @ 25 kg/ha. Repeat it at 15 days interval.
Yield: 5 – 7 t/ha in 90 days.
Market information
Crop growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

 

Dindigul,Coimbatore,Namakkal
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore

 

Vegetable Cowpea: Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.; Fabaceae
Varieties: CO 2, VBN 2, Pusa Komal and PKM 1
Soil: Well drained soil with high organic matter.
Season: June – July (Rainfed), February – March (irrigated). Seed rate: 20 kg/ha.
Treat the seeds with 600 g of Rhizobium bacterial culture before sowing as in cluster beans. Dibble the seeds on both sides of the ridges or in lines in the beds. Preparation of field: Plough the field to fine tilth. Form ridges and furrows at 45 cm apart or beds of convenient size.

Spacing: 45 x 15 cm and 60 x 30 cm.
Irrigation: Give irrigation immediately after sowing and on 3rd day, thereafter once a week. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 25 t, Azospirillum @ 2 kg and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg /ha, and N 25 kg and P 50 kg/ha for irrigated crop. Apply FYM at 12.5 t/ha and N 12.5 kg and P 25 kg/ha for rainfed crop. Fertilizers can be applied in several split doses at fortnightly intervals. Pinching : Before flowering, the tendrils should be pinched thrice for getting bushy plants. After cultivation: Give one hoeing and weeding on 25th day after sowing. Plant protection

Pests
Aphids: Spray Dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/l or Methyl demeton 25 EC 1 ml/l. Diseases
Powdery mildew: Dust sulphur 25 kg/ha or spray Wettable sulphur 2 g/l. Yield: 25t/ha in a crop duration of 75 to 90 days.

 

 

Lab lab or Dolichos bean: Lab lab purpureus var. typicus; Fabaceae Varieties - Bush types
CO 6, CO 7, CO 8, CO 9, CO 10, CO 11, CO 12, CO 13, COGB 14, Arka Jay and Arka Vijay. Pandal types: CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, CO 4, CO 5 and Pusa Early Prolific. Soil: Well drained loamy soil with pH range of 6.5-8.5.

Rhizobial treatment: Treat the seeds with three packets (600 g) of rhizobial culture per ha using rice gruel as binder. Dry the treated seeds in shade for 15 – 30 minutes before sowing. Season: Bush type - Throughout year;

Pandal type - July – August.
Seed rate and sowing: 25 kg/ha for Bush type and 5 kg/ha for pandal type. Dibble single seed 30 cm apart on one side of the ridge formed at a spacing of 60 cm for bush type. For pandal type, 2 - 3 seeds/pit at 2 x 3 m spacing. Spacing for CO 1 Dolichos bean is 1 x 1 m. Preparation of field: Plough the land to a fine tilth. Form ridges and furrows 60 cm apart for bush types. Dig pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm at required spacing and fill it up with FYM and soil for pandal type.

Irrigation: Immediately after sowing and on 3rd day, thereafter once a week. After cultivation: Hoe and weed thrice. Provide stakes to reach pandal of 2 m height and train the vines on pandal.
Application of fertilizers
(a) Basal dressing for bush type
Manures
and Irrigated
fertilizers

Dry

FYM

12.5 t/ha

12.5 t/ha

N

25 kg/ha

12.5 kg/ha

P

50 kg/ha

25 kg/ha

K

-

-

b) For pandal type
Apply 10 kg FYM per pit (20 t/ha), 100 g of NPK 6:12:12 mixture as basal and 10 g N per pit after 30 days. Apply 2 kg each of Azospirillium and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of sowing.

 

 
Plant protection
Pests
Pod borer: Spray Carbaryl 50 WP thrice at fortnightly intervals @ of 2 g/l. Dust Carbaryl 10 D @ 25 kg/ha.
Sucking pests: Spray Malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/l or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/l or Methyl demeton 25 EC @ 1 ml/l or Fenthion 1000 EC @ 1 ml/l at 15 days interval to control aphids and other sucking insects.

Diseases
Powdery mildew
Spray Wettable sulphur @ 2 g/l or Carbendazim @ 0.5 g/ litre. Yield
Pandal type : 12 – 13 t/ha
Bush type : 8 – 10 t/ha
Market information
Crop growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

 

Dindigul, Erode, Salem, Theni
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market,
Coimbatore

 

French bean: Phaseolus vulgaris L; Fabaceae
Bush type varieties
Hills: YCD 1, Ooty 2 and Premier.
Plains: Arka Komal, (Sel.9) and Premier.
Soil: Well drained loamy soils with pH range of 5.5-6.0.
Season
Hills

: February – March

Plains : October - November
Sowing: Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg or Thiram or Carbendazim @ 2 g/kg of seed 24 hours before sowing to control fungal diseases. If the crop is raised for the first time, it should be treated with Rhizobium as in cluster beans. In hills, sow the seeds in lines or in beds. In plains, sow the seeds on the sides of the ridges.

Seed rate and spacing
Hills: 80 kg/ha (2 seeds/hill) 30 x 15 cm.
Plains: 50 kg/ha (2 seeds/hill) 45 x 30 cm.
Preparation of field
Hills: Dig the soil thoroughly and incorporate FYM. Form beds of convenient size. Plains: After two ploughings form ridges and furrows.
Irrigation: Immediately after sowing, third day and thereafter once a week. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 25 t/ha at the last ploughing. N at 90 and P at 125 kg/ha should be applied on one side of the ridges. For rainfed conditions of Shevaroy hills, apply as a basal dose of 62.5 kg/ha of Phosphorus as superphosphate and with another half of 62.5 kg/ha Phosphorus as FYM enriched super phosphate.

After cultivation: Weeding should be given 20 – 25 days and 40 – 45 days after sowing. The crop should be earthed up after each weeding.
Plant protection
Pests
Whitefly: Place 20 yellow sticky traps coated with castor oil in polythene sheet to attract the white flies.
Leaf hoppers, aphids, and glasshouse whitefly
Spray methyl demeton 25 EC or dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/lit.
Ash weevils
Spray phosalone 35 EC @ 1.5 ml/lit.
 

 
Pod borer: Spray Carbaryl 50 WP thrice at fortnightly intervals at @ 2 g/l. Dust Carbaryl 10 D @ 25 kg/ha.
Diseases
Powdery mildew: Spray Wettable sulphur @ 2 g/l or dust sulphur @ 25 kg/ha. Rust: Dust Sulphur at 25 kg/ha.
Anthracnose: Spray Mancozeb @ 2 g/l or Carbendazim @ 1 g/l or Chlorothalonil @ 2 g/l. Leaf spot: Spray Mancozeb @ 2 g/l.
Root rot: Drench Carbendazim @ 1 g/l.
Mosaic : Select disease free planting materials. Spray Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l or Methyl Demeton @ 25 EC 2 ml/l thrice at fortnightly intervals.
Yield: 8 - 10 t/ha of green pods in 90 - 100 days.

Pole type
Varieties: TKD 1, KKL-I, Ooty 1, Murungai beans.
Soil: Well drained loamy soils with pH range of 5.5-6.0.
Season and sowing
Hills: February – March and July - August.
Preparation of field: Prepare the land to fine tilth. Sow the seeds at a spacing of 20 cm between plants in double rows of 30 cm apart with a distance of 1.5 metre between each pair of rows.
Seed rate: 50 - 55 kg/ha. Treat the seeds with Rhizobium @ (4 packets/ha). Irrigation: Immediately after sowing, on 3rd day and thereafter once in a week. Application of fertilizers: FYM 25 t/ha, 90 kg each of NPK as basal and 45 kg each 20 days after sowing.

After cultivation: First weeding and staking 20 days after sowing. Plant protection
Pests
Whitefly: Place 20 yellow sticky traps coated with castor oil in polythene sheet to attract the white flies.
Leaf hoppers, aphids, and glasshouse whitefly
Spray Methyl demeton @ 25 EC or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/l.
 

 
Ash weevils
Spray Phosalone 35 EC @ 1.5 ml/l.
Diseases
Mosaic: Remove the affected plants and spray systemic insecticides to control insect vectors. Powdery mildew: Spray Wettable sulphur @ 2 g/l or dust sulphur @ 25 kg/ha. Rust: Dust sulphur @ 25 kg/ha.

Anthracnose: Spray Mancozeb @ 2 g/l. Remove the affected plants and pods. Yield: Green pods 8 - 10 t/ha in 90 to 110 days.

 

 

Broad beans: Vicia faba L; Fabaceae
Varieties: SWS 1 (Suttan White Seeded), BR 1 (Bihar Black Seeded) and BR 2 (Bihar Yellow Seeded).
Soil: Thrives in almost all soils with a pH range of 6.5-7.5 in hills only. Season and sowing: Sow the seeds during July – August and November - December at 25 kg/ha at 45 x 15 cm spacing.
Preparation of field: Plough the land to a fine tilth, level and form beds. Irrigation: Once in 5 days.
Application of fertilizers: Apply 25 t of FYM and 50 kg P and 25 kg K/ha as basal dose. 25 kg N and 25 kg of K/ha are applied between 20 - 25 days after sowing and application of remaining 25 kg of N is done between 40 and 45 days.

After cultivation: Earthing up is done on 45th day after sowing. As soon as the plants grow, flowering top is pinched off which causes the pods to develop early. Yield: 400 - 500 kg of beans/ha in 10 - 12 months.

 

 

Peas: Pisum sativum L.; Fabaceae
Varieties: Ooty 1, Bonneville, Arkel, Azad.
Soil: Well drained loamy soil with optimum pH range of 6-7.5. Season and sowing: Sow the seeds during February - March and October - November in plains. Treat the seeds with Trichoderma @ 4 g/kg or Thiram or Captan @ 2 g/kg of seeds a to avoid seed borne diseases. Treat the seeds with Rhizobium culture @ of 2 kg and apply 2 kg Phosphobacteria as soil application just before sowing.

Preparation of field: Dig the land thoroughly to fine tilth. Spacing: 45 x 10 cm.
Seed rate: 100 kg/ha.
Irrigation: Once in a week.
Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM @ 20 t/ha and 60 kg N, 80 kg P and 70 kg K/ha as basal and 60 kg N/ha 30 days after sowing.
After cultivation: Weeding should be done 15 days after sowing. Subsequent weedings as and when necessary. Stake the plants on 30th day of sowing.
Harvest
Harvest can be done on 75 days after sowing. High temperature during harvest affects the quality of peas.
Plant protection
Pests
Pod borer: Spray Carbaryl 50 WP thrice at fortnightly intervals @ 2 g/lit. Dust with Carbaryl 10 D at the rate of 25 kg/ha.
Aphids: Spray Methyl demeton 25 EC or Dimethoate 30 EC or Monocrotophos 36 WSC or Phosphamidon 40 SL @ 1 ml/l of water.
Diseases
Powdery mildew: Spray wettable sulphur @ 2 g/l or Dinocap @ 1 ml/l or Tridemorph @ 0.5 ml/l or dust sulphur @ 25 kg/ha three rounds at 15 days interval. Yield: 8 -12 t/ha
Market information
Crop growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

Grade Specification

 

Nilgiris, Dindigul
Mettupalayam,
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore
The edible-pods should be uniformly bright
green (light to deep green but not
yellowgreen), fully turgid, clean, and free from
damage.

 

Annual moringa: Moringa oleifera L.; Moringaceae
Varieties: PKM 1 and PKM 2.
Soil: Comes up well in a wide range of soil. A deep sandy loam soil with a pH of 6.5 – 8 is ideal. Season: July – October.
Seed rate: 500 g/ha
Sow two seeds per pit at a depth of 2.5-3.0 cm. The seeds can also be sown in polybags containing pot mixture and transplanted after 35 -40 days of sowing. Preparatory cultivation: Dig pits of size 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm with a spacing of 2.0-2.5 m either way. Apply 15 kg of compost or FYM/pit after mixing with top soil. High density planting and fertigation in moringa PKM 1

High density planting at 1.5 X 1.0 m spacing with two plants/hill and plant population 13,333 / ha along with the application of fertilizer dose of 135: 23 :45 g of NPK/pit (150%) through drip increases the yield of moringa. In this phosphorus should be applied basally as soil application. N and K can be applied in the form of urea and muriate of potash through drip.  For PKM-2, the closest spacing of 1.2 x 1.2 m is ideal to obtain the highest yield of 138 t/ha. The pinching of main shoots on 80th day after sowing will also help register the highest yield of fruits.

After cultivation: Gap filling may be done within a month. Pinch off the seedlings when they are about 75 cm in height to facilitate more branching. Short duration vegetables like cowpea, bhendi and tomato can be grown as intercrop.

 For perennial moringa, medium pruning of shoots at 70 cm from the tip has to be followed to regulate flowering and obtain the highest yield of 37 kg/ tree. Manuring: A fertilizer dose of 45:15:30 g of NPK/pit may be applied 3 months after sowing. Apply 45 g of N/pit after 6 months when the crop is in bearing. Irrigation: Irrigate before sowing, on 3rd day after sowing and subsequently at 10 to 15 days interval according to soil type.

Plant protection
Pests
Moringa pod fly management
Soil application of Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 200g a.i. / ha on 150, 180 and 210 days after planting; placement of fermented tomato fruit trap @ 25 / ha; and need based foliar spray of Spinosad 45 SC @ 56g a.i. / ha followed by Profenophos 50 EC@ 250g a.i. / ha Bud worm, leaf caterpillar and leaf webber: Dust Carbaryl 10 D @ 25 kg/ha or spray Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/l.

Hairy caterpillar
Use flame torch when the caterpillars settle on the tree trunk

 

 

Ratoon crop:
Cut back the trees at 90 cm from ground level after the harvest is over. In another 4 – 5 months, plants will again come for harvest. Two ratoon crops can be taken. Apply the fertilizer dose of 45:15:30 g NPK/plant, within a week after cutting back along with 25 kg of FYM or compost every time.

Yield: 50 - 55 tonnes of pods/ha (220 pods/tree/year).
Market information
Crop growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

Preferred Varieties and hybrids

 

Dindigul, Thoothukudi, Theni, Karur, Tiruppur
Dindigul,
Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu,
Chennai
Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram
Natchipalayam vegetable market, Coimbatore
PKM 1, PKM 2 and KM 1

 

Baby corn: Zea mays; Poaceae
Variety: COBC 1
Soil: All maize growing soils with a pH range of 6-7.
Season
Irrigated : Throughout the year.
Rainfed : June – July and September – October.
Seed rate: 25 kg/ha.
Preparation of field: Plough the field to fine tilth. Form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 45 cm and sow the seeds at a spacing of 25cm on one side of the ridge. Irrigation: First irrigation after sowing, second on third day and thereafter once in ten days. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 12.5 t/ha, NPK 75, 60, 20 kg/ha as basal, 75 kg N and 20 kg K top dressed on 25th day after sowing.

After cultivation
First weeding
Earthing up and top dressing
De-tasseling (removal of male flowers)

: 15 days after sowing.
: 25 days after sowing.
: 40 - 45 days before pollen shedding

Plant protection
Basal application: Carbofuran 3 G 10 kg/ha is to be applied and incorporated. Yield
Tender cob (baby corn)
Green fodder

 

: 6660 kg/ha
: 32.2 t/ha

 

Chapter B

Cole Vegetables
Cabbage: Brassica oleracea var. capitata; Brassicaceae
Varieties
Hills: Quisto.
Plains: Golden Acre and Maha Rani.
Soil: It is grown in varied types of soils ranging from sandy loam to clay. It requires a pH range of 5.5 to 6.5.
Season of sowing
Hills: January – February, July – August and September – October. Plains: August – November.
Seed rate: 650 g/ha.
Nursery: 100 sq.m nursery area/ha. Apply FYM at 300 kg and 10 kg of No.5 mixture (9:9:9) along with 50 g of sodium molybdate and 100 g of borax. Sow the seeds in rows drawn at 10 cm spacing in raised seed beds after drenching it with Copper oxychloride (2.5 g/l). Seedlings will be ready for transplanting in 40-45 days after sowing. Avoid land infected with ‘club root disease’.

Protected nursery
Raise the seedlings in shade net house. A nursery area of 5 cents with a slanting slope of 2% is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Cover the nursery area with 50 per cent shade net and the sides with 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net. Form the raised beds of 1m width and convenient length inside the nursery and above the beds, the portrays are placed. Protray

The Protrays of 98 cells are ideal for cabbage seedling production. Around 600 protrays are required for the production of 28.333 seedlings required for one hectare at spacing of 60x45x45 cm in three row planting

Growing medium
The sterilized cocopeat @ 720kg / ha is mixed with 10kg of neem cake and Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 1kg. About 1.25 kg of the cocopeat medium is required for each tray.
Seed treatment
250 g of hybrid cabbage seed is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Treat the seeds in hot water @ 50C for 30 minutes. 25g of Azospirillum is required for the seed treatment of 250g cabbage seeds.

 

 
Sowing
Sow the seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell. Cover the seeds with cocopeat and keep the tray one over the other (8-10Nos) and covered with polythene sheet for 5 days or till germination starts. After 5 days when the seeds are germinated arrange the protrays on the raised beds inside the shade net nursery. Water the tray by rose can everyday (twice / day) upto seed germination. Drench with 19:19:19 + MN @ 0.5 % (5g/lit) solution using rose can or spray micro nutrient of 0.5 % at 18 days after sowing. The cabbage seedlings are ready for transplanting in 25 days

Preparation of field: Bring the soil to a fine tilth. Pits should be taken up at a spacing of 40 cm either way in Hills. Ridges and furrows are formed at 45 cm apart in plains. Spacing
Hills : 40 x 40 cm
Plains : 45 x 30 cm
Irrigation: Provide continuous supply of moisture.
Drip irrigation
Install drip system with main and sub-main and place the inline laterals at the interval of 1.5. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH or 50 cm for 3.5 LPH in the lateral system. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.

Application of fertilizers
Hills: Apply 30 t/ha FYM, 90 kg N, 90 kg P and 90 kg K as basal and 45:45:45 kg NPK/ha 30 to 45 days after planting. Apply departmental micronutrient mixture (borax & molybdenum) @ 2 kg per ha as basal dressing.

Plains: Apply 20 t/ha of FYM. 50 kg N, 125 kg P and 25 kg K/ha along with 2 kg Azospirillum as basal and 50 kg N after one month of planting and earth up.
Fertigation
Fertigation requirement for F1 hybrid: 200: 125:150 kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in three days throughout the cropping period.
Spacing : 60x 45x45cm in paired row system

 

 
Fertigation schedule
Recommended Dose: 200:125:150 kg/ha
Sl.No.

Crop Stage

Duration
in days

Fertilizer
grade

Total
fertilizer
s

1

Transplanting
to
plant
establishment

10

19:19:19+
MN
13-0.45
Urea

32.87
19.42
24.36

N
6.25
2.52
11.21

P
6.25
-

K
6.25
8.74
-

2

Head initiation
stage

30

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

Sub total
20.37
133.20
130.74

19.98
2.44
17.32
60.14

6.25
12.50
-

14.99
59.94
-

Sub total

79.90

12.50

59.54

32.87
86.02
92.37

6.25
11.18
42.49

6.25
-

6.25
38.71
-

Sub total
10.18
66.60
65.38
Sub total

59.92
1.22
8.66
30.07
39.95

6.25
6.25
6.25

44.96
29.97
29.97

Total

199.75
(or)
200.00

31.25

149.8
5
(or)
150.0
0

3

Head initiation
to development
stage

30

19:19:19+
MN
13-0.45
Urea

4

Harvesting
stage

35

12-61-0
13.0-45
Urea

Total duration

105

Nutrient supplied

% Requirement

N
10.00

P
5.00

K
10.00

30.00

10.00

30.00

20.00

5.00

20.00

40.00

5.00

40.00

100.0
0

25.00

100.0
0

75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate in plains and rock phosphate in hills (589 kg/ha)
1. 19:19:19 = 66 kg / ha
2. 13:0:45 = 305 kg / ha
3. 12:61:0 = 31 kg / ha
4. Urea = 313 kg / ha
After cultivation: Deep hoeing should be avoided, as the Cabbage roots are surface feeders. Plant protection
Pests
Aphids:
Install yellow sticky trap @12 no/ha to monitor “macropterous” adults (winged adult). Spray neem oil 3 % with 0.5 ml Teepol/lit or any one of the following insecticide Insecticide
Dose
Azadirachtin 0.03% WSP (300 ppm) 5.0 g/lit.
Dimethoate 30 % EC
6.0 ml/10 lit.
Malathion 50 % EC
1.5 ml/lit.
Phosalone 35 % EC
1.5 ml/lit.
Quinalphos 25 % EC
1.0 ml/lit.
Diamond backmoth
1. Grow mustard as intercrop at 20:1 ratio to attract diamond back moths for oviposition.  

 
Periodically spray the mustard crop with insecticide to avoid the dispersal of the larvae. 2. Install pheromone traps @ 12/ha.
3. Spray cartap hydrochloride 1 g/lit or Bacillus thuringiensis @ 2 g/lit at primordial stage (ETL 2 larvae/plant).
4. Release parasite Diadegma semiclausum @ 50,000/ha, 60 days after planting. 5. Spray NSKE 5 % after primordial stage or any one of the following insecticide Insecticide
Dose
Azadirachtin 0.03% WSP (300 ppm)
5.0 g/lit.
Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki 5 % WP
1.0 g/lit.
Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 % SC
1.0 ml/10 lit.
Chlorfenapyr 10 % SC
1.5 ml/lit.
Chlorpyrifos 20 % EC
2.0 ml/lit.
Diafenthiuron 50 % WP
8.0 g/10 lit.
Emamectin benzoate 5 % SG
4 g/10 lit.
Fipronil 5 % SC
1.6 ml/lit.
Flubendiamide 20 WDG
2.5 g/10 lit.
Flufenoxuron 10 % DC
4 ml/10 lit.
Indoxacarb 14.5 % SC
3.5 ml/10 lit.
Indoxacarb 15.8 % SC
2.7 ml/10 lit.
Lufenuron 5.4 % EC
1.2 ml/ lit.
Metaflumizone 22 % SC
1.5 ml/lit.
Novaluron 10 % EC
7.5 ml/10 lit.
Pyridalyl 10 % EC
1.0 ml/lit.
Spinosad 2.5 % SC
1.2 ml/lit.
Thiodicarb 75 % WP
1.5 g/lit.
Trichlorofon 50 % EC
1.0 ml/ lit.
Diseases
Club root:
Biological control
Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 g/ kg of seeds, followed by seedling dip @ 5g/ l and soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha along with 50 kg FYM before planting Chemical control
Dip the seedlings in Carbendazim solution 2 g/l for 20 minutes. Drench the soil around the seedlings in the main field with Carbendazim @ 1 g/l of water. Follow crop rotation. Crucifers should be avoided for three years.

Leaf spots: Spray Mancozeb at 2 g/l or Carbendazim 1 g/l.
Leaf Blight: Spray Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/ l.
Ring spot: Spray Mancozeb 2 g/l or Carbendzim 1 g/l or Copper oxychloride 2.5 g/lit. Downy mildew: Spray combination of Metalaxyl + Mancozeb 2 g/l 3 sprays at 10 days interval. Black rot: Dip the seeds in 100 ppm Streptocycline for 30 minutes. Two sprays with 2 g/l Copper oxychloride + Streptomycin 100 ppm after planting and head formation.

 

 
Yield
Hills : 70 – 80 t/ha in 150 days.
Plains : 25 – 35 t/ha in 120 days.
Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade Specification

 

Nilgris, Krishnagiri, Theni, Erode
Mettupalayam, Ottanchathiram, Hosur
and Dindigul
Size and Weight

 

Cauliflower: Brassica oleracea var. botrytis; Brassicaceae
Varieties
Hills: Ooty 1, Pusa Dapoli.
Plains: Early Synthetic, Pawas, NS131.
Climate and Soil: It requires cool moist climate. Deep loamy soils are good with high organic matter and good drainage. It can be grown in a pH range of 5.5 to 6.6. Season and sowing: The early varieties may tolerate higher temperature and long days. This can be grown in plains during September to February. Late Varieties Snowball types can be grown in hills.

Nursery: 100 sq.m nursery area/ha. Apply FYM at 300 kg and 10 kg of No.5 mixture (9:9:9) along with 50 g of sodium molybdate and 100 g of borax. Sow the seeds at 10 cm between rows in raised seed beds after drenching with Copper oxychloride (2.5 g/l). Transplant 30 to 40 days old seedlings at a spacing of 45 cm. Avoid land infected with ‘club root disease’. Seed rate: 375 g/ha.

Sow the seeds in raised beds and transplant 25 days (early varieties), 45 days (late varieties) old seedlings at 45 cm apart
Protected nursery
Raise the seedlings in shade net house. A nursery area of 5 cents with slanting slope of 2% is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha.Cover the nursery area with 50 per cent shade net and the sides with 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net. Form the raised beds of 1m width and convenient length inside the nursery and above the beds, place the protrays. Protray

The Protrays of 98 cells are ideal for cauliflower seedling production. Around 600 protrays are required for of 28,333 seedlings required for one hectare at a spacing of 60 x 45 x 45 cm in three row planting

Growing medium
The sterilized cocopeat @ 720kg / ha is mixed with 10kg of neem cake and Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 1kg. About 1.25 kg of the cocopeat medium is required for each tray.
Seed treatment
250 g of hybrid cauliflower seed is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Treat the seeds in hot water @ 50C for 30 minutes. 25g of Azospirillum is required for the seed treatment of 250g cauliflower seeds.

Sowing
Sow the seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell. Cover the seeds with cocopeat, keep the tray one over the other (8-10Nos) and cover with polythene sheat for 5 days or till germination starts. After 5 days when the seeds are germinated, arrange the protrays on the raised beds inside the shade net nursery. Water the tray by rose can everyday (twice / day) and drench  

 
with 19:19:19 + MN @ 0.5 % (5g/l) solution using rose can or spray micronutrient at 0.5 % 18 days after sowing. The cauliflower seedlings are ready for transplanting in 25 days Preparation of field: Bring the soil to fine tilth. Pits should be taken at a spacing of 45 cm either way in hills. Form ridges and furrows at 60 cm in plains.

Irrigation
Hills: Once in a week during January and February.
Plains: Once in a week.
Drip irrigation
Install drip system with main and sub-main and the inline laterals placed at the interval of 1.5 m. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH or 50 cm for 3.5 LPH, in the lateral system. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.

Application of fertilizers
Hills: Apply 30 t/ha of FYM and 90 kg N, 90 kg P and 90 kg K as basal dose and 45:45:45 kg NPK/ha after 45 days.
Plains: Apply 15 t of FYM/ha and 50 kg N, 100 kg P and 50 kg K as basal and 50 kg N after 45 days. Apply 2 kg of Departmental vegetable micronutrient mixture without mixing with the chemical fertilizers.

Fertigation
Fertigation requirement for F1 hybrid: 200: 125: 125 kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in every three days throughout the cropping period.
Spacing: 60x 45x45cm in paired row system

 

 
Fertigation schedule
Recommended Dose: 200:125:125 kg/ha
Sl.
No

Crop Stage

Durati
on in
Days

Fertilizer
Grade

Total
Fertilizer
(kg/ha)

1

Transplanting
to
establishment
stage

10

19:19:19+
MN
13-0-45
Urea (46%
N)

62.66

N
11.906

P
11.906

K
11.906

7.33
15.33

0.953
7.866

-

3.300
-

85.333
111.333
31.333
204.00

19.913
14.473
3.760
93.84

11.906
19.113
-

15.206
50.100
-

346.666

19.113

50.100

148.00

112.073
33
68.08

-

120.666
268.666
Total

68.080
200.06

31.019

Sub total
2
Curd initiation
stage

25

13-0-45
12-61-0
Urea (46%
N)

Sub total
3

Curd
development
stage
Sub total
Total Duration

35

Urea (46%
N)
0-0-50

70

Nutrient supplied

% Requirement

N
10.00

P
9.70

K
12.00

56.00

15.30

40.00

-

34.00

-

48.00

60.333
125.63

100

25

100

75% of RD of P applied as superphosphate = 586 kg/ha
1.19: 19: 19+MN = 63 kg
2.13: 0: 45
= 119 kg
3. Urea
= 368 kg
4. 0-0-50
= 121 kg
5. 12:61:0
= 32 kg
After cultivation: Gap filling after 20 days of planting to maintain the population and uniform growth. Hoeing and weeding on 30th and 45th day. Avoid deep intercultivation as it is a shallow rooted crop.

Plant protection
Pests
Aphids:
Install yellow sticky trap @ 12 no/ha to monitor Macropterous adults (winged adult). Apply phorate 10 % G @ 20 kg /ha or spray neem oil 3 % with 0.5ml teepol/lit or spray any one of the following insecticide

Insecticide
Dose
Azadirachtin 5% Neem Extract 5.0 ml/10 lit.
Concentrate
Dimethoate 30 % EC
7.0ml/10 lit.
Diamond backmoth
1. Grow mustard as intercrop at 20:1 ratio.
2. Install pheromone traps @ 12 No/ha.
3. Release larval parasite Diadegma semiclausum @ 50,000/ ha, 60 days after planting  

 
4. Spray NSKE 5 % or cartap hydrochloride @ 1 g/lit or Bacillus thuringiensis @ 1g/lit at primordial stage (ETL 2 larvae/plant) or any of the following insecticides Insecticide
Dose
Azadirachtin
5%
Neem 5.0 ml/10 lit.
Extract Concentrate
Lufenuron 5.4 % EC
1.2 ml/lit.
Spinosad 2.5 % SC
1.2 ml/lit.
Trichlorofon 50 % EC
1.0 ml/lit.

Diseases
Club root:
Biological control
Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 g/ kg of seeds, followed by seedling dip @ 5g/ l and soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha along with 50 kg FYM before planting Chemical control
Dip the seedlings in Carbendazim solution 2 g/l for 20 minutes. Drench the soil around the seedlings in the main field with Carbendazim @ 1 g/l of water. Follow crop rotation. Crucifers should be avoided for three years

Leaf Spot: Spray Mancozeb at 2 g/l or Carbendazim 1 g/l.
Leaf Blight: Spray Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/ litre.
Blanching: Blanching refers to covering of curds. A perfect curd is pure white. It is necessary to exclude sunlight to obtain this. The common practice is to bring the outer leaves up over the curd and tie them with a twine or rubber band. By using a different coloured twine each day. It is easy at the time of harvest to select those tied earlier.

Physiological disorders
Browning or brown rot: This is caused by boron deficiency. It appears as water soaked areas and later change into rusty brown. Spray one kg of borax in 500 l of water 30 days after planting.
Whip tail: This results from the deficiency of molybdenum. It is more pronounced in acidic soil. The leaf blades do not develop properly. In severe cases, only the midrib develops and it can be corrected by spraying 100 g of Sodium molybdate in 500 l of water 30 days after planting. Buttoning: The term buttoning is applied to the development of small curds or buttons. The plants do not develop normally and leaves remain small and do not cover the developing curds. Deficiency of nitrogen and planting the early varieties late may cause these symptoms. Avoid transplanting of aged seedlings.

Blindness: Blind-cauliflower plants are those without terminal buds. The leaves are large, thick, leathery and dark green. It is due to the prevalence of low temperature when the plants are young or due to damage to the terminal bud during handling the plants or due to injury by pests.

 

 
Yield
Hills : 20 – 30 t/ha
Plains : 15 – 20 t/ha

Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade Specification

 

Dindigul, Theni, Coimbatore,
Tiruppur
Mettupalayam, Coimbatore,
Ottanchathiram, Koyambedu
Size and colour

 

Chapter C

Root and Tuber vegetables
Carrot: Daucus carota L; Umbelliferae
Varieties
Hills: Ooty-1, Early Nantes and New Korda.
Plains: India Gold, Pusa Kesar and Half Long Danvers.
Climate and Soil: The Carrot is a cool season crop and when grown at 15°C to 20°C will develop a good colour. The carrot crop needs deep loose loamy soil. It requires a soil pH range of 6.0 to 7.0.

.
Season
Hills: At elevation above 1500 metres, carrot can be grown throughout the year under assured irrigation. At elevations between 1000 – 1500 metres. Carrot can be grown in July – February. Plains: August.

Seed rate: 4 kg/ha.
Mark the rows with a spacing of 25 – 30 cm. Sow the seeds mixed with sand (one part of seed with 4 parts of sand).
Thinning
Hills: 10 cm between plants.
Plains: 5 cm between plants.
Preparation of field
Hills: Prepare the land to a fine tilth and form raised beds of one metre breadth and convenient length.
Plains: Two ploughings are given and ridges and furrows are formed at 30 cm spacing. Irrigation: Once in five days.
Application of fertilizers: 30 t of FYM and 90:90:90 kg of NPK per ha as basal dose and 45:45:45 kg of NPK after 45 days. Apply 25 kg of ZnSO4/ha as basal. After cultivation: Spray Fluchloralin 1 l a.i./ha immediately after sowing the seeds to control weeds or first weeding to be done on 15th day. Thinning and earthing up should be given on 30th day.

Splitting of roots is a physiological disorder which is usually seen when there is a sudden increase in soil moisture after prolonged drought. Forking is another phenomenon where in the hard soil does not allow the straight growth of tap root which results in formation of forked root.  

 
Forked roots and split roots fetch poor price in market. Keeping the soil moisture at optimum condition will help to keep the soil also loose thereby help to avoid splits and forked roots. Plant protection: Carrot is not much affected by pests.

Nematode: Application of neem cake @ 1 ton/ha at planting to control root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp.
Diseases
Leaf spot : Spray Mancozeb at 2 g/l.
Yield: 25 – 30 t/ha in 100 – 120 days.
Root and Tuber vegetables
Market information
Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade Specification

 

Nilgiris, Dindigul and Krishnagiri
Mettupalayam, Dindigul, Coimbatore and
Chennai
Size, diameter or length.

 

Radish: Raphanus sativus L; Brassicaceae
Varieties
Hills: White Icicle, Scarlet globe, Rapid Red White Tipped
Plains: CO 1, Pusa Rashmi, Pusa Chetki, Pusa Desi, Japanese White and Arka Nishant. Soil: Sandy loam soils with high organic matter. The optimum soil pH is 5.5 to 6.8. Roots of best size, flavour and texture are developed at about 15°C.

Season of sowing: June –July in hills and from September in plains. Seed rate: 10 kg/ha.
Preparation of field: The land should be prepared to fine tilth and levelled. Spacing: 15 x 10 cm.
Irrigation
Plains: Once in a week.
Drip irrigation
Install the drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5. Place the dripper in lateral tubes at an interval of 60cm and 50cm spacing with 4LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed. Application of fertilizers

Plains: Apply FYM at 25 t/ha and 25 kg N, 100 kg P and 50 kg K/ha as basal dressing and 25 kg N/ha after 30 days.
Fertigation
Fertigation requirement :50:100:50kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in three days Spacing : 30x15x10 cm in paired row system. A total of 10 rows is accommodated in one bed. After cultivation: Weeding and hoeing should be done at the second weeding, thinning of thickly sown plants should be done.

Plant protection
Pests
Aphids, flea beetles and mustard saw fly: Spray Malathion 50 EC 1 ml/l twice or thrice at 10 days intervals.
Diseases
White rust: Spray Mancozeb 2 g/l or Copper oxychloride 2 g/l. Yield: 20 – 30 t/ha in 45 – 60 days.

 

 
Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu

Vellore, Dindigul, Thanjavur, Nilgris
Mettupalayam, Dindigul, Coimbatore and
Chennai
Size, Shape

Grade Specification
Fertigation schedule
Recommended Dose: 50:100:50 kg/ha

100% of TRD: 50: 25: 50

Crop Stage

Duration in
Days

Fertilizer
Grade

Total
Fertilizer

1

Vegetative
stage

15

19:19:19
+MN
13-0.45
Urea

40

N
7.5

P
7.5

K
7.5

N
20

P
7.50

K
20

5.5
4.0
subtotal
66

0.7
1.8
10
12.5

7.5
12.5

2.5
10
12.5

50

12.50

50

28
20

3.6
8.9

-

12.5
-

subtotal

25

12.5

25

26

5.0

5.0

5.0

30

5.0

30

22
16
subtotal
Total

2.9
7.1
15
50

5
25

10.0
15
50

100

25

100

2

3

Early
Root
development
stage

Root maturity
stage
Total

4

20

10

45

19:19:19
+MN
13-0.45
Urea
Urea

19:19:19
+MN
13-0.45
Urea

Nutrient supplied

NPK kg/ha

S.No.

% Requirement

75% RD of Phosphorous applied as super phosphate = 500kg /ha. 1. 19:19:19 = 125 kg / ha
2. 13:0:45 = 50 kg / ha
4. Urea = 50 kg / ha

 

 

Beet root: Beta vulgaris L.; Chenopodiaceae
Varieties: Ooty 1, Crimson Globe, Detroit Dark Red and Red Ball. Soil: It comes up well in all types of friable soils. The suitable soil pH is 6.0-7.0. It is considered to be a cool weather crop.
Season and sowing: July – August.
Seed rate: Sow 6 kg/ha directly in ridges at a spacing of 10 cm. Preparation of field: Plough to a fine tilth and form ridges and furrows 30 cm apart. Irrigation: Irrigate the field copiously immediately after sowing and afterwards as and when necessary.

Drip irrigation
Install the drip system with main and sub main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m. Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM at 20 t/ha and 60:160:100 kg NPK/ha as basal and 60 kg N/ha after 30 days.

Fertigation:
Fertigation requirement: 120:160:100kg / ha
Spacing: 30 x30 x10 cm as four rows in each paired row / raised bed system.

 

 
Fertigation schedule
Recommended Dose: 120:160:100 kg/ha
S.No.

Crop Stage

Duration
in days

Fertilizer
grade

Total
fertilizer
(kg/ha)

Nutrient supplied

2

3

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Vegetative
stage

Early phase of
Root
development

Maturity
stage

30

60

30

19:19:19+
MN
13-0.45
12-61-0
Urea
13-0-45
12-61-0
Urea
0-0-50
Urea

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

42.11

N
8.00

P
8.00

K
8.00

4.44
19.67
80.44
subtotal
88.89
19.67
73.96
40.00

0.58
2.36
37.00
48.00
11.55
2.36
34.02
-

12.00
20.00
12.00
-

2.00
10.00
40.00
20.00

subtotal

1

48.00

12.00

60.00

13.12
66.67
29.85
subtotal
Total

1.57
8.67
13.76
24.00
120.00

8.00
8.00
40.00

30.00
30.00
100.00

% Requirement

N
40.00

P
12.50

K
10.00

40.00

7.50

60.00

20.00

5.0

30.00

100

25

100

*75% RD of P applied as super phosphate=810 kg/ha.
19:19:19 = 42 kg / ha
12:61:0 = 52 kg / ha
13:0:45 = 160 kg / ha
0:0:50 = 40 kg / ha
Urea
= 184 kg / ha

After cultivation: 20 days after sowing thin to a single seedling per hill. Plant protection
Pests
Leaf miner and flea beetle: Spray Malathion 50 EC 2 ml/l.
Diseases
Cercospora leaf spot: Spray Mancozeb at 2 g/l.
Rhizoctonia root rot: Spot drenching with Carbendazim at 1 g/l. Yield: 20 - 25 t/ha in 120 days.
Market informtion
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade Specification

 

Tiruppur, Coimbatore ,Nilgiris,
Dindigul ,Theni,
Mettupalayam, Coimbatore, Erode
Size

 

Potato: Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae
Varieties: Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Muthu, Kufri Swarna, Kufri Thangam , Kufri Malar and Kufri Giriraj. Soil and climate: The soil should be friable, porous and well drained. The optimum pH range is 4.8 to 5.4. It is a cool weather crop. Potato is mostly grown as a rainfed crop. Cultivated in regions receiving a rainfall of 1200 - 2000 mm per annum.

Season and planting
Hills
Summer
: March – April
Autumn
: August – September
Irrigated
: January – February
Plains: October – November.
Use disease free, well spouted seeds weighing 40 – 50 g. Use Carbon disulphide 30 g/100 kg of seeds for breaking the dormancy and inducing sprouting of seeds. Plant the tubers 20 cm apart.
Seed rate: 3000 – 3500 kg/ha.
Preparation of field: Prepare the land to fine tilth. In hills provide an inward slope of 1.40 in the terraces. Provide drainage channel along the inner edge of the terrace. Form ridges and furrows with a spacing of 45 cm between ridges.

Irrigation: Irrigate the crop 10 days after planting. Subsequently irrigation should be given once a week.
Drip irrigation
Install drip system with main and sub-main and place the inline laterals at the interval of 1.5. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH or 50 cm for 3.5 LPH in the lateral system. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.

Application of fertilizers: Apply 15 t of FYM/ha, and 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria as basal and 120 kg N, 240 kg P and 120 kg K/ha in two splits; half as basal and the balance for top dressing 30 days after sowing. Apply magnesium sulphate at 60 kg/ha as basal dose.

Fertigation
Fertigation requirement - 120: 240:120 kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in every three days throughout the cropping period.
Spacing: 60 x 30 x 20cm in paired row system

 

 
Fertigation schedule: Potato (Variety)
Recommended dose: 120:240:120 kg/ha
S. No.

1

Crop Stage

Planting to crop
establishment

Duratio
n in
days

19:19:19
+MN

Total
fertilizer
(kg/ha)

Nutrient supplied
N

K

N
10.00

5.00

10.00

30.00

10.00

30.00

40.00

5.00

30.00

35

12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

20.00

5.0

30.00

100.0
0

25.00

100.00

12.00

12.00

12.00

39.34
106.67
63.82

4.72
13.87
29.36

24.00
-

48.00
-

47.95

24.00

12.00
6.93
17.04

12.00
-

12.00
24.00
-

35.97

12.00

36.00

19.67
53.33
31.92

2.36
6.93
14.68

12.00
-

24.00
-

23.97

12.00

119.89

60.00

24.00
120.0
0

K

48.00

63.15
53.33
37.04

P

12.00

Total

Tuber
development
stage

35

12.00

Sub total

4

Tuber
formation stage

19:19:19
+MN
13-0-45
Urea

12.00

subtotal

3

30

63.15

subtotal

2

12-61-0
13-0.45
Urea

% Requirement

P

subtotal
Vegetative
stage

20

Fertilizer
grade

75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 1125 kg/ha as basal dose. In hills rock phosphate is the source for P
1. 19:19:19 = 126 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45 = 213 kg / ha
3. 12:61:0 = 59 kg / ha
4. Urea = 133 kg / ha
After cultivation
Weed control: Spray of Gramaxone @ 2.5 l/ha in 500 lit of water as post - emergence. The critical period of weed-competition is upto 60 days and it is essential to keep the field weed-free during that period. Take up the first hoeing on 45th day without disturbing stolons and second hoeing and earthing up on 60th day.

Plant protection
Pests
Cut worms:
 Fork the soil during summer months to expose the larvae and pupae for avian predators.  Set up light trap between 7-10 pm to attract the adults.  Set up pheromone traps @ 8/acre to monitor and attract male moths.  Collect the first instar larvae from lace-like damaged leaves.  Collect the grown up larvae from the soil (near the damaged stem) and destroy.  Set up sprinkler system during day time to expose the hidden larvae for predation by birds.  Apply NSKE 5% or neem oil @ 2 lit/acre using 500 lit of spray fluid.  Collect grownup caterpillars mechanically and spray Bacillus thuringiensis @ 2g/lit.

 

 
Potato tuber moth
 Select healthy tubers and plant at 15 cm depth to avoid oviposition.  Set up pheromone traps @ 5/acre. Septa can be replaced once in a year.  Release egg-larval parasite,Chelonus blackburnii @12,000 parasites/acre twice (on 40 and 70 days after planting)

 Earth up and cover the tubers to prevent oviposition in exposed tubers.  Cover the top layers of seed tubers with Lantana or Euclayptus branches to repel the ovipositing female moths.
 Spray quinalphos @ 1 lit /ha at ETL of 5% leaf damage
Aphids:
Apply carbofuran 3 % G @ 17 kg /ha or Phorate 10% G @ 10 kg /ha or drench thiamethoxam 25 % WG @ 200 g in 500 lit of water per ha or spray any one of the following Insecticide Insecticide
Dose
Dimethoate 30%EC
7.0 ml/10 lit.
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25% EC
1.0 ml/lit.
Thiamethoxam 25 % WG -Foliar
2.0 gl/10 lit.
Diseases
Late blight: Carefully select seed tubers. Remove ground creepers which serve as a source of infection. Spray Mancozeb 2 g/l or Chlorothalonil 2 g/l on 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. Grow late blight resistant varieties like Kufri Jyothi, Kufri Malar and Kufri Thangam. Brown rot: Select disease free seeds. Give proper drainage facilities. Remove and destroy the affected plants.

Early blight: Spray Mancozeb 2 g/l or Chlorothalonil 2 g/l at 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. Virus diseases:
Use virus free potato seeds. Rogue the virus affected plants regularly. Control the aphid vectors by spraying dimethoate 30 EC or methyl demeton 25 EC @ 2 ml/lit Yield: 15 – 20 t/ha in a duration of 120 days.

Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred Varieties and hybrids
Grade Specification

 

Dindigul, Nilgiris
Ottanchathiram, Koyambedu, Mettupalayam,
Coimbatore
Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Swarna
Hardness, higher shelf life, pure yellow colour
Thala – 40-60 mm
Rasi- 20-40 mm
Podi – 10-20 mm

 

Sweetpotato: Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam; Convolvulaceae
Varieties: CO 3, CO - CIP 1, Sree Nandini, Sree Vardhini, Kiran, Sree Bhadra, Sree Rethna, Gouri and Sankar.
Soil: Can be grown in loamy soil with a pH range of 5.6-6.6. Season and planting: June – July and September. Plant the terminal vine cuttings (80,000/ha) at 20 cm spacing. The cuttings should be 10-15 cm in length with 2-3 nodes and to be collected from matured vines aged 3 months and above. Dip the vine cuttings in a solution by mixing 400 g of Azospirillum in sufficient quantity of water.

Preparation of field: Plough the field to fine tilth. The soil depth should be atleast 30 cm. Form ridges and furrows 60 cm apart or beds.
Irrigation: Irrigate before planting, on 3rd day and then after once a week. Stop irrigation one week before harvest.
Application of fertilizers: Apply 25 t FYM/ha and 20:40:60 kg NPK/ha as basal and 20:40:60 kg NPK/ha after 30 days. If 20 kg/ha Azospirillum is applied, apply only 2/3rd dose of N. It is preferable to apply N and P in the form of diammonium phosphate. After cultivation: The field should be kept clean by hand weeding till vines are fully developed. Earth up the field on 25th, 50th and 75th day after planting. The vines are lifted and turned on 50th and 75th day after planting but before earthing up to prevent root formation at nodes and to make the originally formed roots to increase in size. Spray Ethrel five times at 250 ppm at fortnightly intervals commencing from 15 days after planting. Plant protection

Pests
Sweetpotato weevil
1. Remove previous sweetpotato crop residues and alternate host i.e., Ipomoea sp. and destroy them.
2. Install sex pheromone trap right from beginning of the crop establishment. 3. Use pest free planting materials.
4. Dip the planting material in fenthion 100 EC or Fenitrothion 50 EC or Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2 ml/l.
5. Rake up the soil and earth up at 50 days after planting.
6. Drench the soil with Endosulfan 35 EC or Fenthion 100 EC at 2 ml/l. Spray any one of the insecticides, if needed.
7. Harvest the crop immediately after maturity and destroy the crop residues. Diseases
Soft rot: Spot drench with Carbendazim 1 g/l.
Yield: 20-25 t/ha of tubers in 110 – 120 days.

 

 

Tapioca: Manihot esculenta Crantz.; Euphorbiaceae
Varieties: CO 2, CO 3, CO (TP) 4, MVD 1, H 165, H 226, Sree Visakham (H.1687), Sree Sahya (H.2304), Sree Prakash (S. 856), Sree Vijaya, Sree Jaya, Sree Rekha and Sree Prabha. CTCRI CO (Tp) 5 (Sree Padmanabha)

Resistance to cassava mosaic disease. Season June – July ; October – November. Fairly good starch content (28%). Moderate tuber yield (38 t/ha). Erect and top branching habit. Regular flowering and seed setting. Tubers long, cylindrical, white flesh and low in cyanoglucoside. Duration 270 – 300 days.

Climate and soil: Any well drained soil preferably red lateritic loam with a pH range of 5.5-7.0. Thrives best in tropical, warm humid climate with well distributed rainfall of over 100 cm per annum. Cultivated upto an elevation of 1000 m.

Season and planting: Plant throughout the year under irrigation. Plant during April for rainfed crop. Select healthy mosaic free vigorous plants for taking planting materials. Prepare setts of 15 cm long with 8 – 10 nodes from the middle portion of the stem. Avoid mechanical damage while preparation and handling of setts. The cut end should be uniform. Dip the setts in Carbendazim 1 g in one l of water for 15 minutes before planting. Plant the setts vertically with buds pointing upward on the sides of ridges and furrows. 17,000 setts are needed for planting one ha. For rainfed conditions, treat the setts with a mixture of potassium chloride @ 5 g/lit and micronutrients viz., ZnSO4 and FeSO4 each @ 0.5%for 20 minutes.Dip the setts for 20 minutes in Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each at 30 g/l.

Virus elimination through tissue culture in cassava
The protocol for virus elimination through tissue culture has been standardized for the varieties MVD 1 and H 226 by using meristem culture. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BAP at 0.1 mg/l for meristem establishment and shoot growth, and MS medium without growth regulators for rooting have to be followed. The in vitro plantlets are to be hardened in sterile pot mixture (sand : soil : FYM in 1 : 1: 1) under mist chamber for 10-15 days and later kept under shade net for 10 days before transferring them to the open field. Preparation of field: Plough the field 4 – 5 times to get a fine tilth. The soil depth should be atleast 30 cm. Form ridges and furrows at the following spacings: Irrigated: 75 x 75 cm (17,777 setts) and 90 x 90 cm (12,345 setts). Rainfed: 60 x 60 cm (27,777 setts).

Under Kanyakumari conditions: 90 x 90 cm (12,345 setts).
Irrigation: First irrigation is given at the time of planting. Life irrigation is given on the 3rd day followed by once in 7 – 10 days upto 3rd month and once in 20 – 30 days upto 8th month. Drip irrigation

Install drip system with main and sub-main and place the inline laterals at the interval of 1.5 m. Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH and 50 cm for 3.5 LPH in the lateral system. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.

 

 
Sequential cropping: Raise CO 2 vegetable cowpea during March and harvest green pods before planting cassava during June –July. After green pod harvest, incorporate the cowpea haulms into the field by disc ploughing. Through sequential cropping, 50% reduction in application of FYM (12.5 t/ha) and P (30 kg/ha) is ensured.

Manuring
Irrigated crop: Apply 25 t FYM/ha and incorporate at the time of planting. Apply 45:90:120 kg NPK/ha as basal and 45:120 kg NK/ha 90 days after planting during earthing up. Rainfed crop: Apply FYM at 12.5 t/ha along with 50 kg N, 65 kg P and 125 kg K/ha as basal. Apply 2 kg ofAzatobactor through soil application at 30 – 60 days after planting on receipt of showers (2.0 kg Azatobacter + 20 kg FYM + 20 kg soil per hectare). Fertigation

Fertigation requirement :90: 90 :240 kg of NPK / ha.
throughout the cropping period.
Spacing : 60 x 90cm in paired row system.

 

Apply once in every three days

 
Fertigation schedule: Tapioca (variety)
S.
No

Crop Stage

1

Duration
in Days

Planting to
crop
establishme
ntstage

Fertilizer
Grade

Total
Fertilizer
(kg/ha)

Nutrient supplied

% Requirement

2

Vegetative
stage

3

Tuber
formation
stage

4

Tuber
development
stage

90

Total
duration

240

70

60

Total



12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea

12-61-0
0-0-50
Urea
19:19:19+MN
0-0-50
Urea

23.57
34.67
7.87
subtotal

4.48
4.50
8.98

4.48
4.48

4.48
15.60
3.93
24.01

11.40
105.33
26.80

1.34
13.69
12.33

6.80
-

47.39
-

subtotal
11.40
144.00
55.73
subtotal

27.36
1.34
25.64
26.98

6.80
6.80
6.80

47.39
72.00
72.00

23.57
182.67
48.87

4.48
22.48

4.48
-

sub total

19:19:19+MN
13-0-45
0-0-50

P

26.96

4.48

4.48
92.34
96.82

90.28
(or)
90

20

N

K

22.56(or
)
22.50

240.2
2
(or)24
0

N

P

K

10.00

5.00

10.00

30.00

7.50

20.00

30.00

7.50

30.00

30.00

5.00

40.00

100

25

100

47.39

75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate 421.88 kg/ha. 1. 19:19:19 = 47. kg / ha.
2. 13:0:45 = 140kg/ha.
3. 12:61:0 = 23kg/ha
4. 0:0:50
= 335kg / ha
5. Urea
= 132 kg / ha.

Chlorosis: Foliar spray of 1% FeSO4 + 0.5% ZnSO4 at 60 and 90 DAP. After cultivation: Fill up the gaps within 20 days of planting. Carry out 1st weeding 20 days after planting. Subsequent weedings should be done once in a month upto 5 months depending upon the weed intensity. Thin to two shoots per plant during 60th day. Grow aggregatum onion, coriander, short duration pulses and short duration vegetables as intercrops from planting date upto 60 days

Plant protection
Pests
Mites: Soaking spray with dicofol 18.5 EC 2.5 ml/l during 3rd and 5th month. White fly (Bemisia tabaci)
Integrated pest management practices:
1. Remove alternate weed hosts viz., Abutilon indicum.
2. Install yellow sticky trap at 12 Nos/ha.
 

 
3. Use nitrogen judiciously.
4. Avoid excessive irrigation.
5. Spray neem oil 3 % or fish oil rosin soap 25 g/l or Methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/l. While using neem oil, teepol or sandovit should be added at 1 ml/l for better contact with foliage. Apply Methyl demeton in the early stage and Phosalone in the later stages of crop growth. 6. Avoid use of synthetic pyrethroids.

7. Avoid extending the crop growth beyond its duration.
Spiralling whitefly
1. Install sticky cum light trap and operate between 4 and 6 am to attract adults. 2. Spray Dichlorvos 76 WSC @ 1 ml/l or Triazophos 40 EC 2 ml/l. Add wetting agent. 3. Conserve parasitoids Encarsia haitiensis and E. guadeloupae. Diseases

Mosaic: Select the planting materials from healthy plants. For the control of white fly vectors, adopt IPM practices mentioned above.
Cercospora Leaf spot: Spray Mancozeb at 2 g/l twice at 15 days interval. Tuber rot: Avoid water stagnation. Give good drainage facilities. Spot drench with Copper oxychloride 2.5 g/l or apply through soil Trichoderma viride @ 2.5 kg/ha as basal and at 3rd and 6th month after planting

Crop duration: 9 to 11 months.
Yield
Irrigated : 40 - 50 t/ha
Rainfed : 20 - 25 t/ha
Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil
Nadu

 

Salem, Namakkal, Erode, Dharmapuri,
Villupuram
Salem, Dharmapuri, Erode

 

Elephant foot yam: Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume; syn: A. paeoniifolius; Araceae
Varieties: Gajendra, Sree Padma
Soil and climate: Rich red-loamy soil with a pH range of 5.5-7.0 is preferred. It is a tropical and subtropical crop. It thrives well with a mean annual temperature of 30-350C. It requires well distributed rainfall of 1000-1500 mm spread over a period of 6-8 months, with humid and warm weather during vegetative phase and with cool and dry weather during the corm development period.

Season and planting: It undergoes a dormancy period of 45 to 60 days. Traditionally farmers take advantage of the dormancy period by planting during February-March so that the setts would sprout with the pre-monsoon showers. April – May is the planting season. The tuber is cut into 750-1000g small bits in such a way that each bit has atleast a small portion of the ring around each bud. Whole corms of 500 g size can also be used as a planting material. Use of cormels and minisett transplants of 100 g size as planting material at a closer spacing of 45 x 30 cm is also suggested. There are also projections with tender buds called “Arumbu”. These are removed before planting as they do not give vigorous growth. An ordinary sized yam gives about 6 to 8 bits for planting. The cut pieces are dipped in cow dung solution to prevent evaporation of moisture from cut surface. In some places, the small round daughter corms are also planted. The cut pieces are planted in beds at 45 cm x 90 cm spacing or pit of 60 x 60 x 45 cm size is dug and planted. The pit should be filled with top soil and farm yard manure (2kg/pit) prior to planting. The pieces are planted in such a way that the sprouting region (the ring) is kept above the soil. About 3500 kg of corms will be required to plant one hectare. Sprouting takes place in about a month.

Preparation of field: The land is brought to fine tilth and beds of convenient size are formed. Intercropping: Vegetable cowpea var. CO 2 is recommended as suitable intercrop in elephant foot yam. It can be intercropped profitably in coconut, arecanut, rubber, banana and robusta coffee plantations at a spacing of 90 x 90 cm. Half quantity of FYM (12.5 t/ha) and one third of NPK (27:20:33) will be sufficient for the intercrop.

Irrigation: It is mostly raised as a rainfed crop. However, irrigation is required when monsoon fails, where it is grown on a large scale. Water stagnation is harmful to the crop. Wherever irrigation facility is available, irrigation can be given once a week. Mulching: Mulching immediately after planting not only conserves soil moisture and regulates soil temperature but also suppresses weed growth.

Application of fertilizers: Apply 25 tonnes of FYM/ha during last ploughing. The recommended dose of NPK/ha is 80:60:100 kg. Apply 40:60:50 kg NPK/ha at 45 days after planting along with weeding and intercultural operations. Top dress with 40:50 N and K one month later along with shallow intercultural operations.

After cultivation: Weeding and earthing up as and when necessary. Collar rot : The disease is caused by a soil borne fungus Schlerotium rolfsii. Water logging, poor drainage and mechanical injury at collar region favour the disease incidence. Brownish lesions first occur on collar regions, which spreads to the entire pseudostem and cause  

 
complete yellowing of the plant. In severe case, the plant collapses leading to complete crop loss.
Management: Use disease free planting material, remove infected plant materials, improve drainage conditions, incorporate organic amendments like neem cake, drench the soil with carbenilazim or apply biocontrol agents like Trichoderma harzianumI @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50kg of FYM (lg/l of water).

Harvesting: It becomes ready for harvest in about 8-9 months after planting. The crop attains maturity when total senescence takes place.
Yield: 30 – 35 t/ha in 240 days.
For seed purpose, the yams can be left in the field itself till planting the next crop or the lifted yams can be stored in sand or paddy straw.

 

 

Taro: Colocasia esculenta L. Scott; Araceae
Varieties: Co 1, Panchamukhi and Satamukhi (Kovvur), Sree Pallavi, Sree Rashmi, Sree Kiran. Soil and climate: It comes up well in loamy soils with a pH range of 5.5-7.0 and a combination of warm and moist climate with a mean temperature of 21-270 C. It can be grown up to 1500 m elevation with well distributed rainfall of about 1000 mm during growth period. In areas where rainfall is less, a good amount of supplementary irrigation is required for successful production. Planting material and seed rate: Cormels weighing about 20-25 g form good planting material. Seed rate of 800 kg/ha is required.

Season: Under rainfed condition, planting during April to June is ideal. June – July and February – March. If grown as irrigated crop, it can be raised throughout the year. Preparation of field: Plough the field to a fine tilth and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 45 cm.In sandy loam soil, pit method is followed. Plant at a spacing of 45 cm in furrows.The cormels may be planted to a depth of 2.5 to 7.5 cm.

Mulching:
Planted seed tubers take 30to 45 days for sprouting. Mulching helps to hasten sprouting and control weed growth.
Gap filling:
Under field condtions, 5-10 per cent of the seeds fail to sprout. To overcome this situation, about 2000-3000 corms / cormels per hectare may be planted in a nursery at a close spacing so that sprouted tubers from the nursery can be used for gap filling. Irrigation: Once in a week.

Application of fertilizers: Apply 25 tonnes of FYM, 20 kg N, 30 kg P and 60 kg K/ha as basal and 20 kg N, 30 kg P and 60 kg K/ha 45 days after planting.
After cultivation: Weeding and earthing up should be done 45 to 60 days after planting. Deep cultivation should be avoided. Small inefficient suckers from the mother plants have to be removed along with the second weeding.It requires profuse irrigation and shade. Crop protection:

Aphids and worms are pests attacking the leaves.
Control: Spray Quinalphos or Dimethoate 0.05%.
Mealy bugs and scale insects damage cormels and corms and hence select cormels free of these pests for planting. If infested, the seed cormels should be dipped in Dimethoate or Monocrophos 0.05% solution for 10 minutes.

Leaf blight (Phytophthora colocasiae): Oval or irregular purplish or brownish necrotic lesions with watersoaked periphery appear on leaves. In severe cases, the entire leaf lamina and the petioles are affected giving a blighted appearance and collapse of the plant. Heavy incidence causes up to 50 per cent crop loss.

Management : Use of field resistant varieties viz., Muktakeshi and Jankhri, early planting to avoid heavy monsoon rains, use of healthy planting materials, removal of self-grown colocasia  

 
plants, spray with fungicides viz., Mancozeb (0.2%) or Ridomil MZ 72 @ 2 g/l of water and treating the seed tubers with biocontrol agents viz., Trichoderma viride Harvesting
Crop will be ready for harvest in 6-8 months after planting. One month prior to harvest, all the suckers may be wrapped around the base of the mother plant and covered with soil by earthing up, for arresting further vegetative growth and sprouting of tubers. After this, irrigation has to be withheld to hasten maturity. Harvesting is done by carefully uprooting the plants and the mother corms and cormels are separated.

Yield: 8 – 10 t/ha in 180 days.

 

 

Dioscorea: Dioscorea alata and L.; Dioscorea esculenta L. Dioscoreaceae Varieties
Peruvalli (D.alata) : CO 1, Sree Roopa, Sree Keerthi, Sree Shilpa. Siruvalli (D.esculenta) : Sree Latha, Sree Kala.
Soil and climate: It requires warm and humid conditions with a mean temperature of 300C and a well distributed annual rainfall of 1200-2000 mm. Sandy loam soil with a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 is preferred with good drainage and cool weather.

Season and planting: March - June.
Use mature tubers or pieces of 250-300 g tubers taken from the previous crop as seed material at the rate of 1875 – 2500 kg/ha. Mini setts of 25 g are recommended for planting directly in the field or raising a nursery and planting plants after 60 days. For planting lesser yam, medium sized tuber of 100-150 g is sufficient. Planting is done in beds or in ridges or in mounds or in rows 75 cm apart either way.

Preparation of field: Plough the field to a fine tilth and form ridges and furrows at 75 cm spacing for raising lesser yam. Ridges and furrows at 75 cm spacing or pits of 45 x 45 x 45 cm for planting greater yam at 90 x 90 cm. Fill the pits with top soil and FYM. Method of planting : To plant greater yam, 3000-3700 kg and for lesser yam 1800-2700 kg of seed material is required.

Irrigation: Copious watering once in a week is necessary.
Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM @ 25 t/ha at the time of last ploughing. Follow fertilizer schedule of 40:60:120 kg NPK/ha as basal and 4 kg/ha of Azospirillum (mixed with 40 kg of soil) 30 days after planting. Apply 50 kg N and 120 kg K/ha 90 days after planting. Go for weeding before top dressing, followed by earthing up.

After cultivation: The vines should be trained on bamboo poles. Weeding as and when necessary. It can be intercropped profitably in coconut, arecanut, rubber, banana and robusta coffee plantations at a spacing of 90 x 90 cm. In Robusta banana + Dioscorea system, banana should be manured at the full recommended dosage and for yams, manuring at the 2/3rd recommended level is sufficient.

Trailing
Trailing is necessary to expose the leaves to sunlight. It is done within 15 days after sprouting by coir rope attached to artificial supports in the open area or to the trees where it is raised as an intercrop.

Crop protection
Yam scale is found to occur on the tubers both under field and storage conditions. As a prophylactic measure, dip the planting material in Monocrotophos 0.05 per cent. Use scale free seed tuber for planting.

Harvesting
Greater yam and white yam become ready for harvest by 9-10 months after planting. Lesser yam takes 8-9 months for attaining maturity. Carefully dig out the tubers without causing injury.
Yield: 20 – 25 t/ha in 240 days.

 

 

Chinese potato: Coleus parviflorus L.; Syn : Solenostemon rotundifolius; Labiatae Varieties: CO 1, Sree Dhara.
Soil and climate: Red, loamy and well drained soils. Comes up well in shade with warm humid climate. It requires very good rainfall for its growth and cannot withstand drought conditions. In case rains are not received, irrigation has to be provided for satisfactory growth. Raising nursery : Raise a nursery, approximately one and half months prior to planting. An area of 500 m2 is required to produce vines for planting one hectare of land. Cattle manure or compost may be applied @ 1 kg/m2 and ridges / mounds may be prepared at a closer spacing of 45/60 cm. Healthy tubers that weigh about 15-20 g may be planted at 5cm spacing on the ridges / mounds so as to accommodate 750-1200 kg tubers in 500 m2 area during March- April. Top-dress with urea (5 kg / 500 m2) at about three weeks after planting to encourage good vine growth. Stem cutting of 15-20cm length from these sprouts also used as planting material. To enable rapid multiplication of the planting material, single node cuttings can be planted directly in the secondary nursery. Such single node cuttings produce axillary shoots within one week can be planted in the main field.

Preparation of main field and planting: The field is ploughed 4 to 5 times to a fine tilth and form ridges and furrows 60 cm apart. Use herbaceous cuttings of 10 cm length taken from the nursery beds and plant in the main field during July – October at a spacing of 30 cm on the ridges either in vertical or horizontal position. Horizontal planting of vines to a depth of 4-5 cm and exposing the terminal bud ensures quick establishment and promote tuber yield. In loose soils having good drainage, planting can also be done on flat beds with provision for drainage. Irrigation: At weekly intervals.

Application of fertilizers: FYM at 25 t/ha as basal and NPK at 30:60:150 kg/ha. Apply 30 kg N 30 days after planting at the time of earthing up along with 2 kg of Azospirillum. In case, the soil has eroded from the base of the plant, give one more earthing up at 30 days later to promote tuber formation.

After cultivation: 2 or 3 weedings and earthing up 2 months after planting. Crop protection : Root knot nematode is a serious pest on coleus and the infested plants exhibit serious swellings or galls in the roots resulting in suppressed roots, stunted growth and wilting. Less than a millimetre long, the nematodes are tiny worms that enter the plant roots of the seedling when the plant is most vulnerable. Therefore, emphasis may be given for the selection of seed tubers free of nematodes.

Deep ploughing of the field immediately after harvest exposes the soil and kills the nematodes. We can also control the nematodes by practising summer fallowing and soil solarization. Cultivation of sweet potato (Sree Bhadra) as a preceding crop in May-June enables trapping of root knot nematodes in the soil. To control leaf folding caterpillars and vine borers, dipping the vines in insecticide solution (Dimethoate or Rogar 30 EC ie. 1.7 ml/litre) for 10 minutes prior to planting is helpful. In case, severe damage is noticed in the field, field spraying may be adopted with Malathion (or) Fenthion (or) Fenitrothion 50 EC 1 ml/litre). Harvesting: Harvest the crop when the vines dry up at 4-5 months after planting. Pull out the plants and dig out the left over tubers in the field. Separate the tubers from the plant and destroy the crop residues by burning.

Yield: 15 to 20 t/ha in 120 days.

 

 

Chapter D

Bulb vegetables
Onion - Small onion (Aggregatum); Allium cepa var. aggregatum; Alliaceae Varieties: CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, CO 4 and MDU 1, CO(On) 5 is a free flowering and seed setting type.
Soil: Red loam to black soils with good drainage facilities. The germination and bulb maturation is affected in clayey soil. It grows well in pH range of 6- 7 and a mild season without extremes of heat and cold.

Season and sowing: Sow the medium sized bulbs during April – May and October – November. It requires sufficient soil moisture during its growing period but heavy rains during bulb germination and bulb formation affects the crop growth. Seed rate: Seed bulbs 1000 kg/ha. Medium sized bulbs are to be chosen for planting. Seeds @ 8kg/ha.

Raising seedlings and transplanting
This is the most common method practiced for irrigated crop as it results in high yield and large size bulbs. In plains, seeds are sown during October-November for a rabi crop. In hills, seeds are sown from March to June. Seeds are first sown in well prepared nursery beds of 90-120 cm width, 7.5-10.0 cm height and convenient length. Ratio between nursery area and main field is about 1:20. Seed rate varies from 8 to 10 kg/ha. Seedlings of 15 cm height and 0.8 cm neck diameter are ideal for transplanting and this is achieved in 8 weeks. However, it varies from 6-10 weeks depending on soil, climate and receipt of rain. There is a practice of topping seedlings at the time of transplanting if seedlings are over-grown. Preparation of field: Plough the land four times to a fine tilth. Form ridges and furrows at 45 cm spacing. Sow the bulbs or plant the seedlings on both the sides of the ridges at 10 cm apart. Irrigation: Irrigate at the time of planting of seedlings and third day and later at weekly intervals. With hold irrigation 10 days before harvest.

Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 25 t/ha, Azospirillum 2 kg and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha, N 30 kg, P 60 kg and K 30 kg/ha as basal and 30 kg N/ha on 30th day of sowing. Fertigation : Apply a dose of 75% of the total recommended dose of superphosphate i.e. 285 kg/ha as basal dose. Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 2 Kg/ha along with FYM 50 Kg and Neem cake @ 100 kg are applied before last ploughing. Raised beds of 120 cm are formed at an interval of 30 cm and the laterals are placed at the centre of each bed. Planting design: Bulbs or seedlings are planted in rows of 20 cm spacing and 12 cm between plants. Planting is done at 6 rows in each bed, thereby it accommodates 55,560 plants in one hectare. Irrigation is done after transplanting or planting the bulbs. Complete wetting is necessary to maintain uniform moisture level.

 

 

Plant protection - Pests
Thrips and onion fly: Spray any one of the following insecticides based on the ETL of 1 maggot/hill
Insecticide
Dose
Dimethoate 30 % EC
7.0 ml /10 lit.
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC
1.2 ml/lit.
Quinalphos 25 % EC
1.2 ml/lit.
Cutworm: Drench the soil with chlorpyriphos @ 2 ml/l.
Diseases
Leaf spot: Spray Mancozeb 2 g /l or Copper oxychloride 2.5 g/l. Add Teepol 0.5 ml/l of spray fluid.
Basal rot: Seed or bulb treatment with Trichoderma viride, @ 4g/kg and basal application of T. viride,@2.5kg/ha along with VAM 12.5 kg/ha.
(or)
Follow the following IPM practices for pest and disease management  Growing two rows of maize as barrier crops around field border.  Selection of healthy onion seed bulbs.
 Bulb treatment –Pseudomonas fluorescens (5 g/kg) + Trichoderma viride (5 g/kg)  Soil application of P.fluorescens (1.25 Kg/ha) + T.viride (1.25 kg/ha) + AM Fungi (VAM) (12.5 kg/ha) + Azophos (4kg/ha) + Neem cake 250 kg/ha.

 Installation of Yellow sticky traps 12/ha for thrips and leaf miner trapping.  Installation of Pheromone traps 12/ha for cut wrom (S.litura).  Spray application of P.fluorescens (5 g/l) + Beauveria bassiana (10 g/l) on 30 DAP.  Spray application of Azadairachtin 1% (2 ml/l) on 40 DAP.  Need based application of Profenophos (2 ml/l) or Dimethoate (2 ml/l) or Triazophos(2 ml/l) for thrips/leaf miner/cut worm management.

 Need based application of Tebuconazole (1.5) ml/l) or Mancozeb (2 g/l)/Zineb (2g/l) for purple blotch disease management.
Harvest and Yield
Spray Cycocel @ 200ppm + carbendazim @ 1000 ppm 30 days before harvest to extend the shelf life of onion. Harvesting is done by pulling out plants when tops are drooping but still green. During hot days when soil is hard, bulbs are pulled out with a hand-hoe.12-16 t/ha in 70 to 90 days. 18 t/ha in 90 days for CO (On) 5 onion. Clean and dry the bulbs for 4 days in shade soon after harvest.

Market information
Crop Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil
Nadu
Preferred Varieties
Grade Specification

 

Perambalur, Trichy, Dindigul, Namakkal, Coimbatore,
Erode, Tirunelveli
Dindigul, Palani, Palladam, Madurai, Trichy,
Ottanchathiram, Coimbatore and Chennai
Co (On) 5
Shape, Size, skin colour, moisture content

 

Big onion or Common onion: Allium cepa var. cepa; Alliaceae
Varieties: Bellary Red, Pusa Red, NP 53, Arka Niketan, Arka Kalyan, Agri Found Light Red, Agri Found Dark Red and Rose onion (small).
Soil: Red loam to black soils with good drainage facilities. The optimum pH is 5.8-6.5. Season: May – June. Mild season is preferred.
Seed rate and Sowing: 10 kg/ha. Treat the seeds with Azospirillum @ 400 g/kg of seed using rice gruel as adhesive, dry under shade for 30 minutes and sow them. Apply VAM 1 kg/sq. m in the beds along with FYM 10 kg/sq.m before sowing.

Preparation of main field: Plough the land to a fine tilth and incorporate 25 t/ha of FYM at the time of last ploughing. Form ridges and furrows at 45 cm spacing. Plant 45 days old seedlings at 10 cm apart on both the sides of the ridges.

Irrigation: Irrigate at planting and third day and later at weekly intervals. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 25 t/ha, Azospirillum 2 kg and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha, N 50 kg, P 150 kg and K 75 kg/ha as basal dose and N 50 kg/ha as topdressing 30 days after planting. Apply Zinc sulphate as basal dose @ 50 kg/ha at the time of last ploughing. Plant protection

Pests
Thrips and onion fly: Spray methyl demeton 25 EC @ 1 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/lit with Teepol 0.5 ml/lit.
Cutworm: Drench the soil with chlorpyriphos @ 2 ml/l.
Nematode: Application of Carbofuran 3 G or Phorate 10G @ 1 kg a.i./ha at 10 days after transplanting.
Disease
Leaf spot: Spray Mancozeb 2 g/l or Copper oxychloride 2 g/l . Add 1 ml of Teepol to per l of spray fluid.
Yield: 15 – 18 t/ha in 140 – 150 days.
Bellary onion – Market information
Crop Growing districts
Perambalur,Trichy,Thiruppur,Dindigul,Namakkal,Tirunelveli
Major markets in Tamil
Ottanchathiram, Koyambedu, Dindigul, Coimbatore
Nadu
Grade Specification
Colour and Size
Extra large onion (>6 cm dia.), Medium (4-6 cm dia.),
Small (2-4 cm dia.),
Light Red, light purple colour

 

 

Big onion and aggregatum onion production through fertigation Quality seedling production:
 The seedlings of big / common bellary onion are produced in raised nursery beds. Nursery area of 12.5 cents with slanting slope of 2% is required for the seedling production to cover 1 ha.
 Unlike other transplanted vegetables, the nursery area of open / protected – raised beds may be used since, the seeds are too small and the number of seedlings requirement is also very high.
 Raised beds of 30cm height and convenient length at an nterval of 30cm between beds must be formed for sowing the seeds.
 The beds are inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizae @ 1 kg / sq. m. Seed treatment and seed rate:
 8-12kg of onion seeds are required to raise seedlings for one hectare of land. The seeds are treated with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/ kg of seeds. Sowing :
 The seeds of onion are small, and hence the seeds should be mixed with fine sand and sown in lines 10 cm apart.
 After sowing, the seeds are covered by thin layer of sand and then by paddy straw. The nursery is watered through rose can twice a day regularly.
 On tenth day, copper oxychloride @ 2g / litre of water is sprayed to protect the seedlings from damping off disease.
Drip irrigation
 Installation of drip system is done with main and sub-main pipes and the inline lateral tubes are placed at an interval of 1.5 m.
 The drippers in lateral tubes are placed at an interval of 60 cm and 50cm spacing with 4LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
Field preparation
 The field selected for planting should be ploughed thoroughly by using chisel plough, disc plough and cultivator.
 FYM @ 25t / ha and 75% of the total recommended dose of single superphosphate (285kg.) Azospirillum, phosphobacteria 2 kg / ha and Pseudomonos 2.5 kg / ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100g are applied before last ploughing.  Along with biofetilizers 50kg each of zinc suphate and ferrous sulphate are applied before last ploughing.

 Raised beds of 1.2 m width and 30 cm height are formed for transplanting.  Drip irrigation is done @ 8-12 hours depending upon the soil condition to get field capacity.
Planting:

Transplanting is done in rows at the spacing of 15 cm between rows (of 7 rows within the bed) and 10 cm between plants.

A total population of 4,70,000 seedlings are required to cover one hectare of land. After care:



 

Drip irrigation is done @ 1-2 hours per day depending upon the soil and climatic condtion.
Weeding: First weeding is done on 30th day after transplanting. Then weeding is done as and when necessary.

 


Fertigation: For big onion, 60:60:30kg of NPK/ha is applied throughout the cropping period. The splits are approximately once in every 3 days.

Harvesting and post harvest management.

The harvesting is done 75 to 160 days depending upon the varieties. 
The irrigation is stopped 15 days before harvesting and sprayed with 2500 ppm of maleic hydrazide. This will prevent sprouting of the bulbs in storage, by which they can be stored even for 6-7 months.


The correct time of harvest is one week after 50% top fall. After lifting, the bulbs with tops should be cured in shade for 10-15 days before storage to remove field heat. Then proper sorting and grading is done.

FERTIGATION SCHEDULE Recommended dose: 60:250: 250 kg / ha
Crop stage

Duration
in days

Fertilizer
grade

Total
Fertilizer
(kg/ha)

N

P

K

H

P

K

Vegetable stage

Bulb formation stage

19:19:19
MN
Urea

15.79
6.50
Subtotal

3.00
3.00
6.00

3.00
3.00

3.00
3.00

10.00

5.00

10.00

25

12:61:0
13:0:45
Amm.So4

7.46
13.20
76.67

0.89
1.72
15.33

4.55
-

5.94

30.00

7.50

20.00

17.94

4.55

5.94

7.46
19.80
72.33

0.89
2.57
14.47

.4.55
-

8.99
-

30.00

7.50

30.00

Subtotal

to

10

Subtotal

Sowing
establishment
Stage

17.93

4.55

8.99

15.79
19.80
62.00
Subtotal

3.00
2.57
12.40
17.97

3.00
3.00

30.00

5.00

40.00

59.84
(or)
60.00

15.00

3.00
8.91
11.9
1
27.7
6
(or)
30.0
0

100

25.0
0

100.0
0

25

Bulb development stage

30

Total duration

12:61:0
13:0:45
Amm.So4

19:19:19
MN
Amm.So4

90

75% of RD of Phosporous applied as super phosphate = 45 kg x 6.25 = 281.25 kg/ha 1.

19:19:19 = 32 kg/ha

2.

12:61:0 = 14.92 kg / ha (or) 15.00 kg /ha

3.

13:0:45 = 53 kg / ha

4. Urea

= 7 kg / ha

5. Ammonium SO4 = 211 kg / ha

Effect of Endo root soluble and Mycorrhizae on Onion
Apply 1000g Endo Roots Soluble in two splits doses at 15 DAT and 45 DAT along with 100% N and K and 50% P for higher yield and saving of phosphorous Apply mycorrhiza roots 1000g in two splits at transplanting and 30DAT along with 100% N and K and 50% P for higher yield and saving of phosphorous.

 

 

Chapter E

Leafy vegetables
Amaranthus: Amaranthus sp L.; Amaranthaceae
Varieties
CO 1 (Mulaikeerai and Thandukeerai)
CO 2 (Mulaikeerai and Thandukeerai)
CO 3 (Clipping type)
CO 4 (Grain type)
CO 5 (Mulaikeerai and Thandukeerai)
Soil: Well drained loamy soils with slightly acidic nature and warm climate are suitable. Season and sowing: Can be sown throughout the year.
Seed rate: 2.5 kg/ha.
Broadcast the seeds evenly on the bed after mixing with 10 parts of sand. Preparation of field: The field is prepared to a fine tilth and beds of 2 x 1.5 m are formed. After germination, thin the seedlings to have a spacing of 12 – 15 cm. Irrigation: Irrigate before and after sowing and at weekly intervals after germination. Application of fertilizers: Apply FYM 25 t/ha, Azospirillum 2 kg and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha, N 75 kg and K 25 kg per ha as basal dose.

Plant protection
Pests
Ants: Apply lindane 1.3% dust @ 10 kg/ha around the beds to control ants, termites and other burrowing insects.
Leaf eating caterpillar: Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/l .
Diseases
Leaf spot: carbendazim @ 1 g/l of water. Spraying sulphur compounds should be avoided. Harvest and yield
Leafy types
25 days after sowing for Mulaikeerai (10 t/ha);
40 days after sowing for Thandukeerai (16 t/ha).
Clipping types: 10 clippings at weekly intervals (30 t/ha).
Grain types: CO 4 – 2.4 t grains/ha + 8 tonnes of tender greens.

 

 

CURRY LEAF; Murraya koenigii Linn. Sprengal; Rutaceae
Varieties: Sen Kaambu, Dharwad-1, Dharwad-2
Soil and climate: Red sandy loam with good drainage will be ideal for its normal and fleshy growth, which will result in better leaf yield. The optimum temperature requirement is 26 to 37oC. Season of sowing and planting: The main season of availability of curry leaf fruits is JulyAugust within 3-4 days of collection of fruits, the seeds should be pulped and sown in nursery beds or poly bags. One year old seedlings are suitable for planting. One seedling is planted at the centre of the pit.

Preparation of field: The field is ploughed 3-4 times to get a fine tilth. Before last ploughing, well decomposed FYM is applied @ 20 tonnes/ha. Pits of 30 x30x30cm are dug one to two months before planting at a spacing of 1.2 to 1.5 m.

Irrigation: Immediately after planting the pits are irrigated. On the third day the second irrigation is given, then the irrigation is given once a week.
Application of fertilizers: After each harvest, 20 kg of FYM/plant is applied and mixed with soil.
Inter cultivation: Periodical hoeing has to be given. During first year, one intercrop like pulses can be taken. After attaining 1 m height, the terminal bud is cut off to encourage basal branching. In total, 5-6 branches are maintained per bush. Ten to twelve months after planting, the first harvest starts.

Plant protection
Pests
Citrus butterfly: Hand picking and destruction of the larvae. Diseases
Leaf spot: Spray carbendazim @ 1 g/l of water. Spraying sulphur compounds should be avoided.
Harvest and yield: At the end of first year 250-400 kg of leaves/ha can be harvested. In II year

: Once in 4 months, every time 1800 kg/ha, which would work out to 5400 kg/ha/year.

III year

: Yield 5400 kg/ha

IV year

: 2500 kg/ha once in 3 months, which would work out to 10,000 kg/ha/year

V year onwards

: 5000 kg/ha once in 3 months, which work out to 20,000 kg/ha/year.

 

96

 

CHAPTER F - MINOR VEGETABLE CROPS

Name of crop

Coccinia(Coccinia indica)

Chekurmanis
(Sauropus
androgynus)

Bread fruit
(Artocarpus
altilis)

Ceylon spinach
(Talinum
triangulare)

 

Varieties

Padappai

-

Seedless and
seeded types

-

Method of
propogation

Stem cuttings
from pistillate
plants

Stem cuttings

Root cuttings/air
layering of root
suckers/seedling

Tender
herbaceous stem
cuttings

After
cultivatio
n
including
special
practices

Spacing

Manures and
Fertilisers

2 x2 m

Erection of
10 t FYM, 75 kg N, pandal or
40 kg P and 75 kg trellis and
training
K/ha
the vines

45 x 60 cm

12 x 12 m

15 x 15 cm

5 - 10 kg FYM
per plant

-

-

Weeding,
pruning
once in a
year

-

Grows well
under
shade

Cropping
and harvest

Yield

Yields 6
months after
planting and
continues
throughout the
year

10 - 15 t/ha

Yields four
months after
planting
throughout the
year
First harvest
5 to 6 years
after planting.
February March, June
- August
Harvest
within a
month after
planting and
continues
throughout
the year

5 kg
leaves
per
plant

300 500
fruits/tr
ee

4000 6000
kg/ha

 

Name of crop

Varieties

Mint (Mentha
virides)

Palak (Beta
vulgaris var.
Bengalensis)

Basella(Green :
Basella alba)
(Pink: Basella
rubra)

-

Method of
propogation

Cuttings

Seeds 20 - 25
kg/ha

Ooty 1

-

Stem cuttings and
seeds

Spacing

15 x 15 cm

20 x 10 cm

2 x 2 m in
pits

Brussels sprout
(Brassica
oleracea var.
Gemmifera)

Seeds 500 g/ha

60 x 50 cm

Asparagus
(Asparagus
officinalis
var.altilis)

 

Jade cross

Marth
Washington,
Mary
Washington.

Seeds and
Crowns

30 x 30 cm

Manures and
Fertilisers

-

FYM 25 t/ha, N 60
kg, P 60 kg and K
60 kg/ha

10 kg FYM per pit

-

Basal: N 50 kg, P
10 kg and K 75
kg/ha

After
cultivation
including
special
practices

Cropping
and harvest

yield

-

Harvest one
month after
planting and
continues
through out
the year

2000 kg/ha

-

First harvest
of leaves
one month
after sowing.
Total
duration 3
months

20000 kg/ha

Harvest 2
months after
planting
throughout
the year

4000 - 6000
kg/ha

-

Starts
yielding in 6
months;
continues for
3 years

4 - 5 t/ha

-

Harvest from
1250 - 3750
third year of
kg/ha
planting

Train the
vines on
trellis or
pandals

 

Method of
propogation

Name of crop

Varieties

Celery (Apium
graveolens)

Standard Bearer,
Wright Grove
Seeds (125 g/ha)
Grant Giant
Pascal

Rhubarb(Rheum
rhaponticum)

Chakravathi
keerai
(Chenopodium
album)

Lettuce (Lactuca
sativa)

 

Victoria, Cherry,
Mc Donald,
Ruby, Valentino
& Sunrise

Ooty 1

Head type, Leaf
cos type

Spacing

Manures and
Fertilisers

60 x 15 cm

Top dress: N 140
kg, P 55 kg and K
220 kg/ha

After
cultivation
including
special
practices

Cropping
and harvest

yield

-

Crop
duration 4-5
months

10 t/ha

-

Root cuttings

Between
plants 60 120 cm;
between
rows 1-2 m

Fertilizer mixture of
1:1:1

-

Stalks are
harvested 2
years after
planting, 5-6
stalks per
plant for
further
growth.
Crop
duration 5
years

Seeds (50 kg/ha)

30 x 15 cm
Broadcasting thinning

Basal FYM -25 t/ha
NPK -25-25-25
kg/ha Azospirillum
& Phosphobacteria
2 kg/ha each

-

50-60 days
harvest once

30 t/ha
herbage

30 x 15 cm

Basal and Top:
FYM 30 t/ha, N
50/50 kg/ha, P
30/30 kg/ha and K
30/30 kg/ha

Top dressing
60 days after
planting

Crop
duration 2
months

10-15 t/ha

Seed (500 g/ha)

 

Name of crop

Varieties

Knol-khol
(Brassica
caulorapa)

White Vienna,
Purple Vienna

Turnip(Brassica
rapa)

i.Temperate
Types: Purple
top White Globe
Snow.
ii.BallTropical
Types: Pusa
ChandrimaPusa
SwetiPusa
Kanchan

Winged Bean
(Psophocarpus
tetragonalobus)
Chinese
cabbage
(Brassica
pekinensis)
Butter bean
(Phaseolus
lunatus)

 

-

Method of
propogation

Seed (1.5 kg/ha)

Seed (4 kg/ha)

Seeds

Brassic- a
Campestris
Sp. Pekinensis
Seeds (375 g/ha)
Michihili as Veg-I

KKL-1

25 to 35 kg/ha

After
cultivation
including
special
practices

Spacing

Manures and
Fertilisers

30 x 25 cm

Basal 30 t/ha and
Top: 180:120:100
kg NPK/ha

30 x 15 cm

Basal: FYM 30
t/ha, N 90 kg, P
125 kg and K 100
kg/ha.Top: N 90
kg/ha

Thinning of
seedlings

Crop
duration 7590 days

1 x 0.5 m

Basal: FYM 10
t/ha, N 40 kg, P
100 kg and K 25
kg/ha

Staking

Duration 1012 months

10-12 t/ha

45 x 45 cm

Basal: FYM 10
t/ha, N 90 kg, P
125 kg and K 100
kg/ha. Top: 90
kg/ha

Earthing up
60 days after
planting

Crop
duration 4
months

25 - 35 t/ha

35 x 25 cm

FYM 20-30 t/ha
40:50:50 NPK
kg/ha

80-85 days

500 - 1000
kg/ha of grains
5 - 10 t/ha
tender pods.

-

-

Cropping
and harvest

yield

Crop
duration 75
days in main
field

20 - 25 t/ha

-

 
 

Part III
Spices and Condiments
Chapter A

Major Spices
Pepper: Piper nigrum L.; Piperaceae
Varieties: Panniyur 2, Karimunda, Sreekara, Subhakara, Panchami, Pournami, IISR Thevam, IISR Malabar Excel, IISR Girimunda, IISR Sakthi, PLD-2.
Lower elevation and less shady areas- Panniyur 1.
Higher elevation and more shady areas - Karimunda.
Inter cropping in Arecanut – Panniyur 5.
Soil and climate: Pepper is grown mainly as a rainfed crop. Pepper requires heavy rainfall (150 - 250 cm), high humidity and warm climate. Thrives best on virgin soils rich in humus content and the crop can be grown at elevations up to 1500 m.

Season: June - December.
Planting: Slopes facing West and South should be avoided. Pits of 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm size are dug at a spacing of 2 to 3 m in either direction (Panniyur 1 - 3 x 3 m). 5 to10 kg of FYM/Compost is mixed with top soil and the pits are filled. Rooted cuttings of black pepper are planted in June-July @ two per standard. Silver oak, Dadap and Jack can be used as standards and should be planted at a spacing of 7–8 m.

Manuring: Apply cattle manure or compost @ 10 kg/vine - before the onset of South West monsoon. 100:40:140 g of NPK per vine in two split doses during May - June and September October. Slaked lime at 500 g per vine is applied in alternate years during May - June. Apply Azospirillum @ 100 g/vine one month after the application of chemical fertilizers. Integreted nutrient management - Inorganic N 50 % of the recommended dose + FYM 10 kg + 50 g Azospirillum + 50 g Phosphobacteria + 200 g VAM per plant. The manures and fertilizers are applied around the vine at a distance of 30 cm from the base and incorporated into the soil.

Irrigation: Protective irrigation in basins during December - May at 10 days interval. Aftercultivation: Two weedings are given during the months of June - July and October November. The vines are to be trained to the standards. Excessive foliage of the standards may be pruned and the height of the standards may be limited to about 6 m. To increase the berry size spray NAA @ 40 ppm.

Fruit drop: The spike shedding can be reduced by foliar spray of Diammonium Phosphate 1.0 % four times viz., before flower initiation (May), during new leaves and flower emergence (June) before spike initiation (July) and pinhead stage of berries (August). Plant protection

 

 

Pests
Thrips :
Spray monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1.5 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/lit or chlorpyriphos @ 2 ml/lit or dichlorvos 76 WSC @ 1 ml/lit or phosphomidan 40 SL @ 2 ml/lit three rounds at monthly intervals starting from new flush formation.

Pollu beetle and leaf caterpillars: Spray quinalphos 25 EC @ 2 ml/lit. Diseases
Foot rot
Nursery: Apply Trichoderma viride @ 1 g/kg of pot mixture. Mulch the pot mixture with 150 gauge polythene sheet for 30 days and inoculate with Pseudomonas. MAIN FIELD: Any of the following formulation can be drenched in the soil twice (May – June and October - November).

 Neem cake 1/2 kg per vine + Swabbing of Bordeaux paste upto 1 m from the ground level.  Trichoderma viride @ 20 g/vine + FYM or Bordeaux mixture 1 % or Metalaxyl-Mancozeb @ 2 g/lit.
 Neem cake 2 kg per vine + 0.1% Metalaxyl (pre monsoon foliar spray and soil application).  Pseudomonas fluorescens (50 g) (pre and post monsoon) + neem cake (2 kg) (post monsoon) + metalaxyl 0.1 %.

Slow wilt: Apply Phorate 10 G @ 30 g or Carbofuran 3 G @ 100g per vine (May – June and September - October) + Copper oxy Chloride @ 0.2 % (Soil drenching) or Potassium phosphonate @ 0.3% or Metalaxyl @ 0.1 %.

Anthracnose: Foliar spray with Bordeaux mixture @ 1 % or Mancozeb @ 0.2 %. Nematode : Soil application Bacillus subtilis (BbV 57) or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/vine is recommended for the management of root knot and reniform nematode population in Black pepper.

Harvest: Harvesting commences from third year onwards. The harvesting season is from November to March. Harvest is done by hand picking the whole spikes when few berries in the spike start turning red. The berries are separated and dipped in hot water (80°C) for one minute and sun dried for 7 to 10 days.

Yield: 2 to 3 kg/vine/year.
Market information
Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred varieties
Grade specification

Kanyakumari, Nilgiris, Kolli Hills, Lower pulneys
Kanyakumari, Nagarkovil
Tellichery, Alleppey and Malabar Garbled (MGI)
Pungency and aroma

Bush Pepper
Planting material: One year old lateral branches with 2-3 nodes with the bit of orthotropic portion intact.

 

 
Planting: 3-5 well rooted cuttings per pit or pot
Manures and Manuring:
 1:0.5:2 g of NPK per pot at bi monthly intervals
 15 and 33 g of groundnut cake and neem cake per pit or pot. Pruning: Pruning of hanging shoots to maintain the bushy nature, repeating at every two years interval.

 

 

Cardamom: Elettaria cardamomum (Maton.); Zingiberaceae
Varieties:
Malabar- Mudigree-1 and 2, PV 1, ICRI 1, ICRI 3, TKD 4,IISR Suvarna, IISR Vijetha, IISR Avinash, Mysore - ICRI 2, Vazhukka – PV2, Njallani (Green gold) Soil and climate: Thick shady areas with loamy soil are ideal. Grown at an elevation from 600 to 1500 m. Areas exposed to heavy winds are unsuitable. Adequate drainage must be provided. Season: June - December.

Seeds and sowing:
Propagation through Seeds:
Collect seeds from healthy and high yielding plants.
Seed rate – 600g/ha (fresh seeds).
Treat with commercial grade Sulphuric acid or Hydrochloric acid for 20 minutes. Wash with water.
Prepare the beds with equal quantity of well rotten cattle manure, wood ash and jungle soil. Sow the seeds in beds and cover with a thin layer of fine sand. Mulching and shading may be provided to seed beds. The beds should be kept moist but not too wet. Germination starts usually a month after sowing and continues upto three months. One year old seedlings are transplanted to secondary nursery.

Secondary nursery:
Prepare the beds. As that of primary nursery, shade is provided by erecting overhead pandal. Seedlings planted at a distance of 20 x 20 cm.
18-22 months old seedlings are used for transplanting.
Polybags of 20 x 20 cm size can be used
Propagation from suckers:
Suckers from high yielding plants are planted in clonal gardens. Spacing 1.8 m x 0.6 m (6800 plants/ha of clonal nursery)
Shade and Irrigation is provided, 32 – 42 suckers obtained from each planting unit in 12 months Preparation of the field: Dig pits of 60 cm3 and fill with compost and top soil. Contour planting may be done in slopy areas.

Spacing: Larger types: 2.5 x 2.0 m; Smaller types: 2.0 x 1.5 m. Irrigation: Generally Cardamom is grown as a rainfed crop, but sprinkler irrigation may be provided during summer for increased yields.

Manuring: Apply compost 25 t/ha; 75:75:150 kg of NPK per ha in two split doses during June July and October - November. After cultivation:
Shade regulation. Moderate shade – 50-60 %
Rainfed – 40 – 50 %
Irrigated – 55-60 %
Mixed population of medium sized shade trees- Karona, Red cedar, konikonna, Jack, Vellakil, Thempavu, Thambahom, Bolongi, Elangi.

 

 
Weed the field as and when necessary. Towards the end of monsoon rains, a light raking or digging and mulching is given around the plant to a radius of about 75 cm to conserve moisture during the dry period.

Plant protection
Pests
Thrips:
Pesticide
Diafenthiuron 50 % WP
Monocrotophos 36 % SL
Phenthoate 50 % EC
Quinalphos 25 % EC

Dose
8 g/10 lit
10 ml/10 lit
5.0 ml/10 lit.
12 ml/10 lit.

Capsule and shoot borer
Set up pheromone trap @ 12/ha to attract and destroy the female moths. Mosaic or Katte disease: This is a serious disease affecting the productivity of Cardamom. This is transmitted by banana aphid which can be controlled by regular spraying with methyl demeton 25 EC, dimethoate 30 EC or phosphomidon 40 SL @ 750 ml/ha. Damping off or clump rot or rhizome rot:

 Drench nursery with 1 lit of Formaldehyde in 50 lit water for 3 sq.m. before sowing.  Pythium: prophylactic drenching with 0.25 % Mancozeb or 1 % Bordeaux mixture immediately after germination
 Rhizoctonia : Soil drenching with 0.05 % Carbendazim - 15 days after germination. Capsule rot or panicle rot or Azhukal: Three sprays with 1 % Bordeaux mixture or 0.25 %. Copper oxychloride or 0.2 % Mancozeb (August – September). Drench soil with 1 % Bordeaux mixture.

Harvest: Harvesting commences from third year onwards. Economic yields from 5th year. Harvesting is done once in a month. Pick only those fruits which are just ripe but not fully ripe. Fully ripe fruits tend to split on drying and do not develop the desirable dark green colour. Yield: 200 - 250 kg/ha.

Market information
Growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred varieties
Grade specification

 

Theni
Bodinayakanur, Kumily, Thekkady, Kumbum
Alleppey Green Extra Bold' (AGEB),
Freshness, colour, aroma and size

 

Turmeric: Curcuma longa Val.; Zingiberaceae
Varieties: CO 1, BSR 1, BSR 2, Roma, Suvarna, Sudarshana, Suguna, Sugandham, Ranga, Rasmi, Rajendra Sonia, Krishna, Suroma and Allepy Supreme, Kedaram, Prabha, Prathiba. Soil and climate: A friable well drained red loamy soil in wet or garden lands under tropical conditions is ideal.

Season: May-June
Seed Treatment:
 Seed rhizomes dipped in phosalone 35 EC 2ml/lit or monocrotophos 36 WSC 1.5 ml/lit. 0.3% Copper oxychloride for 30 min or
 Seed treatment with P. fluorescens 10 g/kg and T. viride as 4 g/ Kg. Propagation: Mother rhizome & finger rhizomes. Seed rate of finger rhizome-2000kg/ha. Main Field Preparation:
Main field is ploughed four times with chisel and disc plough each one time and cultivator twice. Ridges and furrows are formed at spacing of 45 cm (or) raised beds of 120 cm width are formed at an interval of 30 cm and the laterals are placed at the centre of each bed. The beds are wetted for 8-12 hours through drip irrigation depending upon soil moisture level. Spacing: 45 x 15 cm. 25-30 g weight rhizomes are to be dibbled at a depth of 4 cm. Manures and manuring

Basal: FYM - 25 t /ha, neem or groundnut cake - 200 kg/ha, 25:60:108 kg of NPK per ha; 30 kg of FeSO4 and 15 kg of ZnSO4, 10 kg in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha to be applied at the time of planting.

Top dressing: 25: 108 kg of N and K/ha applied on 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting. Micronutrient application: Apply 375 g each of Boron, Iron and Zinc, at rhizome development stage, as Borax, Ferrous sulphate, Zinc sulphate + 375 g of Urea in 250 lit of water/ha. Spray twice at 25 days interval.

The above micronutrients are dissolved in Super phosphate slurry (15 kg Super Phosphate is dissolved in 25 lit of water stored overnight and the supernatant solution is made upto 250 lit). In this solution, the micronutrients are added. Fertigation:

Fertigation is done as per the recommended dose with 150:60:108 kg of NPK/ha and is applied throughout the cropping period once in three days. 75 % of the recommended dose of phosphorous is applied as basal dose. Water soluble fertilizers like 19:19:19, Mono ammonium phosphate (12:61:0), Multi K (13:0:45) and urea are used.

 

 
Fertigation schedule for turmeric
Nutrients requirement
(%)
N
P
K

Crop Stage

Duration
(in days)

Planting
to
establishment stage

15

10

20

10

Vegetative stage

60

40

30

20

Rhizome
stage

initiation

60

30

30

30

Rhizome
stage

maturation

135

20

20

40

270

100

100

Quantity applied
(kg/ha)

100

Total Duration

19:19:19
Multi K
Urea
19:19:19
Multi K
Urea
19:19:19
Multi K
Urea
19:19:19
Multi K
Urea

15.78
17.33
21.20
9.83
96.00
100.57
4.91
71.28
76.29
15.78
40.42
47.06

Inter cultivation: Onion, Coriander and Fenugreek can be planted as intercrop on the sides of the ridges 10 cm apart. Redgram and Castor can also be planted at wider spacing. First weeding after three weeks and whenever weeding is necessary. The plants are earthed up at the time of 2nd and 4th top dressings.

Plant protection
Pre planting treatment: The seed rhizomes are dipped in carbendazim 1 g/lit and phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit for controlling rhizome rot and scales.
Pests
Pre planting treatment: The seed rhizomes are dipped in carbendazim @ 1 g/lit and phosalone
35 EC @ 2 ml/lit or for controlling rhizome rot and scales.
Rhizome scale: Apply well rotten sheep manure @ 10 t/ha in two splits (one basally and other at earthing up) or Poultry manure in 2 splits followed by drenching dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/lit or phosalone 35 EC @ 2 ml/lit.

Nematode: Avoid planting turmeric after Banana or solanaceous vegetables. Apply Carbofuran 4 kg a.i./ha twice on the third and fifth month after planting the rhizomes. Diseases
Rhizome rot:
 Treat the seed rhizomes with 0.3% Copper oxychloride for 30 min or Drench with Bordeaux mixture 1 % or Copper oxychloride 0.25 % or Ridomil 0.1 % or  Seed treatment with P. fluorescens 10 g/kg and T. viride 4 g/ Kg and soil application of 2.5 Kg/ha each of P. fluorescens and T. viride in 50 kg of FYM as basal and top dressing on 150 Days after Planting.

 

 
Leaf spots: Spray Carbendazim 500 g/ha or Mancozeb 1 kg/ha or Copper oxychloride 1.25 kg/ha or Propiconazole 500ml/ha.
Harvest: The plants will start lodging, yellowing and drying on crop maturity. The rhizomes are dug with spade or digging forks.
Yield: Fresh rhizomes: 25-30 t/ha
Cured rhizomes: 5-6 t/ha
Storage of seed rhizomes: Seed rhizomes can be stored in open sand media with partial shade.
Market information
Growing Districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred varieties
Grade specification

 

Karur, Villupuram, Coimbatore, Salem, Dharmapuri,
Krishnagiri, Erode
Erode, Karur, Coimbatore, Salem and Dharmapuri
Erode local, BSR, Salem variety
Bright Yellow colour, size above 3cm length, hard, when
broken gives metal sound , smooth skin , without
impurities

 

Ginger: Zingiber officinale Rosc.; Zingiberaceae
Varieties: Rio de Janeiro, Maran, Nadan, Suruchi, Surabi, Suprabha, IISR Varadha, IISR Rejatha, IISR Mahima, Athira & Karthika
Season: May-June.
Soil and climate: A friable well drained loamy soil rich in humus with warm and humid conditions with 150 cm of annual rainfall are preferable. Grown as an irrigated crop in humid zones under tropics. Ginger can be grown from sea level to an altitude of 1500 m. Seed rate: 1500 - 1800 kg of rhizome/ha.

Seed treatment:
 Treat the seed rhizomes with Mancozeb or Copper oxychloride 3 g/lit or 200 ppm Streptocycline for 30 minutes
Spacing: Irrigated crop – 40 x 20 cm in ridges and furrows. Rainfed crop – Raised beds of 20 x 20 cm or 25x 25 cm
Manures and Manuring
Basal: FYM 25-30 t + 30 tonnes green leaves as mulch in three splits : 15 tonnes-immediately after planting, 7.5 tonnes – 60 days and 120 days after planting, 50: 25 kg of P and K per ha. Top dressing: 37.5: 12.5 kg of N and K per ha applied on 45th and 90th day after planting. Aftercultivation: Mulching is done at the time of planting with green leaves. After each top dressing, earthing up of plants is done.

Plant protection
Pests
Shoot borer: Spray dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit or phosphamidon 40 SL 2 ml/lit. Leaf roller: Spray carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/ha or quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/lit. Diseases
Soft rot (Pythium sp.):
 Provide adequate drainage facilities
 Select healthy and disease-free seed rhizomes
 Treat the seed rhizomes with Mancozeb or Copper oxychloride 3 g/lit or 200 ppm Streptocycline for 30 minutes.
 In the field, drench the beds with 2.5 g/lit of Copper oxychloride or 1% Bordeaux mixture or Metalaxyl - mancozeb 4 g/lit..
Rhizome rot
Rhizome treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 20g/kg rhizome + soil application @ 10kg/ha immediately after planting and 45 days after planting followed by pre monsoon drenching with Metalaxyl 0.1%.

Leaf spot: Spray with 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Copper oxy chloride 0.25%. Harvest: The crop can be harvested after 8 - 9 months when leaves start yellowing and drying. Yield: 12 - 15 t/ha.

 

 

Chapter B

Tree Spices
Clove: Syzigium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry; Myrtaceae
Varieties: Local.
Soil and climate: Deep rich loams with high humus content and lateritic soils are best suited. Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 150 - 250 cm and a mean temperature range of 200C to 300C and elevation up to 1000 m are suitable.

Season: June - December.
Slopes facing South and West should be avoided. North and North-Eastern slope is preferred. Planting: Seeds are extracted from ripe fruits and sown immediately in poly bags. The seeds germinate in five to six weeks.

Take 30 cm3 pits @ 6m x 6m spacing. Fill the pits with top soil, 50 g Azospirillum and FYM 10 kg/pit. Two years old seedlings are planted in pits.
Aftercultivation:
 Provide shade for seedlings.
 Mulch the basins with dried leaves.
 Weed the basins as and when necessary.
 Provide shade during the initial establishment by raising banana.  Small temporary pandal may also provide partial shade during initial establishment. Irrigation: Frequent watering is essential in the initial stages in the absence of rains. Apply 8 litres of water either through drip or through basin during the months of January – May. Manuring:

One year old plants can be applied with FYM 15 kg, 20:20:60 g of NPK per plant in two splits during June - July and September - October.
Every year the dosage is correspondingly increased and a bearing tree of 7 years old may be applied with FYM 50 kg, 300:300:960 g of NPK per plant
50 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria to be applied one month after manuring. Plant protection - Pests
Stem Borer: Smear the surface of the stem and branches with carbaryl 50 WP at 2 g/lit of water. Pour quinalphos 25 EC 1 ml/lit in to the bore hole and plug it. Apply Phorate 60g/tree in the soil or trunk implantation of Monocrotophos 1ml/tree.

Black scale: Foliar spray with Monocrotophos 1.5 ml/l or Dimethoate 1ml/l. Diseases
Leaf spot: Pre-monsoon spray of Pseudomonas fluorescens (PfPPB) @ 0.2 % + Lawsonia leaf extracts (5 %) or Spray with Copper oxy chloride @ 0.25 % .
Harvest: Bearing starts from sixth year onwards. The flower buds should be harvested when they are fully mature but before opening. The buds are harvested as clusters and separated and dried in the sun for five to seven days.

Yield: 2 - 3 kg dried buds/tree.

 

 

Nutmeg: Myristica fragrans Houtt.; Myristicaceae
Varieties: Vishwashree, Konkan Sugandha and Konkan Swad.
Soil and climate: Friable, well drained clay to red soils is suitable. Can be grown up to an elevation of 1000 metres with 150-250 cm of rainfall under humid tropical climate. Propagation: Seeds /grafts/ budded plants.

Seed Propagation: Seeds are collected from regular bearing and high yielding trees (more than 10,000 fruits per tree per year) and having 30 g weight/fruit, 1 g wet mace /fruit and 10 g wet weight of nuts / fruit. Seeds are harvested during June – July. Sown immediately after extraction in beds at a spacing of 30 cm and 2.5 – 5.0 cm deep. Germination commences from 40 days and extends up to 90 days after sowing. Transplanted to poly bags (35 x 15 cm) one year old seedlings are transplanted to bigger poly bags (35 x 20 cm). Seedlings transplanted to main field from 18-24 months.

Vegetative propagation: Grafting (approach method) or budding (Patch method) is recommended to perpetuate high yielding nutmeg types. Best season is from October to January. Use only orthotropic shoots as scion materials.

Season and planting: Plant 12 - 18 months old seedlings/ grafts/ budded plants in pits of 60 cm3 size. Take pits at a spacing of 8 m x 8 m. Fill with equal parts of forest soil and cattle manure. Season of planting is June – December.

Manuring: Apply FYM 15 kg, 20:20:60 g of NPK per tree during first year and FYM 50 kg, 300:300:960 g of NPK for adult trees (15 years onwards) in two splits June - July, September October. Apply 50 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria one month after manuring. Irrigation: Irrigation is given once in 5 - 7 days during summer months. Aftercultivation: Keep the area around the plant weed free. It requires medium shade especially during the initial stages of growth. Fast growing shade trees or banana are planted in between them a few months prior to planting and can be thinned out later. It can be grown as mixed crop with arecanut and coconut. In Arecanut plantations, Nutmeg can be planted after every third row of Arecanut.

Plant protection
Loranthus sp: It is a serious plant parasite affecting the growth of the nutmeg plant. Mechanically remove the plant parasite.Remove severely affected branches and twigs of nutmeg trees.Paint with Bordeaux paste.

Harvest: The bearing starts from six to seven years after planting. The mature fruits are harvested when they start splitting. The aril commonly known ‘mace’ and ‘seed’ are separated and dried.
Yield
Fruits: 1000 - 2000 Nos./tree
Dried nuts: 5 - 7 kg/tree
Dried mace: 0.5 - 0.7 kg/tree.

 

 

Cinnamon: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume.; Lauraceae
Varieties: YCD 1, PPI – 1, Nithyasree, Navasree, Konkan Tej, Sugandhini Soil and climate: Sandy or lateritic soils with high humus are suitable. Can be grown at an altitude of 800 - 1000 m from MSL with an annual rainfall of 150 to 250 cm. Season: June - December.

Propagation: Seeds / Semi hardwood cuttings
Nursery: Seeds collected from selected mother trees are sown immediately in nursery beds in rows of 12 cm apart. July – August is the best season for sowing. From beds, seedlings are transplanted to polythene bags when they attain a height of 15 cm. Planting: Take pits of 60 cm3 at 2 m x 2 m spacing. Fill the pits with top soil and FYM 10 kg. One year old seedlings or rooted cuttings are transplanted under partial shade. Irrigation: Protective watering during summer is in beneficial. Manuring per plant

Manures and fertilizers
FYM (kg)
N (g)
P (g)
K (g)

1st year
20
18
25

Annual increase
2.0
20
18
25

10th year onwards
20
200
180
250

After cultivation: Provide temporary shade after transplanting. Weeds are removed as and when necessary.
Young trees are cut close to the ground to produce side shoots from second or third year onwards. This process is called “Coppicing”. By stooling around the stumps, more side shoots are encouraged from the base of the trees.

Plant protection
Pests
Shoot borer: Smear stem and branches with Carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit of water once in a month. Coffee red borer: Trunk injection of Monocrotophos 36 SL 1 ml/bore hole with a waiting period of 20 days to be allowed between application and harvest of the bark. Leaf eating caterpillar, red ants and termites: Dust Methyl parathion 1.3%. Diseases

Leaf spot: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or 0.25 % copper oxy chloride. Harvest: The harvest starts from 4th or 5th year after planting. Cut the shoots in May and November for bark harvest.
Young shoots spring up from the stump ready for removal in subsequent season within 18 months when they attain one metre long and 1 to 2 cm thick.
Terminal ends of shoots are removed.
Peeling is done by knives after scraping off the outer bark. Harvested produce is called as ‘Quills’.
From leaves, Cinnamon oil can be extracted by steam distillation. Yield : 100 g of dried bark/ bush/ year. 35 kg of leaf oil/ ha/ year.

 

 

Tamarind: Tamarindus indicus L.; Caesalpiniaceae
Varieties: PKM 1, Urigam, Hasanur and Tumkur, Prathisthan, DTS 1, Yogeshwari Soil and Climate: Grown on variety of soils ranging from poor degraded, eroded, gravelly, saline and alkaline soils. Productivity is higher in red loamy, deep well drained soils. The absolute maximum temperature varies from 36-47.5 0 C and the absolute minimum temperature varies from 0-17.5 0 C. Rainfall requirement – 750-1900 mm. Altitude – up to 100 m above MSL. Propagation : Seeds / Grafts

Nursery: Fresh seeds are sown in nursery beds in March –April. Soaking of seeds in 10 per cent cow urine or in cow dung solution (500 g in 10 l of water) for 24 hours. Two year old seedlings are transplanted to the main field.

Vegetative propagation:
Softwood grafting: March- April
Air Layering: Shoots treated with IBA 4000 ppm.
Planting Season: June - December.
Spacing: Plant at a spacing of 8-10 m x 8-10 m.
Planting: Take pits of 1 m3 and fill with FYM (10 kg/pit) and top soil. Add 50 g of Methyl parathion 1.3 % dust in the pit. Immediately after planting, support the graft with stakes. Irrigation: Regular watering should be given once in seven days. Fertilizers: Apply 200:150:250 g of NPK per tree per year along with 25 kg of FYM and 2 kg of Neem cake.

After cultivation: Remove the rootstock sprouts. Remove the dried and diseased parts. Intercrops like leguminous crops, short duration vegetables, annual drumstick, Sesamum and Sorghum may be raised in the alley spaces up to four years.

Training: Early training is necessary to form a high head and uniform scaffold branches in all directions.
Pruning: removal of dried, diseased and criss cross branches. Plant protection
Pests
Leaf caterpillar (Achaea janata): Spray monocrotophos 36 SL 2 ml/lit. Disease
Powdery mildew: Spray Dinocap 1 g/lit or wettable sulphur 2g/l. Yield: Grafts start yielding from 4 to 6 years. Pods are harvested in March-April every year. 150 - 200 kg/tree/year.
Market information
Concentrated pockets of growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred varieties

 

Dindigul, Theni, Madurai and Trichy
Madurai, Trichy
PKM 1, Urigam

 

Allspice (Pimenta dioica Lindl.); Myrtaceae
Soil and Climate
Deep rich loams with high humus content and lateritic soils are best suited Altitude : 1000 m above mean sea level.
Annual rainfall : 100-200 cm
Ideal temperature : 27oC
Propagation
Seeds: Seeds are collected from high yielding and regular bearing trees. Seeds are extracted after soaking the fruits overnight in water and rubbing them in a sieve and washing with clean water. The seeds are ready for sowing after drying them in shade. Nursery beds of 1.2 m width are prepared with light soil incorporated with organic matter or a mixture of sand and coir dust or coir dust alone. After sowing the beds are mulched to hasten germination. Dried leaves, paper and damp sacks are used as mulches. Germination takes place 15 days after sowing.

Vegetative propagation: Air layering in the month of January. Planting: 9-10 months old seedlings of 25-30 cm height are used for field planting. Spacing: 6 m x 6 m. Since the plant is dioecious in nature, it is desirable to keep a male: female ratio of 1:10 in plantation.

Fertilizer: FYM (10 Kg) + 20:180:50 g of NPK per tree in the first year. For grown up trees of 15 years or more, FYM (50 kg) + 300:250:750 g of NPK / tree is applied as two split doses.
Apply manures in shallow trenches dug around the plant 1-1.5 m away from the tree. Harvesting:
Clonally propagated plants start flowering in three years while the seed propagated plants in 6 years.
Soil application of Paclobutrazol (1.25g/tree) induces flowering, increased number of panicles, flowers and setting of berries which in turn resulted in higher yield. Fully developed green berries are harvested.

Yield: 20-25 kg dry berries per year/ tree.

 

 

Chapter C

Seed Spices
Coriander: Coriandrum sativum L.; Apiaceae
Varieties: CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, CO (CR) 4, GAU 1, UD 1, UD 2, UD 20 and UD 21 Soil: Well drained black cotton soil and red loamy soil
Climate: Cool and comparatively dry, frost free climate
Season: June - July and October - November.
Seed rate: 10 - 12 kg/ha (irrigated crop)
20 – 25 kg/ha (rainfed crop)
Seed Treatment: Soak the seeds in water for 12 hours. Treat the seeds with Azospirillum @ 1.5 kg /ha for better crop establishment + Trichoderma viride @ 50 kg/ha to control wilt disease. Presowing seed hardening treatment with Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate @ 10 g/lit of water for 16 hours is to be done for rainfed crop.

Field preparation and sowing:
Prepare the main field to a fine tilth.
Add FYM 10 t/ha before last ploughing.
Form beds and channels (for irrigated crop).
Sow the split seeds at a spacing of 20 x 15 cm.
Spray pre-emergence herbicide Fluchloralin 700 ml in 500 lit of water per ha . The seeds will germinate in about 8-15 days.
Manuring:
Basal: Apply 10: 40: 20 kg of NPK/ ha for rainfed and irrigated crops. Top dressing: Top dressing may be done at 10 kg N/ha 30 days after sowing for the irrigated crop only.
Irrigation: First irrigation immediately after sowing and the second on the third day. Subsequent irrigations at 7-10 days interval.
Aftercultivation:
Thinning is done 30 days after sowing by keeping 2 plants per hill. Weeding is done as and when necessary.
Spray CCC @ 250 ppm one month after sowing for inducing drought tolerance in rainfed crops. Plant protection
Pests
Aphid: Spray methyl demeton 25 EC @ 2 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/lit.

 

 
Diseases
Powdery mildew: Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf 1) @ 10 g /kg and foliar spray of Pf1 2 g/lit or Spray Wettable sulphur 1 kg/ha or Dinocap 250 ml/ha at the time of initial appearance of the disease and 2nd spray at 10 days interval. Neem seed kernel extracts 5 % spray thrice (1st spray immediately after the appearance of disease, 2nd and 3rd at 10 days interval).

Wilt: Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens @10g /kg followed by soil application of Pf1 @ 5 kg /ha
Grain mould: Spray Carbendazim 0.1 % (500 g/ha) 20 days after grain set. Harvest: The plants are pulled just when the fruits are fully ripe but green and start drying. The plants are dried and thrashed with sticks, winnowed and cleaned. For leaf, pull out the plants when they are 30-40 days old.

Yield :
Grain yield
Rainfed Grain yield
Irrigated
Leaf yield

Kg/ha
300-400
500-600
6000-7000

Market information
Concentrated pockets of growing
districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred varieties
Grade specification

 

Thoothukudi, Virudhunagar, Ramanathapuram
Coimbatore
Virudhunagar
Co3
Pungent, golden colour,
Well dried and matured , without shrivels

and

 

Fenugreek: Trigonella foenum graecum L.; Leguminosae
Varieties: Co 1, Pusa Early Bunching, Lam selection 1, Rajendra Kranti, Kissar Sonali, RMT1and CO 2.
Soil: A rich well drained loamy soil is best suited.
Climate: Cool and comparatively dry, frost free climate
Season: June - July and October - November.
Seed rate: 12 kg/ha.
Seed treatment: Azospirillum 1.5 kg + Trichoderma viride @ 50 g/ha for 12 kg of seeds. Field preparation and sowing:
Prepare the main field to a fine tilth.
Add FYM 20 - 25 t/ha before last ploughing. Form beds and channels of 3.5 x 1.5 m. Seeds are sown at a spacing of 20 X 15 cm. Spray pre-emergence herbicide Fluchloralin 700 ml in 500 lit of water per ha.

Manuring
Basal: Apply 30:25:40 kg of N, P, K /ha.
Top dressing: Apply 20 kg of N at 30 days after sowing.
Irrigation: Give first irrigation immediately after sowing, second on the third day and subsequently at 7 - 10 days intervals.
Aftercultivation:
Plants are thinned at 20 - 25 days after sowing and the thinned seedlings are used as greens. One pinching at a height of about 4" will encourage branching. Weeding is done as and when necessary.

Plant protection
Diseases
Root rot: Soil application of Neem cake @ 150 kg/ha and Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg or drenching with Carbendazim 0.5 g/l or Copper oxychloride 2 g/litre or Trichoderma viride @ 5 kg/ha.

Powdery mildew: Dust Sulphur at 25 kg/ha or foliar spray with wettable sulphur 2 g/lit at the time of appearance of disease.
Crop duration and harvest
20 - 25 days for greens.
90 - 100 days for grains.
Yield
Green yield: 4 – 5 t/ha.,

 

Grain yield: 500 - 700 kg/ha.

 

Fennel: Foeniculum vulgare Mill.; Apiaceae
Varieties: CO 1, UF 32, PF 35 and Gujarat Fennel 1
Soil: Rich in organic matter with well drained loamy soil or black or sandy soil. Climate: It comes up well in fairly mild with frost free climate. Season:
Hills: May - June.
Plains: October - November.
Seed rate:
Direct sowing: 9 - 12 kg/ha.
Transplanting: 3 - 4 kg/ha
Nursery area 100 m2.
Field preparation
Prepare the main field to a fine tilth.
Add FYM 10 t/ha before last ploughing.
Form beds and channels
Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i./ha
5- 6 weeks old seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 60 x 30 cm Thinning: In direct sown crop thin 4 – 5 weeks old seedlings to 25 – 30 cm spacing Manuring
Basal: Apply 25:10 kg N and P/ha.
Top dressing: Apply 25 kg N/ ha at the time of flowering.
Irrigation: First irrigation immediately after sowing, second on the third day and subsequent irrigations at 7 - 10 days intervals.
Aftercultivation:
Two or three weedings are necessary. The plants are earthed up after 3 months. Plant protection
Pests
Aphids: Spray dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit or methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/lit. Powdery mildew: Dust Sulphur at 25 kg/ha or foliar spray with wettable sulphur 2 g/lit at the time of appearance of disease.

Harvest: The crop matures in 7 - 8 months. The umbels are harvested 4 - 5 times at 10 - 15 days intervals and dried in sun for 4 - 5 days and seeds are thrashed. Yield: 500 - 750 kg/ha.

 

 

Chapter D

Other Spices
VANILLA: Vanilla planifolia; Orchidaceae
Varieties: No named varieties
Soil: Lateritic soil rich in humus having good drainage.
Climate: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 150 – 300 cms (well distributed for a period of 9 months and dry period of 3 months).
Elevation: 700 – 1500 m MSL and with latitude of 100 N and 200 S Temperature: 210 C – 320 C.
Standards: Glyricidia sp, Erythrina indica, Jatropha curcus, Plumeria alba and Casuarina equisetifolia. Planting during on-set of rain after summer during May and June. Season for vanilla planting: 6 months after planting standards (i.e.) September – October – November.

Propagation: Stem cuttings of 60 – 120 cm
Spacing:
Plains: 2.0 to 2.5 m X 1.2 – 1.5 m
Hills: 1.5 x 1.5 m
Planting: Pit size 30 cm3 for standards and for planting of vanilla cuttings. Place 2 nodes of unrooted cuttings of 60 – 120 cm below the soil surface. Training:
Train the vines to a height of 1.2 to 1.5 m.
Then trained horizontally or allowed to grow downward towards the ground. Horizontally trained vines are coiled round the pole connecting the two supporting trees. Vines trained to grow downward is allowed to touch the soil and allowed to root and again brought back upward on the same supporting tree and the same procedure is repeated. Manuring: Mulch the vine with pruned vegetation 2 – 3 times in a year. Recommended dose of fertilizers:

Apply 40 – 60: 20 – 30: 60 – 100 g of NPK per vine per year. It is given in 2 to 3 splits. Spray 1 % solution of 17: 17: 17 NPK mixture once in a month for boosting growth and flower production.
Flowering:
Flowering starts in the third year of planting during December – January. Pinching of top 7.5 – 10 cm of vine 6 – 8 months before flowering seasons encourages flower bud initiation.
Pruning of older fruiting branches also encourages flower production. Each inflorescence consists of 15 – 20 flowers.
Pollination:

 

 
The artificial pollination is useful in vanilla and pollination must be done on the same day as flowers start opening from 4.00 am and extend upto 1.00 pm.
About 10 to 20 inflorescence may be pollinated in a vine.
Normally 5 to 6 flowers in the lower side of inflorescence are pollinated. Hand pollination is done using a needle or a piece of pointed wood or a tooth pick to lift the hood covering the anther cap so that the anthers are brought into contact with stigma A skilled worker can pollinate 1000 – 1500 flowers in a day. Plant Protection

Pest
Leaf eating beetles, Feeding bugs and Caterpillars: Spraying quinolphos 0.05 %. Diseases
Fusarium wilt: Infection starts in the axil of the leaf and spread to nodal region resulting in rot. 1. Spraying and drenching of 0.1 % Carbendazim.
2. Addition of organics also reduces the intensity of the disease. Phytophthora rot: It causes rotting of beans, leaves and stems. Spraying Bordeaux mixture 1 % or soil drenching with Copper oxy chloride 0.2 % Sclerotium rot:

It occurs in root tips and later extends to whole root system followed by yellowing and wilting of vines. Soil drenching of Carbendazim 0.1 %
Shoot tip rot and Sclerotium rot: Soil drenching of Carbendazim 0.1 % Harvesting: The pods are ready for harvest in 6 to 9 months after flowering. The matured beans change colour from green to pale yellow. The right picking stage is when the distal end of the pod turns yellow. Daily picking of matured pod is essential. The pods are harvested by cutting with a knife.

Yield: Average cured bean yield is 300 to 600 kg / ha / year. 6 kg of green pods produces 1 kg of cured beans.
The economic life of vine is 12 – 14 years.

 

 

Paprika (Capsicum annum L.); Solanaceae
Variety: Arka Abir, Kt-Pl-19, Byadagi
Soil: Well drained, light fertile loam soil with moisture holding capacity is ideal. pH 6-7 Climate: Long, warm growing season, frost free for 4-5 months is ideal. In tropical southern India the crop is raised during winter months (August – December) is desirable and hence temperature - 21ºC at night & 27 ºC in day.

Optimum temperature for seed germination 18-24 ºC.
Seed Rate: 600 g / ha
Nursery: Prepare 10 -12 beds of 7 m long, 1.2 m wide and 15 cm height. Apply 15 – 20 kg well decomposed compost and 500 g of 15:15:15 NPK complex fertilizer to each bed 15 to 20 days before sowing.

Sow the seeds in rows 10 cm apart at 0.5 cm deep.
Field preparation
Prepare the main field to a fine tilth.
Add FYM 20 to 25 t/ha before last ploughing.
Transplanting: Age: 35 – 40 days old seedlings are ready for transplanting Hills: 45 x 45 cm
Plains: 60 x 45 cm
Hardening: Seedlings are first hardened by gradually withholding the Water 6-8 days before transplanting and exposing them to direct sunlight. Water the seedling 12-14 hr before transplanting
Fertilizers: (kg /ha)
Time of application
Basal dose
Top dress 3 weeks after transplanting
Top dress 6 weeks after transplanting
Total

N
60
20
40
120

Plant Protection
Pest
Mites: Apply wet able sulphur 2 kg / ha
Thrips: Spray with Fenzaquin 10 EC @150 ai /ha
Nematode: Apply carbofuran 3gin soil @ 25 kg /ha

 

P
100
0
0
100

K
60
20
40
120

 
Diseases
Damping off: Drenching the beds with metalaxyl MZ @ 0.1 %
Anthracnose: Seed treatment with Carbendazim (2 g / kg seed) and spray with Mancozeb 2 g/lit.
Fruit rot: Spray Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/lit.
Powdery mildew: Spray Wettable sulphur @ 0.3%
Chilli leaf curl complex: Sorghum leaf extract @5.0% +monocrotophos 2ml/lit + dicofol 2.5 ml /l
Harvesting: The matured fruits are ready for harvest after 70-80 days of planting. Fruits are harvested 3 to 6 times in a crop. The harvesting is spread over a period of 3-4 months. Yield: 25 – 35 t/ha

 

 

Part IV
Plantation crops
Tea: Camellia sinensis L. O. Kuntze.; Camelliaceae
Varieties: Pandian, Sundaram, Golconda, Jayaram, Evergreen, Athrey, Brookeland, BSS 1, BSS 2, BSS 3, BSS 4, BSS 5
Soil and climate: Tea requires well drained soil with high amount of organic matter and pH 4.5 to 5.5. The performance of tea is excellent at elevations ranging from 1000- 2500 m. Optimum temperature – 20-27 o C.

Nursery: The nursery soil should be well drained and deep loam in nature with pH of 4.5 to 4.8. The rooting medium should be tested for pH and free from nematode infestation. Pre-treatment of rooting medium: Treating with Aluminium sulphate can reduce soil pH. For this purpose the nursery soil is formed into beds of one metre width and about 8 cm height and of a convenient length. Then the beds are drenched with 2 % solution of Aluminium sulphate applied at 10 litres per 2.5 m2 of area. Over this another layer of soil of 8 cm height is spread and again drenched with equal quantity of water twice. Then the soil is allowed to dry and the pH is checked before use in the nursery.

Preparation of sleeves: Polythene bags of 30 – 45 cm length, 10 cm width and 150 or 200 guage thickness may be used. Drainage holes may be provided. The lower 3/4 of the sleeves should be filled with 1:3 sand and soil mixture and the top 1/4 with 1:1 sand and soil mixture and staked in rows. Overhead shade is provided.

Selection and preparation of mother bush: Healthy and vigorously growing high yielding bushes should be selected. For selected bush, application of 0.5 % Al SO4+ 1 % Mg SO4 as foliar spray is recommended. One week later, apply 2 % Zn SO4. After one week apply 1 % Urea. Then 40 g of young tea mixture 60:90 NK mixture per bush may be applied upto 5 years. Preparation of cuttings: Cuttings are taken on April - May and August - September. Semi hard-wood cuttings are prepared with one full leaf and an internode with a slanting cut at the bottom.

Planting of cuttings: The sleeves are watered thoroughly and holes are made in the soil. The cuttings are inserted in the hole and the soil around is pressed firmly to avoid airspace followed by watering. Small polythene tents may be provided which maintain high humidity and regulate the temperature inside. Cuttings may take 10 - 12 weeks for rooting. After 90 days - when all the cuttings have rooted, the polythene tent may be removed gradually over a period of 10 – 15 days.

Manuring of nursery: After the tent is removed the cuttings are sorted and staked. 30 g of Nursery soluble mixture of the following composition dissolved in 10 litres of water may be applied over an area of 4 sq.m. This should be done fortnightly. Composition of the fertilizer:

Ammonium phosphate (20:20)
Potassium sulphate
 

35 parts by Weight
15 parts by Weight

 
(or) MOP
Magnesium sulphate
Zinc sulphate
Total

12 parts by Weight
15 parts by Weight
3 parts by Weight
80 parts by Weight

Hardening of the cuttings: Hardening of 4 - 6 months old young cuttings should be done by removing shade gradually in stages over a period of 4 - 6 weeks starting from a few hours exposure to sun every day initially and extending the time of exposure gradually. Methods of planting

Single Hedge System: Planted at the spacing of 1.20 x 0.75 m accommodating 10,800 plants/ha.
Double Hedge System: Planted at the spacing of 1.35 x 0.75 x 0.75 m accommodating 13,200 plants/ha.
Season and planting: May - June or September - October. Sleeves should be opened lengthwise without injuring the roots and planted in the pit and the soil is gently pressed. Irrigation: Subsoil irrigation may be given for young teas during summer months. Manuring: Manuring should be done 2 months after planting. Phosphorous should be applied at 80 - 100 kg/ha as Rock phosphate once in a year by placement at 15 - 25 cm depth upto the first pruning and thereafter once in two years. N: K ratio 2: 3 should be adopted for the first 3 years and a ratio 1: 1 thereafter may be followed.

Year of
kg/ha/year No. of
g/plant/year
application
applications Ammonium Urea
N
K
I year
II year
III year
IV year onwards

180
240
300
300

270
360
450
300

5
6
6
6

Sulphate
13
23
29
33

27
15
18
19

Application of fertilizers should be done before the onset of monsoon. Fertilizers should be broadcast around the drip circle avoiding contact with the collar. Aftercultivation: Control perennial grasses (Forbicot weeds) by spraying Glyphosate 1.75 lit + Kaoline 2 lit + 2 kg of wetting agent in 450 lit of water followed by Gramoxone 500 ml in 200 lit of water to control dicot weeds.

Training young tea
Centering: To induce more laterals centering should be done 3 - 5 months after planting. The main leader stem should be cut, leaving 8 - 10 matured leaves. Tipping: First tipping at a height of 35 cm and second tipping at 60 cm respectively from ground level.

Pruning: To maintain convenient height and vegetative growth and to remove dead and diseased branches, pruning is done.
Area to be pruned every year = Total extent of the garden
 

 
Pruning cycle
Pruning interval = (Elevation in feet / 1000) + 1
Pruning should be done in April - May or August – September respectively to S.W or NE monsoon areas.
Types of pruning
Rejuvenation pruning: The whole bush should be cut near the ground level less than 30 cm with a view to rejuvenate the bushes.
Hard pruning: Formation pruning of young tea at 30 to 45 cm (12" to 18") for proper spread of bushes.
Medium pruning: To check the bush growing to an inconvenient height this type of pruning is done in order to stimulate new wood and to maintain the foliage at lower levels less than 60 cm. Light pruning: Pruning depends on the previous history of the bush raising the height of medium pruning by an inch or less to manageable heights for plucking (less than 65 cm). Skiffing: This is the lightest of all pruning methods. Remove the top 5 - 8 cm new growth to obtain a uniform level of pruning surface (more than 65 cm). Shade regulation: Pollarding of shade trees should be done prior to heavy rains at a height of 8 - 10 m from the ground level.

Annual lopping: Cutting the erect type branches on the laterals in shade trees before monsoon season.
Plant protection - Pests
Scales: Spray carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/lit. or phosalone 2 ml/lit or quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/ lit or chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2 ml/lit.
Sahydrassis/Phassus borer: Locate the particle mat covering at the base tea bush and remove.
Insert a thick wire in the bore hole to kill the larvae.
Thrips: Spray any one of the following insecticide
Insecticide
Dose
Azadirachtin 5 % Neem extract 5.0 ml/10 lit.
concentrate
Azadirachtin 1.0 % EC (neem 2.0 ml/lit.
based)
Ethion 50%EC
5.0 ml/10 lit.
Profenofos 50 % EC
2.0 ml/lit.
Quinalphos 25 % EC
7.5 ml/10 lt.
Aphids: Spray phosalone 35 % EC @ 2.0 ml/lit
Red spider mite, Pinkmite, scarlet mite:
 

 
Insecticide
Dose
Azadirachtin 5% Neem extract 5.0 ml/10 lit
concentrate
Azadirachtin 1.0% EC (neem 2.0 ml/lit
based)
Dicofol 18.5 % SC
2.0 ml/lit
Ethion 50 % EC
5.0 ml/10 lit
Fenazaquin 10 % EC
1.6 ml/lit
Fenpyroximate 5 % EC
1.2 ml/lit
Flumite
20%SC/flufenzine 5.0 ml/10 lit
20%SC
Hexythiazox 5.45% EC
1.2 ml/lit.
Phosalone 35 % EC
1.0 ml/lit.
Profenofos 50 % EC
2.0 ml/lit.
Propargite 57 % EC
2.0 ml/lit.
Spiromesifen 22.9 % SC
1.0 ml/lit.
Tea mosquito bug:
 Monitoring the incidence of tea mosquito bugs at regular intervals.  Removal of alternate hosts like neem, cashew, guava in the surroundings  When the infestation is lesser: Spraying of any one of the following: o Imidacloprid (0.6 ml/l)

o Thiamethoxan (0.6 g /l)
o Profenophos (2 ml/l).
Diseases
Blister blight:
1. Spray Hexaconazole 200 ml + Copper oxychloride 210 g/ha at 5 days interval/ha. (or) 2. Spray 210 g of Copper oxychloride and Nickel chloride per ha at 5 days interval from June – September, 11 days intervals in October and November (or) 3. Copper oxychloride 210 g + 200 ml Propiconazole/ha at 10 days interval. Crop duration and harvest: Plucking commences when the tea bush is 3 years old. The plucking of extreme tip of the growing branch consists of an unopened bud together with two leaves is popularly known as “Two leaves and a bud” while fine plucking is anything less than this. Plucking continues throughout the year in South at weekly intervals during March – May and at intervals of 10 -14 days during the other months.

Rush period - harvesting of 2 – 3 leaves with a bud at 7 to 10 days interval Lean period – harvesting of two leaves and a bud at 10 – 15 days interval Yield: The yield of green leaves is 10 t/ha.
Market information
Growing Districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade specification

 

Nilgiris, Coimbatore, Dindigul, Theni, Kanyakumari and
Tirunelveli districts
Coimbatore, Nilgiris
Size of the tea leaves : Whole, large tea – Higher
grading
Method of production : CTC process (Crush, Tear and
Curl) and Orthodox

 

Coffee: Coffea arabica L.;Coffea canephora Pierre ex Frechna; Rubiaceae Varieties
Arabica varieties: Sln 795, Sln 7, Sln 9, Sln 10, Cauvery and its selections HRC (Hawaian Red Cuturra), Chandragiri and sanRoman
Robusta varieties: Sln 274, Sln 270, Sln 3.
Soil: Soil should be deep, friable, open textured rich in plant nutrients with plenty of humus and of slightly acidic nature (pH – 4.5 to 6.5)
Varieties Elevation (m) Rainfall (mm) Distribution
Robusta 500 – 1000
1000 - 2000
Blossom shower – February - March
Arabica
1000 - 1500
1600 - 2500
Blossom shower – March - April
Backing shower during April – May is required for both the varieties. Propagation: by seeds.
Preparation of seeds: Healthy and well developed fully ripe berries are harvested from specially identified plants for use as seed bearers. After discarding the floats, the sound fruits are depulped, sieved and mixed with sieved wood ash and dried in shade. The seed is then graded to remove all cut, triangular and elephant beans. Prior to planting, the seeds are treated with Agrosan or any Organomercurial compound to prevent fungal infection. Nursery practices: Select light loamy soil of good drainage and high organic matter content with water and shade facilities.

Form raised beds of 15 cm height, 1m width and of convenient length. Incorporate 30 - 40 kg of well rotten compost, 2 kg of finely sieved agricultural lime and 400 g of rock phosphate to a bed of 1 x 6 m size.

In heavy soils, it is necessary to add coarse sand for drainage and aeration. Sowing: Pre-sowing seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria can be done. Seeds are sown in December - January in the bed 1.5 - 2.5 cm apart with the flat side down wards in regular rows. Then they are covered with a thin layer of fine soil and a layer of paddy straw. Water the beds daily and protect from direct sunlight by an over head pandal. Seeds germinate in about 45 days after which they are transplanted to secondary nursery beds for raising ball or Bag nursery.

Bag nursery: Polythene bags with adequate number of holes in the bottom half are taken and are filled with a prepared mixture containing jungle soil, FYM in the proportion of 6:2:1. An area of 12 x 8 m can accommodate 5000 seedlings. Seedlings are planted in polythene bags.

Season: June - September.
Preparation of field: Selective felling may be done while retaining a number of desirable shade trees. Terracing should be done in deep slopy areas. After the summer showers, pits of 45 cm3 are dug. The pits are left open for weathering and then filled and heaped for planting. At the time of filling, apply 500 g of rock phosphate per pit along with top soil. Planting is done along the contour in slopy areas.

 

 

Spacing
Arabica Coffee: 1.5 to 2.0 m either way.
Dwarf varieties: Sanraman: 1 x 1 m.
Robusta coffee: 2.5 m either way.
Planting shade trees: Dadap is commonly used as a lower canopy shade. Stakes of 2 m length are planted for every two coffee plants. Silver Oak and Dadaps are planted during June when South-West monsoon commences. During summer the stem of young Dadaps are painted with diluted lime or wrapped with polythene sheets in order to prevent them from sun scorch. Regulate shade by cutting criss-cross branches during monsoon season. Silver oak trees are planted at 6x6m for permanent shade.

Irrigation: It is generally grown as a rainfed crop. But irrigation with sprinkler during March April increases blossoming and results in higher yields. Manuring:
Species

ARABICA
Young coffee 1st year
After planting
2nd and 3rd year
4th year
Bearing coffee 5 years
and and above for less
than one tonne/ha crop
For one tonne/ha and
above
ROBUSTA
For less than one
tonne/ ha crop
For 1 tonne /ha and
above

Preblossom
March
N:P2O5:K2O

Post

blossom
May
N:P2O5:K2O

Midmonsoon
August
N:P2O5:K2O

PostTotal
monsoon
October
N:P2O5:K2O

15:10:15

15:10:15

---

15:10:15

45:30:45

20:10:20
30:20:30
40:30:40

20:10:20
20:20:20
40:30:40

-----

20:15:20
30:20:30
40:30:40

60:45:60
80:60:80
140:90:120

40:30:40

40:30:40

40:30:40

40:30:40

160:120:160

40:30:40

---

---

40:30:40

80:60:80

40:30:40

40:30:40

---

40:30:40

120:90:120

Pruning: Centering and desuckering should be carried out for 5-6 years after planting.Done immediately after the harvest (June-July and September - october) and till the onset of monsoon. Unproductive wood between all primaries, secondaries and tertiaries should be removed.

Rejuvenation / collar Pruning: Removal of dead, exhausted, dried and worn out branches. Done immediately after the harvest.
Hard pruning: Plants are cut at 5-20 cm above the ground level and one leader shoot is allowed. Medium Pruning: Removal of lateral shoots to regulate shade. Light pruning: Removal of Suckers.
Intercropping: Orange, Pepper, Banana, Pine apple, Avocado, Custard apple.  

 

After cultivation: Weeding and mulching should be done as and when necessary. Digging is done to a depth of 30 cm towards the end of monsoon (October - November). The weeds and vegetative debris are completely turned under and buried in the soil while the stumps are removed. This is known as the cover digging. In slopy areas dig trenches on the contour 45 cm wide and 30 cm deep of any convenient length. Prune water shoots and disease affected shoots.

Plant protection
Pests
White stem borer: Attacks arabica coffee grown under inadequate shade.  Maintain/create optimum shade
 Borer infested plants should be thoroughly trace, uprooted during March and September , burnt to avoid economic loss during the subsequent years.
 Install pheromone traps @ 25 /ha, if the incidence is high.  Remove the loose scaly bark on the main stem and thick primaries using coir glove or coconut husk.
 Pad with monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 5 ml by making a window in the stem at 5 cm x 5 cm and fill it with absorbant cotton dipped in insecticide solution and close it. Berry borer:
 Carry out timely and thorough harvest.
 Avoid gleanings as far as possible.
 Pick up and destroy the gleanings.
 Meticulously remove the leftover berries.
 Remove offseason berries to save main crop.
 Avoid excessive shade.
 Prune plants properly to facilitate better ventilation and illumination.  Set up traps with ethyl : methyl alcohol (1 : 1) to attract adults.  While processing at the estate level dry coffee berries to the prescribed moisture level : Arabica / robusta parchment 10 %, Arabica cherry 10.5 % and robusta cherry 11.0 %. Shot hole borer beetle:

Attacks branches and suckers of robusta coffee. This pest thrives under heavy shade and can be controlled by pruning the branches
Green scales and mealy bugs:
Release coccinellid predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 300 beetles/acre. Spray Verticillium lecanii @ 6 x 106 spores/ml or spray any one of the following insecticide Insecticide
Dose
Monocrotophos 36 % SL
1.5 ml/lit.
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC
2.5 ml/lit.
Quinalphos 25 % EC
2.5 ml/lit.
For the control of leaf miner spray Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC @ 2.5 ml/lit. Diseases
Rust: Spray 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture in February - March (Pre-bloom) followed by 0.03 % Oxycarboxin in May - June (Pre-monsoon).
Repeat in July - August (mid-monsoon) September - October (Post-monsoon) with any one of the above fungicides or
 

 
Spray 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture during the month of June followed by 0.02 % Triadionefon during September and 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture during the month of December. Black rot or Koleroga: Centering and handling of the bushes should be done prior to the onset of South-West monsoon.

Remove affected twigs.
Spray 1% of Bordeaux mixture during break in monsoon.
Collar rot: Treat seeds with Carbendazim 1 g/kg or Carboxin 0.7 g/kg. Maintain filtered shade in nursery.
Drench nursery beds with Mancozeb or Captan 0.5 g/lit before sowing. Brown eye spot: Spray Captan or Mancozeb or Ferbam 2 g/lit or Carbendazim 0.5 g/lit in September.
Black root rot: Dig out and burn infected bushes.
Dig a trench 30 cm deep around affected spot along with a ring of healthy bushes. Prune the healthy bushes within and outside the trench to allow sunlight. Keep the trench free from fallen leaves.

Do not replant for 18 months.
Harvest: Harvest starts during October and extends upto February. Coffee fruits should be harvested as and when they become ripe. Coffee is just ripe when on gently squeezing the fruits the beans inside come out easily.

Fly picking: small scale picking of ripe berries during October to February Main picking: well formed and ripened berries are harvested during December. Bulk of the yields are obtained from this picking.

Stripping: picking of all the berries left irrespective of ripening. Cleanings: This is collection of fruits that have been dropped during harvesting. Unripe fruits should be scrupulously sorted out before using the fruits for pulping. They may be dried separately as cherry.

Yield: Dry parchment 750 - 1000 kg/ha.
Market information
Growing Districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Types
Grade specification

 

Dindigul, Nilgiris, Salem and Theni
Coonoor, Bodinayakanur , Mettupalayam
Arabica, Robusta
Washed, Unwashed, Monsooned, Instant, Ground,
Roasted, Speciality

 

Cashew: Anacardium occidentale L.; Anacardiaceae
Varieties: VRI 1, VRI 2, VRI 3, VRI 4 and VRI (CW) H1
Soil and climate: It grows up well in all soils. Red sandy loam is best suited. Plains as well as hill slopes upto 600 - 700 feet elevation are suitable for cultivation. Season: June - December.
Propagation: Soft wood grafting, air layer and epicotyl grafting. Requirement of plants: 200 plants/ha.
Preparation of field: Pits of 45 cm3 size are dug and filled up with a mixture of soil + 10 kg FYM + one kg neem cake and 100 g Methyl parathion 1.3 %.
Spacing: 7 m either way.
High Density Planting: Spacing of 5 x 4 m accommodating 500 plants per hectare is recommended prune the interlocking branches during the July-August to maintain the frame. Manuring (per tree)
Manures and fertilizers
FYM or Compost (kg)
N(g)
P(g)
K(g)

I year II year
10
20
70
140
40
80
60
120

III year IV year
20
30
210
280
120
160
180
240

V year onwards
50
500
200
300

Fertilizer application may be done during October - November in the East Coast areas. Wherever possible the fertilizer can be applied in 2 equal split doses during June-July and October-November periods under eastcoast area, a fertilizer schedule of 1000:125:250 g NPK/tree is recommended tree.

Irrigation: Noramally grown as a rainfed crop. Irrigation once in a west from flinching to fruit maturity stage is good to increase the yield.
Intercropping: Plough the interspaces after the receipt of rain and raise either groundnut or black gram till the trees reach bearing age.
Training and pruning: Develop the trunk to a height of 1 m by removing low lying branches. The dried twigs and branches should be removed every year.
Plant protection
Pests
Stem borer –
 Collect and destroy affected shoots.
 Swabbing the bark of exposed roots and shoots with carbaryl 50 WP@ 2 g/lit. Twice a year before the onset of South West Monsoon (March – April) and after cessation of monsoon (November) painting of coal tar + kerosene mixture (1:2) or swabbing with a suspension of carbaryl 50 WP (4 g/lit) upto one metre length in the exposed trunk region

 

 
after shaving the bark or swab the tree trunk with neem oil 5% thrice during JanuaryFebruary, May-June, and September-October  Root feeding with monocrotophos 36 SL @ 10 ml + 10 ml of water kept in a polythene bag on one side of the tree and keep the same amount on the other side of the tree (Total 20 ml/tree) divided into two equal halves will give protection when there is moderate incidence.

 Remove grubs from early stage infested trees and drench the damage portion with Chlorpyriphos 0.2% @ 10 ml/lit or Neem Oil 5%
Tea mosquito bug:
 Spray application of phosalone 35 EC@ 2.0 ml, followed by carbaryl 50WP @ 2g/l and monocrotophos @ 2ml/l at vegetative flush stage, panicle initiation stage and nut formation stage respectively are recommended for the management of tea mosquito bug.

 Spray schedule involving three rounds of spray viz., first spraying with Profenophos (0.05%) at flushing stage, second spraying with Chlorpyriphos (0.05%) at flowering and third spraying with Carbaryl (0.1%) at fruit set stage is most effective. Apple borer: Spray dichlorvos 76 % EC @ 6.0 ml/10 lit.

Root borer: Pour monocrotophos 10 ml/tree in the bore holes split into two halves (insecticide 5 ml + 5 ml water).
Diseases
Die back or Pink disease:
Prune the affected shoots just below the affected portion and apply Bordeaux paste. Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride 0.25 % twice in May- June and again in October as a prophylactic measure.

Harvest: The plant starts yielding 3rd year onwards. The peak picking months are March to May. Good nuts are grey green, smooth and well filled. After picking, the nuts are separated from the apple and dried in the sun for two to three days to bring down the moisture content to 10 to 12 %. Properly dried nuts are packed in alkathene bags. This will keep for 6 months. Yield: 3 - 4 kg/tree/year.

Market information
Growing Districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Grade specification

 

Cuddalore, Tirunelveli
Jayankondam, Vridhachalam, Panruti
White/ Pieces, splits, butts

 

Cocoa: Theobroma cacao L.; Sterculiaceae
Varieties: Criollo, Forestero and Trinitario. CCRP – 1, CCRP – 2, CCRP – 3, CCRP – 4, CCRP – 5, CCRP – 6 and CCRP – 7.
Soil and climate: Potash rich alluvial soils friable in nature with high humus and moisture retentivity with a pH of 6.6 - 7.0 are suitable. Cocoa is normally cultivated at altitudes upto 1200 m above MSL with an annual rainfall of 150 cm and a relative humidity of 80 % and annual mean temperature of 240C to 250C. Cocoa can be grown as intercrop in coconut and arecanut gardens.

Season: June - July and September - October.
Seeds and sowing: Propagated by seeds. Before sowing the seeds the pulp adhering to the seeds has to be removed. Cocoa seeds are individually sown in polybags soon after extraction. Pot mixture:
The bags are filled with pot mixture containing.
 Red soil -2 parts
 Sand -1 part
 FYM- 1 part
 Super phosphate – 5 kg/ton of the above mixture
This can be filled in 320 gauge polythene bag with 30 cm height and 20 cm width provided with two holes in the bottom. Nursery plants are ready for transplanting at 6 months of age when they attain a height of 60 cm.

Planting: Seedlings are transplanted with a ball of earth in 45 cm3 pits at a spacing of 3 x 3 m either way. Stake the plants to ensure upright growth and early establishment. Periodical mulching with leaves and watering should be done. Temporary shade has to be provided. Irrigation: Irrigation should be given as and when necessary. During summer months irrigation should be given once in three days.

Manuring: Trees of 3 years of age and above are manured with 100 g N, 40 g P and 140 g K per tree in two split doses during April - May and August - September. Trees younger than three years may be applied with half of this dose.

Fertilizer
Urea
Super phosphate
Muriate of Potash
Time of application

I year after
planting(g)

III Year after
planting(g)

145
200
165
250
160
240
3 split doses /
3 split doses / year
year (Feb –
(Feb – March & May
March, May –
– June & Aug - Sep)
June & Aug Sep)
Micro nutrient application: Foliar application of FeSo4 @ 0.5% + Zn So4 @ 0.5% in 2 split doses/ year.
 

75
85
80
2 split doses / year
(Feb – March &
July – Aug)

II Year after
planting(g)

 
Pruning:
Formation pruning: Done in young plants of cocoa (1 year after planting). The height of first jorquette is kept at 1-1.5m from the ground.
Structural pruning: done generally 16-24 months after planting. Done to maintain tree at optimum height.
Maintenance Pruning: Starts from second year of planting. Remove low and hanging branches. Remove excess number of chupons regularly. Remove unproductive branches, dead, diseased and badly damaged branches in periodical intervals. Aftercultivation: Weeding is done as and when necessary. The unproductive shoots, dead, diseased twigs should be removed periodically. Banana is better raised as a primary shade plant in the early years of plantation.

Plant protection
Pests
Tea mosquito bug:
 Monitoring the incidence of tea mosquito bugs at regular intervals.  Removal of alternate hosts like neem, cashew, guava in the surroundings  When the infestation is lesser: Spraying of any one of the following: o Imidacloprid (0.6 ml/l)

o Thiamethoxan (0.6 g /l)
o Profenophos (2 ml/l).
Mealy Bug:
 Monitoring the incidence of mealy bugs at regular intervals.  Removal of alternate weed hosts like Parthenium.
 Collection and destruction of infested plant parts before spraying.  When the infestation is lesser: Spraying of neem oil 2 % or fish oil rosin soap 25 g/l.  On severe incidence, spraying of any one of the following chemicals is recommended. o Dimethoate (2 ml/l)

o Profenophos (2 ml/l)
o Chlorpyriphos (5 ml/l)
o Imidacloprid (0.6 ml/l)
o Thiamethoxam (0.6 g/l).
 Release coccinellid predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10 nos/tree. Aphids: Spray dimethoate 35 EC 1 ml/lit at monthly intervals. Grey Weevil: Spray phosphamidon 40 SL 2 ml/lit.
Hairy caterpillar: Dust Methyl parathion 1.3 D or spray Methyl parathion 20 EC 2ml/lit. Semilooper: Dust Methyl parathion 1.3 D.
Rodents:
Rats & squirrels: keep 10g of Bromodiolone (0.005%) wax cakes on the branches twice at an interval of 10-12 days.

 

 
Diseases
Black pod disease: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or 0.2 % Mancozeb or Copper oxychloride at 20 days interval.
Stem canker: Remove the infected areas and apply Bordeaux paste at 10 % Dieback disease: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Copper oxy chloride at 0.25 %. Charcoal pod rot: Spray with 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Copper oxy chloride at 0.25 %. Cherelle wilt: Spray carbendazim @ 0.1 % or Dithane M 45 @ 0.2 % or Copper oxy chloride @ 0.25 %.

Pink disease: Prune the affected branches and swab the cut ends regularly with 1 % Bordeaux mixture.
Harvest: Bearing starts from 3rd year but economic yield starts from 6th year onwards. The season of harvest is April – May and November – December. Yield: 500 - 1000 kg of dry beans/ha.

 

 

Rubber: Hevea brasiliensis Muell-Arg.; Euphorbiaceae
Varieties: Tjir 1, PB 86, BD 5, BD 10, PR 17, GT 1, RRII 105, RRIM 600, PB 28/59, PB 217, PB 235, RRIM 703, RRII 5, PCK-1, 2 and PB 260.
Soil and climate: It requires deep and fertile soil with pH of 4.5 to 6.0. Requires tropical temperature 20 – 300 C with the well distributed rainfall of 2000 – 5000 mm and an elevation of 300 – 800 m above MSL. is ideal.

Season: June - July.
Propagation: Propagated by green budding and brown budding.
Nursery: bed size: 60-120 cm width and of convenient length. Spacing: Seedling stumps – 23 x 23 cm, 30 x 30 cm and 34 x 20 cm Budded stumps – 30 x 30 cm
Stump budding – 60 x 60 cm
Bud wood nursery – 60 x 90 cm or 60 x 120 cm.
Seedling Nursery:
Manuring: Basal -2.5 t/ha of FYM and 350kg/ha of Rock Phosphate. 1.5 – 2 months after planting –10:10:4:1.5 NPKMg mixture -2500 kg/ha. Urea @550 kg /ha -3 to 3.5 months.
Planting: Pit size of 1 m3 are dug and filled up with top soil and compost. Planting material Spacing (m) Population / ha
Budded plants
Hilly areas
6.7 X 3.4
445
Plains
4.9 X 4.9
420
Seedlings
Hilly areas
6.1 X 3.0
539
Plains
4.6 X 4.6
479
In situ sowing: Germinated seeds are sown in situ in the pits. Healthy ones are retained and the others removed.
Manuring: Manuring is done for immature rubber trees at pre-tapping stage. Apply 12 kg of compost or FYM and 120 g of rock phosphate in each pit before planting. Apply 10:10:4:1.5 NPK and Mg as per schedule given below:

NPK and Mg mixture (10:10:4:1.5)
Months after
Period of application
planting
g/plant
Kg/ha
3
September/October
225
100
9

445

200

15

September/October

450

200

21

April/May

450

250

27
 

April/May

September/October

550

250

 
33

April/May

550

200

39

September/October

450

200

Apply 400 kg of mixture per ha in 2 doses, once in April/May and another in September/October from the 5th year till the tree is ready for tapping. For matured rubber trees under tapping apply NPK 10:10:10 grade mixtures at the rate of 900 g/tree (300 kg/ha) every year in two split doses. Add 10 kg commercial Magnesium sulphate for every 100 kg of the above mixture if there is magnesium deficiency.

After cultivation: Growing of cover crops, incorporation of cover crops and weeding are important operations for soil conservation. Pueraria phaseoloides, Calopagonium muconoides, Centrosema pubescens and Desmodium evalifolium are common cover crops. Tapping: Trees attain tappable stage in about 7 years. First tapping in seedling trees will commence when the trunk attains a girth of 55 cm at 50 cm height from the ground. In budded trees the girth should be 50 cm at 125 cm height from the bud union. Tapping system:

S/2 d/2

(half spiral, alternate day for 6 months and rested for
3 months)
S /2 d/2 6m (half spiral, alternate day for 6 months and rested for /9
3 months)
S /2d/3
(half spiral, third day)
S/2 d/3 1m/2 (half spiral, daily for one month and rested for next month)
S /1 d/4
Full spiral,fourth day
V /2 d/2 Half circumstances and cut alternate day for 12
12m/16
months and rested for the next 4 months

100% Intensity
67 intensity
67 intensity
100% intensity
100% intensity
75% intensity

Rain guarding: Fixing a polythene rain guard to the trunk of the tree above the tapping panel during the raining season is recommended in areas where the annual yield is 700 kg/ha or more.
Ethrel treatment: Ethrel is recommended to increase latex yield of trees tapped on panel D. It is applied at 5 % a.i. concentration with a brush below the tapping cut to a width of 5 cm after light scraping of the outer bark. The first application may be done after a drought period preferably after a few pre-monsoon showers and subsequent applications may be done in September and November. However, continuous application of Ethrel is not recommended for periods of more than 3 years at a stretch.

Tapping panel dryness (Brown bast): Syndrome characterized by prolonged dripping of latex with the gradual decline in volume yield, pre coagulation of latex and partial or complete drying of tapping area (10-25 per cent).

Control: Reduce tapping intensity or give a tapping rest for 3 to 12 months.

 

 
Plant protection
Pests
Scale insect:
When severe infestation is noticed, spray malathion 50 EC@ 2 ml/lit. Mealy bug:
Spray fish oil rosin - soap 25 g/lit.
Release Australian lady bird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10/tree. Termite (White ant):
Drench the soil at the base of affected plants with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/litre. Cockchafer grub:
Drench soil at the base of plants in the affected area with the solution of chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/litre.
Mites:
Spray dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2.5 ml/lit.
Diseases
Abnormal leaf fall and Secondary leaf fall:
Prophylactic spraying of the foliage prior to the onset of South-West monsoon with, Bordeaux mixture 1% at 4000 - 5000 lit/ha using high volume sprayers. Oil based Copper oxy chloride using low volume sprayer or through aerial application. Two rounds of spray using about 17 to 22 lit of fungicide oil mixture per ha per round (1:6 proportion) at 10 to 15 days interval (or)

a single round of spray with about 30 - 37 lit of fungicide oil mixture per ha (1:5 proportion). Powdery mildew: Dusting during the defoliation period commencing from the bud break in about 10 % of the trees, giving 3 to 5 rounds at weekly to fortnightly intervals before 10.00 a.m. using 11 to 14 kg 325 mesh fine Sulphur dust per round per ha. Sulphur dust can be mixed with talc in the proportion of 7:3. Wettable sulphur (1 kg in 4000 lit of water) is also effective in nurseries and for young plants as a spray.

Bird’s eye spot: Repeated sprayings with Bordeaux mixture 1% or Mancozeb or Copper oxychloride 0.2 %.
Leaf spot: Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or 0.2 % Mancozeb or 0.1 % Carbendazim at fortnightly intervals.
Pink disease:
Frequent tree to tree inspection during July – September period for detecting the infected trees and application of Bordeaux paste in the early stages upto 30 cm above and below the affected region.

In advanced cases apply Bordeaux paste and when it dries up scrape off the superficial mycelium and damaged bark and apply Bordeaux paste once again. Prune off and burn the dried up branches after disinfecting by Bordeaux spraying.

 

 
Patch canker or Bark cankers:
The affected region may be scraped to remove all the rotting bark and the coagulated rubber and the wound washed well with Dithane M 45 @ 0.75 %.
When the fungicide dries up apply wound dressing compound.
Dry Rot, Stump Rot, Collar Rot or Charcoal Rot:
Clean up affected areas, by washing with Carbendazim (0.1%) solution. Scrape out the fructifications.
Affected bark and wood show black lines. Wash the wound again with fungicide solution. When it dries up apply a wound dressing compound.
Avoid accumulation of rubber at the base of the trees.
Brown root disease:
Open up the root system.
Completely killed and dried roots may be traced and pruned.
Partially affected and healthy roots washed with Carbendazim (0.1%) solution. Drench the base with fungicide Carbendazim (0.1%) solution.
Yield: Rubber yield steeply increases year by year, reaching a peak after 14 years of planting. Annual yield: 375 kg/ha from seedlings trees
800 - 1000 kg/ha from budded plants.

 

 

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.); Palmae
Varieties:
Hybrids: VHC1, VHC2 and VHC3
Tall: VPM3, ALR 1, ALR 2 and West Coast Tall
Dwarf (tender coconut): COD, CYD, CGD and MYD
Soil and climate: Light sandy soils to heavy soils with a pH - 5.2 to 8.0. Proper drainage, good water-holding capacity, presence of water table within 3 m and absence of rock or any hard substratum within 2 m of the surface.

Altitude: 600 to 900 m
Rainfall: 200 cm per year.
Planting seasons: Jun - Jul and Dec - Jan. The planting can also be taken up in other seasons wherever irrigation and drainage facilities are available.
Spacing: For garden: 25' x 25' (Square system - 7.5 x 7.5 m) - 175 plants/ha. Field border as a single row - 20' spacing between plants
Planting: Pit size of 3 cubic feet.
Sprinkle methyl parathion Dust to prevent white ant damage. Fill the pit to a height of two feet (60 cm) with FYM, red earth and sand mixed in equal proportions. At the center of the pit, remove the soil mixture and plant the seedling after removing all the roots. Press the soil well around the seedling and provide the seedling with shade by using plaited coconut leaves or palmyrah leaves. Keep the pits free from weeds. Remove soil covering the collar region. As the seedlings grow and form stem, fill up the pits gradually by cutting the sides. Water management: Summer irrigation – production of female flowers and setting percentage increases. Moisture stress – stunted growth, drooping of leaves, immature nut fall Months

A. Drip irrigation
March – September
October – February
B. Basin irrigation
March – September
October – February

Normal
condition
(for best yield)
80 lit / day
50 lit / day

Moderate water
scarcity condition
55 lit / day
35 lit/ day

Severe water
scarcity condition
27 lit/day
18 lit /day

410 lit / 5 days
410 lit /8 days

Drip irrigation in coconut: Root zone of coconut for moisture absorption is concentrated in a circular area of 200 cm radius around the base of coconut tree up to a depth of 100 cm. Irrigating coconut trees by a set of four drippers set equidistant in a circle 100 cm away from the base of the tree and discharging water at the rate of 30 l/h for 2.5 h with a irrigation frequency of 8 days can maximize the wetting area of soils in the effective root zone of coconut.

 

 
Drought management and soil moisture conservation:
a. Mulching with coconut husks/leaves/coir pith
Apply coconut husks with convex surface facing upwards (100 Nos.) or dried coconut leaves (15 Nos) or coir pith up to a height of 10 cm in the basin of 1.8 m radius around the palms during summer season

b. Burial of coconut husk or coir pith
Bury husks @ 100 Nos. with concave surface facing upwards or 25 kg of coir pith /palm in circular trenches, dug 30 cm width and 60 cm depth at 1.5 metres radius - preserves the monsoon rains.
Manuring & Fertilizer application
Age(Years)
FYM(kg/tree)
Urea(kg/tree)

Super
Phosphate(kg/tree)
0.500 (80g P2O5 )
1.000 (160 g P2O5)
1.500 (240 g P2O5)
2.000 (320g P2O5)
2.000 (320g P2O5)

Muriate
of
Potash(kg/tree)
0.480 (300 g K2O)
0.960 (600 g K2O)
1.440 (900 g K2O)
1.920 (1200 g K2O)
1.920 (1200 g K2O)

1
10
0.308 (140 g N)
2
20
0.616 (280 g N)
3
30
0.924 (420 g N)
4
40
1.23 (560 g N)
5th year on 50
1.23 (560 g N)
wards
Apply manures and fertilizers in circular basins of 1.8 m from the base of the palm, incorporate and irrigate.
The fertilizers may applied in two split doses, in June – July and in December to January. TNAU Coconut Tonic Nutrition: For nut bearing coconut, root feed TNAU coconut tonic @ 200 ml/palm once in six months.

Bio-fertilizer recommendation : 50 g of Azospirillum, 50 g of Phosphobacteria ( or ) 100 g Azophos and 50 g of VAM. Mix all the contents in sufficient quantity of compost or FYM and apply near feeding roots once in 6 months / palm starting from planting. Don’t mix with chemical fertilizers and pesticides

Organic recycling: Any one of the green manure crops like sunhemp, wild indigo, calapagonium or daincha may be sown and ploughed in situ at the time of flowering as a substitute of compost to be applied. Sow sunhemp @ 50 g/palm in the basin and incorporate before flowering. Coir pith compost or vermicompost made from coir pith/ coconut leaves/ other wastes from coconut grove can be applied.

Intercropping in coconut
a) Below 7 years of age: annual crop
b) 7 – 20 years of age: Green manure crops and fodder crops c) Above 20 years of age
Groundnut, bhendi, turmeric, tapioca, sweet potato, sirukizhangu, Annuals
elephant foot yam, ginger, pineapple
Banana varieties viz., Poovan and Monthan are suitable
Biennials
Cocoa, pepper (Panniyur 1 or Panniyur 2 or Panniyur 5 or
Perennials
Karimunda), nutmeg and vanilla
 

 

 
Weed management: The inter-space in the coconut garden has to be ploughed twice in a year in June-July and December - January. Intercultural operation is essential to keep weed population under check, to enhance the utilisation of the applied plant nutrients by the coconut trees, to facilitate proper aeration to the roots of coconut, to induce fresh root growth. For the broad-leaved weeds, pre-emergence spraying of atrazine @1.0 kg a.i. / ha for the control of grasses and sedges. Post emergence spraying of glyphosate @ 10 ml and 20 g ammonium sulphate/litre of water.

Yield and Earlyness:
S.No Variety
1.
Hybrid
2.
Tall
3.
Dwarf (tender coconut)

Nut yield (Nos / tree / year)
100
60 – 80
70 - 90

Earlyness (year)
3–5
6–7
4–5

Pests and diseases
I) Rhinoceros beetle
i.
Remove and burn all dead coconut trees in the garden (which are likely to serve as good breeding ground) to maintain good sanitation.
ii.
Collect and destroy the various bio-stages of the beetle from the manure pits (breeding ground of the pest) whenever manure is lifted from the pits. iii.
Incorporate the entomopathogen i.e, fugus (Metarhizium anisopiae) in manure pits to check the perpetuation of the pest.
iv.
Apply Methyl parathion dust in the manure pits once in three months to kill the grubs. v.
Soak castor cake in small mud pots and keep them in the coconut gardens to attract and kill the adults.
vi.
Treat the longitudinally split tender coconut stem and green petiole of fronds with fresh toddy and keep them in the garden to attract and trap the beetles. vii.
Examine the crowns of tree at every harvest and hook out and kill the adults. viii. Fill the crown and the top most three leaf axils with a mixture of Aldrin 5 D and fine sand (1:1 by volume) once in three months, particularly before and after the monsoon months to check the damage by adults. For seedlings, apply 3 nos. of naphthalene balls/palm weighing 3.5 g each at the base of interspace of leaf sheath in the 3 inner most leaves of the crown once in 45 days.

ix.
Set up light traps following the first rains in summer and monsoon period to attract and kill the adult beetles.
x.
Field release of Baculovirus inoculated adult rhinoceros beetle reduces the leaf and crown damage caused by this beetle.
xi.
Mixture of either neem seed powder +sand (1:2 @ 150 g per palm or Neem Seed Kernel powder + Sand (1:2) @ 150 g per palm applied in the base of the 3 inner most leaves in the crown effectively controlled rhinoceros beetle damage. II Black headed caterpillar

i.
The incidence of the pest is noticed from the month of November to May and from August to November after rainfall. The coconut trees of all ages are attacked. Among the larval parasites, the bethylid Parasierold nephantidis is the most effective in controlling the pest. The optimum level of release is 1:8 of host parasite ratio. The parasite should be released under the coconut trees then the pest is in the 2nd or 3rd instar larval stage. Parasite release trap may be used to release the parasite at the site of feeding. Parasites should not be released in the crown region since they will be killed by predators like spiders and reduvilds.

ii.
Remove and burn all affected leaves/leaflets.
 

 
iii.
iv.
v.

vi.

Release the larval (Bethylids, Braconid and Iohneumonid) and pupal (Eulophid) parasites and predators periodically from January, to check the build up of the pest during summer.
Spray Malathion 50 EC 0.05 % to move the undersurface of the leaves thoroughly in case of severe epidemic outbreak of the pest in young palms. Harvest all mature nuts, and drill a downward slanting hole and inject 5.0 ml of Monocrotophos 36 SL into the stem at about 1.5 m above the ground level and plug with clay mixed with Copper oxychloride. Monocrotophos (5 ml) may also be mixed in water (20 ml) and injected into the stem or a cotton wick soaked in Monocrotophos (after absorption of 5 ml) and inserted into the hole and plugged. Plucking tender coconuts or harvesting the nuts should be avoided strictly for forty days after treatment.

Root feeding for the control of coconut Black headed caterpillar: Select a fresh and live root, cut sharply at an angle and insert the root in the insecticidal solution containing Monocrotophos 36 SL 10 ml + water 10 ml in a 7x10 cm polythene bag. Secure the bag tightly to the root with a cotton thread. Twenty four hours later, check whether there is absorption. Select another root. These methods should not be resorted to as a routine practice and it is suggested only for cases of severe epidemic outbreak of the pest and when the survival of the tree is threatened.

III. Red palm weevil
i.
Remove and burn all wilting or damaged palms in coconut gardens to prevent further perpetuation of the pest.
ii.
Avoid injuries on stems of palms as the wounds may serve as oviposition sites for the weevil. Fill all holes in the stem with cement.
iii.
Avoid the cutting of green leaves. If needed, they should be cut about 120 cm away from the stem.
iv.
Plug all holes and inject Pyrocone E or Carbaryl at 1% ml or 10 ml of Monocrotophos or 5 ml of Monocrotophos + 5 ml of Dichlorvos into the stem by drilling a hole above the points of attack.
v.
Setting up of attractant traps (mud pots) containing sugarcane molasses 2 ½ kg / toddy 2 ½ litres + acetic acid 5 ml + years 5 g + longitudinally split tender coconut stem /logs of green petiole of leaves of 30 numbers in one acre to trap adult red palm weevils in large numbers.

IV. Termites
i.
Locate termite mounds in or near the coconut nursery or garden and destroy. ii.
Incorporate 120 kg of Heptachlor 3 D per ha into the soil twice a year, i.e, on receipt of summer and monsoon showers (Heptachlor 3 D per tree). Spray Aldrin 0.15 % or HCH O.25 % or Neem oil 5 % once on the base and upto 2 m height of the trunk for effective control.

iii.
Spray Copper sulphate 1 % or Cashew nut shell oil 80 % followed by Copper sulphate 1 % then neem oil 5 % and copper sulphate 1 %, then NSKE 20 % to preserve planted coconut leaves from the termite attack.

V. Scale insect: Pluck mature nuts and spray Monocrotophos 0.036%. Do not harvest nuts for 1 ½ months after spraying.
VI. Mealy bugs: Remove leaflets harbouring these insects and destroy them and spray Malathion at 0.1 % or Dimethoate 0.03 % or Methyldemeton 0.025 % or Phosphomidon 0.05 %

 

 
or Monocrotophos 0.04 % or Methomyl 0.25 %. Application of neem oil 3% was effective in controlling mealy bug.
VII. Leaf caterpillars, nut caterpillar and nut coreld bud: Collect and destroy the immature stages of the insects wherever possible and spray Carbaryl 0.1 %. A combined treatment of root feeding of Monocrotophos at 5 ml + 5 ml water, spraying of 0.01% Monocrotophos followed by the release of Parasitoids at every 15 days interval of time effectively control leaf eating caterpillars.

VIII. Palm civet: Poinson baiting with ripe banana fruit sand wiched with 0.5 g Carbofuran 3 g granules.
IX. Rat: Tree banding with inverted iron cores or Prosophis thorns. Baiting with Bromodialone 0.005% at 10 g/tree at crown region twice at an interval of 12 days. X. Thanjavur wilt: Aureofungin – sol 2 g+one g Copper sulphate or 2 ml of Tridemorph dissolved in 100 ml water may be applied as root feeding. The active absorbing root of pencil thickness be selected and a slanting cut is made. The solution is taken in a polythene bag or bottle and the cut end of the root is dipped in the solution. Forty litres of 1% Bordeaux mixture should be applied as soil drench around the trucks in a radius of 1.5 metre. Neem cake (5 kg/tree can be applied along with fertilizers and Azotobactor (200 g/tree). For early diagnosis of Thanjavur Wilt, and EDTA test utilizing the root samples has been developed and based on the O.D values the disease intensity can be detected. Disease intensity Optical Density value

Mild
0.18 – 0.22
Moderate
0.24 – 0.59
Severe
> 0.59
Healthy palm
0.02 - 0.10
Intercrop with banana to reduce the severity of Thanjavur Wilt. XII. Bud rot: The infective tissues from the crown region should be removed and protected with Bordeaux paste. Spray Bordeaux mixture at 1% or Copper oxy chloride 0.25 % on crown region as pre-monsoon spray. Spray Copper oxy chloride 0.25 % after the onset of monsoon. XIII. Stem bleeding disease: The bark of the trunk should be removed in the bleeding area and Bordeaux paste should be applied in this area.

a.
Preparation of 1% Bordeaux mixture: A quantity of 400 g of copper sulphate should be dissolved in 20 litres of water and 400 g of lime in another 20 litres of water separately. The copper sulphate solution should be added to the lime solution constantly stirring the mixture. Earthen or wooden vessels alone should be used and metallic containers should not be used. To find out whether the mixture is in correct proportion, a polished knife should be dipped in the mixture for one minute and taken out. If there is reddish brown deposit of copper, additional quantity of lime should be added till there is no deposit in the knife.

b.

 

Preparation of Bordeaux paste: Take 200 g of Copper sulphate and dissolve it in one litre of water and 200 g of lime in one litre of water separately.; both are mixed simultaneously in a third vessel and the resultant mixture can be used as a paste.

 
XIV. Pencil point disease: Because of micronutrient deficiency, the stem will taper towards its tip with lesser number of leaves. The leaf size will be greatly reduced and the leaves will be pale and yellow in colour. Along with the recommended fertilizer dose, 225 g each of Borax, Zinc sulphate, Manganese sulphate, Ferrous sulphate, Copper sulphate and 10 g of Ammonium molybdate may be dissolved in 10 1 of water and poured in the basin of 1.5 m radius. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN COCONUT

1. Rejuvenation of existing garden: The low yield in vast majority of gardens is due to following measures are taken.
i.
Thinning of thickly populated gardens: In the farmer’s holdings, 41 per cent of the trees give a yield of less than 20 nuts/palm/year. By cutting and removal of these trees the yield could be increased by 1750 nuts/ha. After removal of low yielding trees, the populations should be maintained at 175-200 palms/ha.

ii. Apply manurial schedule of 50 kg of FYM or green leaf plus NPK at 560, 320, 1200 g/palm and irrigate at 10 days intervals during summer months in addition to manuring. 2. Button shedding: Shedding of buttons and premature nuts may be observed to many reasons: Provide regular irrigation, requested nutrition to reduce the button shedding. Barren nuts

Apply extra 2 kg of K2O with 200 g of Borax/palm over and above the usual dosage of fertilizer to correct the barren nuts in coconut.
a) Regularly survey for pest and diseases
b) Select seedlings 9 to 12 months after planting. Seedlings, which have germinated earlier, having good girth at collar and early splitting of leaflets, should be selected for planting. TNAU MN mixture @ 1 kg/tree/year

(* Enriched FYM prepared at 1:10 ratio of the MN mixture and FYM, mixed at friable moisture and incubated for one month in shade).
Market information
Growing Districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred varieties
Grade specification

 

Thiruvarur, Coimbatore, Kanyakumari, Tanjore
Coimbatore, Tanjore, Chennai
Tall Dwarf, Tall x Dwarf
Colour, Nut Weight

 

Arecanut: Areca catechu L.; Palmae
Varieties: Mangala, Sumangala, Subamangala, Mohitnagar, Srimangala, Samruthi (Andaman), Hirehalli dwarf , VTLAH 1,2 and Thirthahalli dwarf.
Soil and climate:
Arecanut is capable of growing in a variety of soils. It thrives best in well drained soils. Adequate protection from exposure to South-Western sun is essential to avoid sun-scorch. Quick growing shade trees have to be planted on the southern and western sides well in advance of planting seedlings. It is sensitive to moisture deficit and should be grown where adequate water facilities are available.

Grows in a wide range of temperature ranging from minimum of 40C to a maximum of 400C. Altitude upto 1000 m above Msl. Rainfall – 750 – 4500 mm. Season: June - December.
Seeds and sowing: For raising seedlings seed nuts from pre-marked and pre-potent mother palms of outstanding performance are selected
Sown immediately after harvest at a spacing of 5 - 6 cm apart in sand beds under partial shade with their stalk end pointing upwards.
After the sprouts have produced two to three leaves (90 days old), they are transplanted to Secondary nursery beds at a spacing of 30 x 30 cm or polythene bag of 30 x 10 cm filled with forest soil and are allowed to grow for 12 to 18 months under partial shade. Periodical watering should be given.

Planting:
Dwarf and compact seedlings with more number of leaves of 1 – 2 years age should be selected.
Plant in pits of 90 cm3 at a spacing of 2.75 m either way and covered with soil to the collar level and pressed around.
Provide shade during summer months.
Growing Banana or other crops in advance may also provide shade. Irrigation: Irrigate weekly once during November – February, once in 4 days during March – May. Flood irrigation 175 lit/ tree/ day. In drip irrigation 16 – 20 lit/ tree/ day. Manuring: Apply to each bearing palm (5 years and above) 10 - 15 kg of FYM or green leaf. 100:40:140 g of NPK/ tree/ year. To palms less than five years old, half of the above dose is recommended. Manures are applied during January - February after the North - East monsoon in a basin of 0.75-1.00 m radius around the tree to a depth of 20 - 30 cm. Aftercultivation: Weeding is done twice or thrice in a year. Wherever the land is slopy terracing has to be done to prevent soil erosion.

 

 
Intercropping:
Cocoa, Black Pepper, Coffee, Cinnamon, Clove and citrus
Plant protection
Pests
Mites: Spray Dicofol 18.5 EC at 2.5 ml/lit of water.
Spindle bug: Drenching spray with Methyl parathion 1.3 D @ 2.5 g/lit of water or Dimethoate @ 1.5 ml/lit.
Inflorescence caterpillars: Dust Methyl parathion 20 EC 2 ml/lit or WP @ 2.5 g in one litre of water.
Nematode:
Soil application of P. fluorescens (Pfbv 22) and B. subtilis (Bbv 57) each @ g / vine was found to be effective in reducing the root knot and reniform nematode population in Black pepper. Diseases

Bud rot or Mahali disease:
Infected tissues of the bud should be scooped off and treated with 10 % Bordeaux paste. Destruction and removal of seed palms and bunches
Drenching crowns of surrounding healthy palms with 1 % Bordeaux mixture. Foot rot or anabe:
Affected palms have to be isolated by digging trenches all round. The severely affected palms should be cut and destroyed.
The stumps should be pulled out by digging and the drainage improved. Soil application of neem cake @ 2 kg / palm / year followed by root feeding with 125 ml of 1.5 % (15 ml/litre of water) Tridemorph at 3 months interval or Soil drenching of Bordeaux mixture (1%).

Stem breaking: Wrapping up of the green portion of the stem which are exposed to the SouthWest sun to protect against sun-scorch. Yellow Leaf Disease:
Application of balanced nutrients with additional quantity of super phosphate Apply 1 kg of lime/tree/year.
Apply organic manures @ 12 kg/ tree/year.
Leaf spot: Foliar spray with Bordeaux mixture 1 % or 0.2 % Dithane M 45 Nut crack:
Spray Borax 2 g/lit with proper water management.
Harvest: The bearing starts after 5 years of planting. Nuts are harvested when they are three quarters ripe. The number of harvests will vary from three to five in one year depending upon the season and place of cultivation.

Yield: 1250 kg/ha

 

 

Oil Palm - Elaeis guineensis Jacq; Palmae
Varieties – Dura, Tenera, Pisifora.
Climate: Temperature is 210C to 320C, annual rainfall - 200 cm and relative humidity - 75 – 100 %. Altitude – 450 -900 m above MSL.
Soil: Moist deep, loamy soils, rich in humus with good water permeability are suitable. Soil pH - 4 - 6
Nursery techniques: Fruits are separated from the bunch. Remove the exocarp and mesocarp with knife. Dry the seeds on concrete or wooden floors under shade for 2 days and stored for 39 months. Seeds are soaked in water for 5 days (changing the water daily) and spread out to dry for 24 hours. Dried seeds are put in 250 guage and 23 X 13 cm size polythene bags filled with top soil, sand and well decomposed cattle manure in equal proportions and placed for germination. Germination (90-95 %) starts 10-12 days. Apply fertilizer mixture containing 15:15:6 of NPK @ 8 g in 5 litres of water for 100 seedlings. Planting: Pit size 60 cm3. Planting can be done in triangular system with spacing of 9 m x 9 m x 9 m, accommodating 140 palms/ha, May-June is the suitable season for planting. Mulching: Empty bunches, male flowers, coconut husk, sugarcane trash can be used as mulch. Irrigation : Yielding palm of 3 years age and above – minimum of 150 litres/day. Drip irrigation: 5 hrs of irrigation per day using 4 drippers per palm @ 8 litres of water /hr/dripper.

Ablation: Removal of all inflorescences during the initial three years to gain adequate stem girth, vigour and root system. Ablation is done at monthly intervals by pulling out the young inflorescence.

Manuring: For five year old palm, apply 50 kg compost of FYM or grenn leaves may be applied. Fertilizer schedule: N: P: K : Mg So4(g/palm/year)
1st year
= 400:200:400:125
2nd year
= 800:400:800:250
3rd year onwards = 1200:600:1200:500 (2 equal split doses on July- Aug & Dec - Jan) Leaf pruning: Severe pruning will adversely affect both growth and yield of palm, cause abortion of female flowers and also reduce the size of the leaves. It was suggested that the palms aged 4 – 7 years should retain 6-7 leaves per spiral (48-56 leaves), those aged 8 – 14 years 5-6 leaves per spiral (40- 49 leaves) and those above 15 years should have 4-5 leaves per spiral (32 – 40 leaves).

Cover cropping: Pueraria phaeseoloides,
prutascens, Mimosa invisa, Mucana sp.

 

Calopogonium

mueconoides,

Centrosema

 
Plant Protection
Pests:
Rhinoceros beetle: Trap the adults with fermented castor cake or pheromone bait. Use Bio agents like virus (Baculovirus oryctes) and Fungi (Metarrihizium anisopliae). Treat the compost pit with Carbaryl or Quinalphos @ 0.025 % to kill the young stages of pest. Red Palm Weevil: Removal of damaged and rotten bunches and apply tar to the wounds and cuts on the stem portion to avoid egg laying.

Trap the adult beetles using pheromone baits.
Root feeding of Monocrotophos (10ml of insecticide in 10 ml of water). Case Worm: Root feeding of Monocrotophos (10ml of insecticide in 10 ml of water). Diseases:
Stem wet rot: Removal of infected portion and protective covering with Carbendazim (1%) + Monocrotophos (1ml) paste.
Bud Rot Disease: The affected crown should be removed and drenched with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 0.1 %.
Basal stem rot: Removal and destruction of diseased palms. Apply 5 kg of Neem cake per year per tree.Root feeding with Calixin 10 ml or 10 g Aureofungin sol in 100 ml of water per tree per year.
Harvesting: First harvest can be done 3.5 to 4 years after planting. Few ripe fruits are loose/fall off indicates the bunch is ready for harvest. In Young palms, Chisel harvesting is followed. If palms become taller (from 10th year onwards), then harvesting is done by hook. Harvesting rounds should be made as frequent as possible to avoid over ripening of bunches. Harvesting rounds of 10-12 days are generally practiced. During rainy season harvesting rounds of 6-7 days are followed.

Yield: 25 – 30 tonnes of fresh fruit bunches/ hectare.

 

 

Palmyrah: Borassus flabellifer; Palmae
Varieties: SVPR – 1
Soil: Arid, deep sandy & loamy soils are suitable. Dry areas with low rainfall are also ideal. Propagation: Seed. Germination of 63.25 % are achieved 6 weeks after sowing Seed sowing: Seed nut should be high yielder of padaneer & fruits, dwarf in stature, early and regular bearer, free from pest & diseases. Select matured fruit bunches and yellow tinch in stylar region. Seeds are stored in shade for 3 weeks. Shrunken, weight less and bored seeds are rejected. Seeds may be directly sown in situ or in nursery to raise the seedlings. For direct sowing 3 – 4 whole fruits are planted in pits (20 cm3) at 10 m apart and half filled with sand and soil mixture. Pit is covered with dried leaves. Sowing may be taken up during rainy months (November). Germination takes place within 3 weeks.

Nursery transplanting: Seeds can be sown in mound formed by keeping sand to form a bed of 1 m broad, 60 cm height or nursery beds built with bricks of 2 m broad, 60 cm height. Seeds are sown in 10 cm space and covered with sand. About 1 yr old seedling is lifted from the nursery and containerized in polythene bags. After rooting transplant in the main field. Spacing: 3m x 3m (1110 palms/ha)

Manuring: Generally farmers adopt Sheep penning to the palms. Application of 10 kg FYM/pit before planting. Dosage may be increased biannually till reaching 60 kg FYM/tree/year After cultivation: Consist of gap filling; inter ploughing, basin rectification in the initial few years,. Gap filling may be carried out by using containerized seedlings. Basin rectification has to be done before rains; it helps collection and storage of rain water. Pruning: pruning of 30 per cent leaves @ 10 per cent in phased manner. Inter cropping

Cowpea, moringa, green gram, red gram, bengal gram, ber, amla, pomegranate, west Indian cherry & guava can be intercropped.
Growth and yield
Palmyrah is a slow grower. First frond appears in about 5 months. First fan shaped tree leaves appears only in the 2nd year. When it attains the height of 12 – 18 m, comes to flowering (13 – 15 yrs) for padaneer (Sweet sap) purpose. Average of 100 – 200 lit obtained for a period of 4 months from Feb – May. Padaneer and fruit yield are highly variable in individual palms. Tapping: Extraction of sap (Neera/ Padaneer) from inflorescence is called tapping. According to sex of the palm & age of the inflorescence, different kinds of tappings are available. Aripanai - In male palm sheath covering the young inflorescence is removed and dried for 3 weeks. End is cut every time & pot is tied (1- 1 ½ months). Vallupanai - One month old spikes are selected. Each male spike bearing sessile flowers is pretreated by pressing and stroking & 3 - 6 such spikes are brought together, wrapped with leaves & fitted to a pot.

 

 
Thattupalai – It has to be done in female palm to soften the tissue by hitting the inflorescence main axis with iron rod
Kaivetty - employed when the inflorescence is about 2 – 3 months old. Female palms are tapped for a longer period. i.e., April- Dec. and male for Dec – Feb. Sap is collected twice a day. Each time at the end of the collection of sap, a new cut surface is made by thin slicing. Tapped sap is called Neera or padaneer.

Yield:
150 litres of padaneer / Tree / year
24 kg jaggery/ Tree / year
Jaggery recovery/litre of padaneer: 180 – 250 g of jaggery

 

 

Betelvine: Piper betel; Piperaceae
Varieties: Karpurakodi, Kallarkodi, Revesi, Karpuri, Vellai kodi, Patcha vethalai, SGM 1 and SGM (BV) - 2.
Soil and climate: Well drained fertile clay loams are suitable. It does not tolerate saline and alkaline conditions. Betelvine require a cool shade, considerable humidity and regular supply of moisture in the soil.

Seeds and sowing: The vines are propagated by terminal stem cuttings or setts about 30 – 45 cm long. Setts obtained from the top portions of the vines are easy to root and hence best for planting. Number of setts 1,00,000/ha. Setts with vigorous apical buds and nodal adventitious roots are selected and planted at the base of the live supports, which are to be planted 4 to 5 months earlier.

Season: November - December and January - February.
Field preparation and planting: The field is prepared to a fine tilth and beds of 2 m wide are formed to a convenient length. Provide drainage trenches of 0.5 m width by 0.5 m depth in between two adjoining beds. Plant the seeds of the live supports i.e. Agathi (Sesbania grandiflora) in long rows. About 750 banana suckers are planted at the edges of the beds, which are used, for tying the vines on the live support and for packing the betel leaf. When the Agathi supports grow to a height about 4 m they are topped. The crop is planted in two rows in beds of 180 cm width on Agathi plants with a spacing of 45 cm between plants in the row. Irrigation: Irrigate the field immediately after planting and afterwards once in a week. After cultivation:

Training of the live Standards: Before the establishment of vines the side branches of Agathi trees upto a height of 2 m are removed for early creeping of the vines. Training of the vines: Training is done by fixing the vine at intervals of 15 to 20 cm along the standards loosely with the help of banana fibre. Training is done every 15 - 20 days depending upon the growth of vines.

Lowering of vines: Under normal cultivation, the vines grow to height of 3 m in one year period. When they reach this height their vigour to produce normal size leaf are reduced and they need rejuvenation by lowering during March - April. After the vine is lowered a number of tillers spring up from the nodes at the bends of the coiled vines at the ground level and produce many primary vines. After each lowering, irrigation should be given. Manuring: Apply 150 kg N/ha/year through Neem cake (75 kg N) and Urea (75 kg N) and 100 kg P2O5 through Super phosphate and 30 kg Muriate of potash in three split doses first at 15 days after lifting the vines and second and third dose at 40 - 45 days intervals. Apply on beds shade dried neem leaf or Calotrophis leaves at 2 t/ha and cover it with mud (2 t in 2 split doses).

 

 
Plant protection
Pests
Scale insects: Scale insects: Spray NSKE 5 %
Mites (Sevvattai): Spray wettable sulphur 50 WP @ 1 g/lit or dicofol 18.5 EC 0.5 ml/lit. Aphids: Spray chlorpyriphos at 2 ml/lit on Agathi leaves. Clip off excess Agathi leaves. Mealy bugs: Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC at 2 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC 2ml/lit. Concentrate the spray towards the collar region.

Nematode: Application of Neem cake at 1 t/ha or chopped and shade dried Calotrophis leaves at 2.5 t/ha to soil, after lowering the vines.
Soil application of Bacillus subtilis (BbV 57) or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g / vine for the control of root knot nematode and quick wilt of betel vine . Diseases
Phytophthora Wilt:
Select well matured (more than 1 year old) seed vines free from pest and diseases. Soak the seed vines for about 30 minutes in Streptocyline 500 ppm or Bordeaux mixture 0.5 %. Apply 150 kg N/ha/year through Neem cake (75 kg N) and Urea (75 kg N) and 100 kg P2O5 through Super phosphate and 30 kg MOP in 3 split doses first at 15 days after lifting the vines and second and third dose at 40 - 45 days intervals.

Apply shade dried neem leaf or Calotrophis leaves at 2 t/ha and cover it with mud (2 t in 2 split doses) on beds. Drench Bordeaux mixture 0.25 % in basins formed around the vine at monthly intervals starting from October – January, three times soil drench and six times spray from June - July. During winter season avoid frequent irrigation. Remove the affected vines away from the garden and burn them. Application of Alliette 3 g/lit 4 times at monthly intervals. Application of Trichoderma viride @ 5 g/vine.

Bacterial leaf spot, blight and bacterial stem rot: Spray Streptocycline 400 ppm + Bordeaux mixture 0.25% when the first disease symptoms appear. Continue spraying at 20 days intervals. Always spray the chemical after plucking the leaves.

Anthracnose (Theechal): Spray 0.2 % Ziram or 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture after plucking the leaves after the first appearance of the symptom. The variety Karpoori is susceptible to the disease.

 

 
Powdery mildew: Spray 0.2 % Wettable sulphur after plucking the leaves. Harvest: It depends upon the growth of the vines and market condition. Once harvesting starts it continues almost every day.

Yield: 75 to 100 lakh leaves/ha/year.
Variety released in each spice and plantation crops in India

 
 
 

 

 

 

Part V
Medicinal and Aromatic
Plants
Chapter A

Medicinal Plants
Glory lily (Gloriosa superba)
Colchicaceae
Varieties

: No named variety.

Soil

: Red soil with good drainage facility and PH range of 6.5 – 7.5. Clayey soils are not suitable for cultivation

Climate

: Dry climate, with an annual rainfall of 70 cm is suitable.

Planting material: Propagation through
Sprouting is observed during July to August.

tubers.

Select

tubers

weighing

40-60g.

Seed rate

: 2000 kg tubers / ha. Tubers have to be treated with 0.1% carbendazim solution by soaking for half an hour to avoid tuber rot.

Season

: July-August

Field Preparation: After ploughing the land, apply FYM @10t /ha. Spacing
: Planting is done two ways viz., channel method and broad row or raised ridges. Channel method is suitable for flood irrigation and broad row method is adopted for drip irrigation. For the first method, channels of 2 feet width, 1 foot depth are prepared running east to west direction. The second method involves preparation of raised ridges in a similar direction (2 feet width, 1 foot height). The inter row distance should be 5.5 feet. Tubers have to be planted at 5-10 cm depth.

Fencing
: Being a climber, glory lily needs support, which may be done using live standards (Commiphora beryii) or dead standards (Dodonea viscosa) or by GI wires. Care should be taken not to damage the tubers while laying the support. Nutrient management

Apply 150:50:100 kg of NPK ha-1, (One third nitrogen, entire P and one third potassium as basal and the remaining nitrogen and potassium in two splits) along with vermicompost 5t /ha + bioinoculants (Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescence @2.5 kg/ha with ZnSO4 @ 25kg/ha, FeSO4 @ 50 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg/ha, Sodium molybdate @ 0.5kg/ha at the time of planting along with foliar application of FeSO4 (1%), ZnSO4, (0.5%) Borax (0.2%) and gibberellic acid spray twice @ 200 mg/kg at early and late flowering stage. Irrigation:

Irrigation is done immediately after planting and once in five days interval. irrigation is essential at the time of flowering and pod set.  

Weekly

 
After cultivation:
Care should be taken not to damage the growing tip. Once the tip is damaged, the plant will not produce subsequent branches or laterals which will reduce the flowering and pod yield. Pollination:
As self pollination percentage is low, assisted hand pollination is required. The mature stamens are collected and dusted on receptive stigma during early morning hours (7-11 am). The ideal stage of receptive stigma can easily be judged by the tricolour (green, yellow and scarlet) petals. This method followed by foliar application of 0.1 % boron + 0.5 % zinc sulphate at fortnightly intervals have to be done to induce higher seed set. Plant protection:

Leaf blight disease
Symptoms of Curvularia blight
1. The disease appears in the form of small narrow elongated spots in the initial stage, but in due course they extend along with the leaf becoming bigger. 2. On older plants, the typical symptoms are long elliptical necrotic lesions, straw coloured center with brown margins

3. The lesions can be several centimeters long and wide
4. In advance stages, several spots coalesce on the leaves,destroying large areas giving the crop a distinctly blasted appearance.
Symptoms of Alternaria blight
1.Symptoms may appear in all stages.
2. Initially, small, pale to brown, irregular or round spots may appear on the leaves 3.Each spot has a central necrotic lesions with concentric rings 4. In advance stages, several spots coalesce together to form large blighted areas Management methods

1. Remove the infected plant debris from the field
2. Spray Mancozeb @ 0.2% concentration or Propiconazole (0.1% conc.) or Hexaconazole (0.1% conc.) at the time of infection.
3. Four to five sprays may be given at 15 days interval for check the leaf blight severity in this crop
4. Spray 0.5 per cent ZnSO4 two times at fortnightly interval staring from 45th day after planting
Insect pests of glory lily and their management
The major pests recorded on glory lily were the lepidopteran caterpillars viz., lily caterpillar, Polytela gloriosae, semilooper, Plusia signata and tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura. Among these pests, lily caterpillar is a serious and regularly occurring pest on gloriosa at any time during the cropping season (August to February) from seedling stage to maturity. The early instars of these caterpillars feed on chlorophyll of the leaves but the later instars feed voraciously leaving only the hard stem of the plant resulting in complete devastation. For the management of the insect pests of glory lily, foliar application of Neem Seed Kernel Extract 5% or Neem oil 3% is recommended to be the most effective. As a last resort, when the pest population crosses the economic threshold level, ie., 10 per cent damage, any one of the following insecticides may be sprayed for the management of all the three caterpillars; quinalphos 25 EC @ 750 ml ha-1, carbaryl 50WP 1 kg ha-1 and chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1.250 lit ha-1.

 

 
Harvest:
The crop duration is 180 days and pods can be harvested when the colour starts turning light yellow and when skin of the pods shrinks. After harvest, pods should be dried for 2-3 days to facilitate separation of seeds from locule. The seeds are dried again under open sun for 3-5 more days until the seed moisture maintains to 6-8 per cent. After drying, sand, stone and other unwanted particles have to be removed and the healthy seeds should be packed in bags. Yield:

400-500 kg dry seeds/ha and 1000 kg tubers/ ha/ year

 

 
Coleus forskohlii (Lamiaceae)
Varieties

:

No named variety

Soil

:
Red sandy soil and sandy loam soil are highly suitable. Soil drainage is essential and hard pan and water logged soils should be avoided.

Climate

:

Suitable for plain and lower hills. Requires 70 cm annual rain fall

Propagation :
used

Terminal three to four nodal cuttings measuring 10 cm length is

Land Preparation:

Apply 15 t FYM/ha. Ridges are formed at a spacing of 60 cm.
Cuttings have to be planted at a spacing of 45 cm.

Nutrient management:
Nutrients

Quantity (kg / ha)

N

30

P

60

K

50

The above nutrients can be applied in two split doses viz., 30 and 45 days after planting. In micronutrient deficient soils, ZnSO4 can be applied as basal fertilizer. Irrigation:
Irrigate immediately after planting and later at weekly intervals. With hold the irrigation ten days before harvest.
Plant protection:
The occurrence of wilt is becoming a major problem in coleus cultivation. Pathogens associated with wilt and root rot are Fusarium chlamydosporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium sp coupled with incidence of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Due to these diseases, the yield loss is upto 50 to 60% Management strategies for diseases

Select the coleus cuttings from disease free plants.
Coleus cuttings have to be treated with Carbendazim solution (0.1%) before planting Soil drenching with Carbendazim (0.1%) or propiconazole (0.1%) Soil application of FYM @ 12.5 ton/ha + 500 kg neem cake/ha + Trichoderma viride @ 2.5 kg /ha before planting is effective for biomanagment of nematode fungal disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Macrophomina phaseolina

Application of chemical nematicide Carbofuran 3G @ 1 kg a.i/ha before planting for control root-knot nematode.
Use drip irrigation to minimize the spread of pathogens from infected plants to healthy
plants

 

 
Nematodes:
Dipping of stem cuttings in 0.1% Pseudomonas fluorescens at planting. Growing marigold (Tagetus erecta) as intercrop in between the rows of medicinal coleus and incorporateduring earthing up at 60-70 days after planting (or) Soil application of Trichoderma viride @ 2.5 kg/ha.

Harvest:
Crop can be harvested six months after planting. Before harvest, top portion should be removed when sufficient moisture is in the soil. Roots are dug manually or by tractor drawn harvester. The soil particles are removed and the tubers are cut into small bits using motorized chopper to facilitate drying. The cut root bits are dried under sun for 3-5 days with frequent turnings until the moisture drops to 6-8 per cent.

Yield:
Green roots: 15 – 20t /ha
Dry roots: 2 – 2.5 ton/ha

 

 
Senna: Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae)
Varieties : KKM - 1, Anand Late Selection, ALFT-2 and Sona
Soil and climate: In Tamil Nadu, it is grown in sandy or sandy loam or laterite soils. It is a hardy warm weather crop grown under rainfed and irrigated conditions. Seed rate: 15 - 20 kg/ha.
The seeds are scarified with sand or can be soaked overnight in water and sown in beds at a spacing 45 x 30 cm during February – March or June – July. Season: February - March and June - July.
Manuring
Basal: Apply FYM 10 - 15 t/ha and N, P and K at 25, 25 and 40 kg/ha. Top dressing: Apply 25 kg N in two splits at 40 and 80 days after sowing. After cultivation: One or two weedings.
Plant protection - Pests
Aphids: Spray dimethoate 30 EC or methyl demeton 25 EC at 1 ml/lit of water. Harvest: The first harvest of leaves and pods are done 2 months after sowing and subsequent harvests at 30 days interval. Leaves and pods are dried for 7 - 10 days. Yield - Irrigated

Dried leaves : 2 t/ha.
Dried pod : 150 - 200 kg/ha.
Rainfed
Dried leaves : 1 t/ha.
Dried pods : 75 - 100 kg/ha.
Seed Production Technology:
Seeds attain physiological maturity at 40 days after anthesis, associated with colour change of pods from green to brown. Seeds can be processed by using 8/64" round perforated metal sieves. Hard seededness can be effectively overcome by acid scarification with commercial sulphuric acid @ 100 ml/kg of seed for 10 minutes.

 

 
Periwinkle: Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae)
Varieties: Nirmal, Dhawal and Prabal
Soil and climate: It is suited to all types of soil and tropical climatic conditions. Well distributed annual rainfall of 100 cm or more is ideal for raising as a rainfed crop. Seeds and planting: Propagated through seeds either by direct sowing or through transplanting.

Seed rate: 2.5 kg/ha : Direct sowing
0.5 kg/ha : Through seedlings
45 - 60 days old seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 45 x 20 cm during June - July or September - October.
Manuring
Basal: Apply FYM at 10 t/ha and N P and K at 50 kg each /ha. Top dressing: Apply 50 kg N 60 days after planting.
Aftercultivation: The crop requires 2 weedings, the first 90 days after sowing/transplanting and second 60 days after the first weeding.
Harvest: The crop becomes ready for harvest of roots after one year. Two leaf strippings can be taken, the first one after 6 months and the second after 9 months of sowing. Aerial parts are cut and the soil is ploughed for harvest of roots. Fruits are collected without damage. Yield

Irrigated

Rainfed

Roots

1500 kg/ha 750 kg/ha

Stems

1500 kg/ha 1000 kg/ha

Leaves

3000 kg/ha 2000 kg/ha

Seed Production Technology: The physiological maturity of periwinkle seeds is attained at 40 days after of anthesis with maximum dry weight, germination and vigour with a change of pod colour from green to yellow with translucence.

Seeds can be processed by using 4/64" round perforated metal sieves with maximum seed recovery.

 

 
Medicinal solanum: Solanum viarum Clarke.(Solanaceae)
Varieties: RRL-20-2, RRL-SL-6, Glaxo, Arka Sanjivini and Arka Mahima. Soil and climate: Well drained loamy soils are suitable. Grows well under moderate climatic conditions.
Seeds and planting: Being a hardy plant, even land with medium fertility can give a good stand. Propagated through seedlings.
Seed rate: 400 g/ha. Requires a resting period of one month and sowing should not be delayed further. Seedlings are raised in nursery and transplanted at six leaf stage at a spacing of 50 x 50 cm during June - July. Drench the seedlings with Copper oxy chloride 2.5 gm/lit of water to prevent damping off disease in Nursery.

Irrigation: Irrigation should be given once in a week in the first month and later reduced to once in a fortnight.
Manuring
Basal: Apply FYM 10 t/ha. N, P and K at 25, 40 and 40 kg/ha respectively. Top dressing: 25 kg of N at second month after planting.
After cultivation: First weeding is done after 3 - 4 weeks and second weeding at 2 – 3 months. Harvest: After transplanting, the crop takes six months for harvest. The berries are harvested when it turns yellow colour while streaks of dark green colour are still present. The berries are sun dried to the moisture level of 6-8 per cent.

Yield
Fresh berries

: 700 - 800 kg/ha

Solasodine content : 2.0 to 2.5 %

 

 
Chapter B
Aromatic Plants
Lemongrass: Cymbopogon flexuosus (Graminae)
Varieties: OD-19, OD-408, RRL-39, Pragathi, Praman, CKP-25, Krishna and Cauvery. Soil and climate: Sandy loam with abundant organic matter and pH of 6.0. It comes up well under tropical and sub-tropical conditions with a high rainfall 200 - 250 cm and humidity. Seeds and planting: 55,600 slips/ha at a spacing of 60 x 30 cm in ridges. Can also be propagated through seeds at 4 kg/ha. Seedlings are to be raised and transplanted during June July. Manuring: Apply FYM or compost at 20 - 25 t/ha as basal. Apply 50 kg N/ha annually, half at planting and half, one month after planting. From the second year onwards, first dose of fertilizer should be applied after cutting and again one month after the first dose. Irrigation: Life irrigation on third day and further irrigation at 7 - 15 days interval. Aftercultivation: Hand hoeing and weeding as and when required. Plant protection - Pests and diseases

In general, pests and diseases may not affect the plant. If there is any sucking pest, spray methyl demeton 25 EC or dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/lit. For caterpillars, spray phosalone 35 EC or monocrotophos 36 EC 2 ml/lit.

Harvest: Harvest the leaves first at 90 days after planting and thereafter at 90 days interval. Cut the bush 10 - 15 cm above the ground level and herbage is withered under shade for one day prior to distillation. They are then chopped into small pieces and fed into steam distillation stills for distillation of essential oil. Oil recovery 0.3 - 0.5 %. Yield

Herbage

: 20 - 30 t/ha.

Oil
First year

: 50-100 kg oil/ha.

Second year onwards : 200-300 kg oil/ha.

 

 
Citronella: Cymbopogon winterianus; Graminae
Varieties: Java-2, Jorlab-2, Java citronella, Java II, Ceylon citronella and Bio-13, Mandakini and Manjusha are the high yielding varieties.
Soil and climate: Sandy loam with abundant organic matter and pH of 6.0. It comes up well under tropical and sub-tropical conditions with a high rainfall 200 - 250 cm and humidity. Season: June - July. 28,000 slips/ha at a spacing of 60 x 45 cm in ridges. Manuring

Basal: FYM 30 t/ha and NPK at 25:40:40 kg/ha.
Top dressing: 75 kg N/ha in 3 equal splits of 25 kg each at 3, 6 and 9 months after planting. Irrigation: Life irrigation on third day and again at 10 – 15 days interval. Aftercultivation: 1 - 2 weedings at the initial stages and earthing up after each harvest. Plant protection - Diseases

Leaf blight: Spray any one of the Dithiocarbamates namely Mancozeb or Zineb at an interval of 15 - 20 days.
Harvest: The first harvest at 6 months after planting. Second and subsequent harvest at two and a half months intervals.
Yield
Herbage : 20 - 30 t/ha/year.
Oil is extracted by water distillation. Oil content 0.6% to 0.8%. OIL
First year

: 50 - 100 kg/ha.

Second year : 100 - 150 kg/ha.
Third year

 

: 250 - 300 kg/ha.

 
Geranium: Pelargonium graveolens (L) Hervitt. (Geraniaceae)
Varieties: Algerian, Reunion, IIHR-8, Kodaikanal 1, Hemanti and Egyptian. Soil and climate: A deep light porous well drained soil, rich in organic matter and acidic in reaction with a pH 5.5 to 6.0 is suitable. An elevation ranging from 1000 - 2400 m with an annual rainfall of 100 to 150 cm evenly distributed throughout the year is ideal. Propagation: Geranium is propagated by stem cuttings. Cuttings of about 10 cm taken from current season growth with a well formed crown of leaves with 3 - 4 nodes and terminal bud and raised in polythene bags of 10 x 10 cm size. Thorough field preparation leading to fine tilth condition is essential. Pits of 30 x 30 cm size are dug and cattle manure at 250 g/pit is applied and rooted cuttings of 2 months age are planted at a spacing of 45 x 45 cm during April - May. Manuring: 60 kg in each of N, P and K/ha is recommended. P and K are applied every year at the time of first harvest while N is applied in equal splits depending upon the number of harvests per year.

Irrigation: Geranium is usually grown as a rainfed crop. Irrigation during dry periods increases the yield.
After cultivation: Weedings, uprooting and burning the diseased plants throughout the life cycle of the plant. From the second year onwards, give a deep soil forking around the plants to improve the growth of more suckers.

Pruning: Pruning of the bushes is necessary when the bush shows signs of decline. The branches are cut back leaving 15 - 20 cm once in 4 - 5 years. Plant protection - Pests
Nematode: To control the nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla) in nursery, apply Carbofuran at 2 kg a.i./ha once in 6 months in June and December.
Diseases: Wilt: Drench with Carbendazim 1 g/lit at monthly intervals. Harvest and distillation: In the first year of planting, only one harvest can be done at 7 - 8 months and thereafter 3 or 4 harvests can be done in a year. The tender tip portion with 6 - 12 nodes constitutes the materials for harvest. The harvested material is withered in shade for two to three hours and distilled.

Yield
Herbage : 20 - 25 t/ha.
Oil yield : 15 - 20 kg/ha.

 

 
Palmarosa: Cymbopogon martinii var. motia (Roxv) Wats.;
Graminae
Varieties: Trishna, Tripta, PRC-1, IW 31245, IW 3629, IW 3244, OPD-1, OPD-2, Vaishnavi, and RRL(B)-77.
Soil and climate: A well drained loamy soil is suitable. Comes up well under tropical conditions with an annual rainfall of about 150 cm.
Seeds and planting
Through seeds: 2.5 kg of seeds/ha.
Sow in raised nursery beds in lines 15 - 20 cm apart. Transplant at 3 - 4 weeks in ridges at a spacing of 60 x 60 cm during June - July.
Through slips: Establishment will be poor as compared to seedlings. 28,000 slips will be required to plant one hectare at 60 x 60 cm spacing. Manuring
Basal: FYM 10 t/ha and NPK at 20:50:40 kg/ha.
Top dressing: 15 kg/ha in 3 splits at 3, 6 and 9 months of planting. Aftercultivation: Give 1 - 2 weedings in the early stages and earth up after each harvest and top dress.
Harvest: The first harvest commences at 3 - 4 months of planting. Subsequent harvests at 3- 4 months interval.
Yield
Herbage : 20 - 30 t/ha/year.
Oil
First year : 50 kg/ha.
Second year : 200-250 kg/ha.
Seed Technology: Seeds attain physiological maturity at 40th day after 50% flowering when the fluff (seed) moisture is around 20%. Leaching of fluffs in running water for 8 hours followed by soaking in KNO3 at 0.5% for 6 hours recorded maximum germination.

 

 
Patchouli; Pogostemon patchouli Hook. (Labiatae)
Varieties: Johore, Singapore and Indonesia are commonly cultivated. Out of these, the first one yields the best quality oil where as the other two give high oil yield. Soil and climate: Well drained loamy soil with slightly acidic condition is suitable. Thrives best in hot and humid conditions, under shade of rubber, coconut, coffee, etc. Propagation and Planting: Rooted stem cutting of 15-20 cm are used. The field is prepared to a fine tilth and the rooted cuttings are planted at a spacing of 60 x 30 cm during April – May. Manuring

Basal: Apply NPK at 30 kg/ha each.
Top dressing: 30 kg N/ha after 3 months of planting.
Irrigation: Grown as a rainfed crop in hills. In plains, irrigation is to be given at 7 - 10 days interval.
Plant and protection - Pests
Nematode: Application of Carbofuran in @ 2 kg ai./ha the nursery. Harvest: First harvest when fully grown (6 - 8 months). Subsequent harvest at 3 to 5 months interval. The leaves are dried in shade and distilled.

Yield: 30 - 40 kg oil/ha/year.

 

 
Mint: Mentha sp; Labiatae
Varieties
Japanese mint – Kalka, , Gombi, Himalaya, Sambhav, Saksham, MAS-1, MA-2, Hybrid-77, Shivalik and EC-41911
Spear mint – Arka Neera, Ganga, Neerkalka, MSS-1, MSS-5 and Punjab Spearmint-1. Bergamot mint – Kiran
Pepper mint – Kukrail, Pramjal and Tushar
Soil and climate: Well drained loamy and acidic soil high in organic matter content is suitable. Sub-tropical areas receiving an annual rainfall of 100 - 150 cm are good. Propagation and planting: Rooted stem cuttings are planted in beds at 40 x 40 cm spacing during June - July.

Manuring
Basal: Apply NPK at 80, 50 and 40 kg/ha.
Top dressing: Apply 30 kg N in 2 splits at 60th and 120th day after planting. Harvest: First cutting starts in about 5 months after planting and subsequently at 3 months interval. Under good management conditions, the crop will give economic yield for about four years.

Yield
Herbage 15 - 20 t/ha/year.
Oil

 

50 - 100 kg/ha/year.

 

Production techniques for other important medicinal plants   
No 
1. 

Seed rate 
(Kg/ha) 

Spacing 
(cm) 

Populati
on / ha 

Withanine 
and 
Somniferine 

Jawahar 

5kg seed  

60 × 30 

37000 

6 months  

500 kg 
dry root 

Hepato‐
tonic 

Hypo 
phyllanthin 

Navyakrit  2 kg seed 

30x15 

2.2 lakh 
3 months 
seedlings 

2.5 ton 
dry 
herbage 

White 
10 kg seed  90x60 
and Black 
seeded 

19,000 
plants 

6 months 

1200 kg 
seed 

Uses 

Alkaloids 

Withania 
somnifera 

Stress 
reliever, 
tonic 

(Aswagantha) 
2. 

Varieties 

Crop 

Phyllanthus 
amarus 

Duration 
(Days) 

Rakshita 

Yield 
(Kg/ha) 

(Keezhanelli) 
 
 
3. 

Mucuna 
pruriens 
(Poonaikali)  

Cures 
parkinsons 
disease 

Mucunine 
and 
Mucunadine 

4. 

Aloe vera 

Cosmetics 

Cathartic 
anthraglycosi
des(barbolin) 

Piper longum 

Bronchitis, 

Longumine 

(Tippili) 

Cough 

Acorus 
calamus  

Cough, 
digestive 

Calamine 

Blood 
purifier 

Laxative  

(Katralai) 
5. 

6. 

‐ 

10,000 
suckers 

90x90 

10,000 
plants 

13 months 

40 ton  

Vishvam 

55,500 
rooted 
cuttings 

60x30 

55,500 
plants 

5 years 

750 kg 
dry 
spikes/ye
ar 

‐ 

10,000 

60x60 

28,000 

1 year 

10 ton 
rhizomes 

1.8x1.8 


3085 
rooted 
cuttings 

Monthly 
harvest 

200 kg 
dry 
flowers, 
600 kg 

rhizomes 

(Vasambu) 
7. 

Hibiscus 
rosasinensis  

 

Red 
single 
whorl 

3085 
rooted 
cuttings 

 
(Sembaruthi) 

8. 

Bixa orellana 

dry 
leaves  
Organic dye 

Bixin 

Mexico 

1100 
seedlings 

3x3 m 

1100 
Perennial 1 
seedlings  

1 ton dry 
seed  

Anti diabetic Andrographo
lide 

‐ 

55,000 
seedlings 

60x30 
cm 

55,000 

4 Months 

2.0 ton 
dry 
herbage  

Anti diabetic  Gymnemic 
acid 

‐ 

1000 
cuttings  

2x2 m 

1000 

Perennial 

1.0 ton 
dry 
leaves 

Kayakirti,  2.2 lakh 
Majjapos runners 
hak 

30x15 
cm 

2.2 lakh 
runners  

Perennial 

2.5 ton 
dry 
leaves  

(Annatto) 
9. 

Andrographis  
paniculata 
(Nilavenbu) 

10.  Gymnema 
sylvestre 
(Sarkarai kolli) 
11.  Centella 
asiatica 

Memory 
enhancer 

Asiaticoside 

(Vallarai) 

Vallabme
dha 
12.  Asparagus 
racemosus  

Aphrodisiac 

Glycosides 

‐ 

Root 
suckers 

90x60 

19,000 
plants  

12‐14 
months 

1 ton dry 
root 

13.  Solanum 
nigrum 

Digestive, 
laxative 

Solasodine 

 

Seed 

60x45 

400 g 
seed 

Perennial 

6‐8 ton 
of dry 
herbage 

14.  Swertia 
chirayita 

Anti 
inflammator


Amarogentin
, Swerchirin 

‐ 

Seed 

60x60 

28,000 
plants 

1 year 

1 ton dry 
roots 

15.  Commiphora 
wightii 

Anti‐obesity  Lipids 

Marusud
ha 

Cuttings 

90x90 

10,000 
plants 

12‐14 
months 

200 kg 
resin 

16.  Plantago 
ovata 

Laxative 

‐ 

GI‐1, GI‐2  Seed 

30x15 

2.2 lakh 
3 months 
seedlings 

150 kg 
seed 

17.  Glycyrrhiza 
glabra 

Refrigerant 

Glycyrrizin 

Haryana 
Mulhati 

60x45 

37,000 
plants 

2 ton dry 
root 

(Shatavri) 

 

Root 
suckers 

12‐14 
months 

 
18.  Chlorophytum 
borivilianum 
(Musli)  
19.  Rauwolfia 
serpentina 

20.  Stevia 
rebudiana 
Herbal spices 
21.  Rosmarinus 
officinalis 

Energy 
supplement 

Saponin 

RC5 

500‐600 
kg seed 
tubers 
4kg seed 

60x45 

37,000 

Anti 
hypertensio


Ajmalcine, 
serpentine,  

RS‐1 

60x30 

55,500 
3 years 
seedlings 

1500 kg 
dry roots 

Non‐
calorific 
sweetener 

Stevioside 

‐ 

75,000 
cuttings 

25x60 

75,000 
plants/he
ctare 

4‐5 months 
(3 years) 

6750 
kg/ha/ye
ar 

Anti‐oxidant  Rosemarinic 
acid 

Ooty‐1 

19,000 
rooted 
cuttings 

1.2m 
x45 

19,000 
rooted 
cuttings 

Perennial 

12‐15 
ton 
green 
herbage 

Digestive 

Thymol 

Ooty‐1 

500 g 
seed 

90x30 

37000 
plants 

Perennial 

100 kg 
dry herb 

Carminative 

Eugenol, 
linaloel 

60x30 

55,000 

Four months 

14 ton 
green 
leaves 

vulgaris 
23.  Ociumum 
basilicum  
(Sweet basil) 
24.  Salvia 
officinalis 
(Sage) 

Carminative Linalool 
, eye 
acetate 
disorders, 
anti‐oxidant 

25.  Ocimum 
sanctum  
(Tulsi) 

Perfumery 
cosmetics 

Eugenol  

26.  Lavendula 
officinalis 
(Lavender) 

Perfumery, 
cosmetics 

Linalyl 
acetate 

27.  Ocimum 
gratissimum  

Perfumery, 
cosmetics 

Methyl 
Eugenol 

(Clocimum) 

 

1 ton dry 
root 

rauwolfine 

(Rosemary) 
22.  Thymus  

8 months 

European 5 kg seed 

ReUnion 
‐ 

CIM‐Ayu 
CIM‐
Angana 
CIM‐
Kanchan 
Shar‐E‐
Kashmir 

‐ 

Seedlings 

4 kg seed 

60X60 

28,000 
plants 

Perennial 

1.7 ton 
dry 
herbage 

300 g 
seed 

45x45 

50,000 
170 days 
seedlings 

10 ton 
fresh 
herbage 

14,000 
plants 

120x60 

14,000 
plants 

200 kg 
dry 
biomass 

2 kg seeds  45x30 

3‐4 years 

74,000 
Perennial 
seedlings 

20‐25 
ton 
green 
leaves  

 

Part VI
Floriculture
Chapter – A

Loose Flowers
Rose: Rosa sp; Rosaceae
Varieties: Edward rose, Andhra red rose and Button rose.
Climate: Bright sunshine for minimum of 6 hours is essential for the cultivation of roses. Day temperature of 260 C and night temperature of 150 C are ideal. It can be grown in the plains of Tamil Nadu where the optimum climate is available.

Soil: Well-drained sandy loam with pH of 6 - 7.
Propagation and planting: Cuttings with 2-3 buds are dipped in IBA or IAA @ 500 - 1000 ppm. Pits of 45 x 45 x 45 cm are dug at 2.0 x 1.0 m spacing and 10 kg FYM is added to each pit before planting.

Irrigation: Once in 2 days until plants establish and once in a week thereafter. Nutrition: After pruning in October and again in July the plants are manured with FYM 10 kg and 6:12:12g/plant of NPK.

Micronutrients: Foliar application of 0.2% micronutrient mixture containing 20 g MnSO4 + 15 g MgSO4 + 10 g FeSO4 + 5 g B (2g of the mixture is dissolved in one litre of water) can produce bright coloured flowers.

Biofertilizers: Soil application of 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of planting. It is to be mixed with 100 kg of FYM and applied in pits. Pruning: Cut back the vigorous past season shoots to half the length during October to December. All the weak, diseased, criss-crossing and unproductive shoots are removed. The cut ends should be protected with Bordeaux paste or Copper Oxychloride + Carbaryl 50 WP. Growth regulators: Spray 250ppm of GA3 (30 days after pruning) during early vegetative stage to increase the flower production.

Plant protection
Pests:
Rose chaffer beetle:
Hand pick Cetonid beetles and destroy during day.
White grub :
Set up light to attract Holotrichia and Anomala spp.
Spray phosalone 35 EC @ 2 ml/lit.

 

 
Red scale:
Rub off the scales with cotton soaked in kerosene or diesel. Cut and burn the affected branches. Spray malathion 50 EC @ 2 ml/lit at the time of pruning and again during March April or apply carbofuran 3G @ 5 g/plant or spray fish oil rosin soap @ 25 g/lit or phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC @ 2.0 ml/lit

Mealy bug: Spray monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2 ml/lit
Flower caterpillar
Helicoverpa armigera:
Spray Ha NPV 1.5 x 1012 PIB/ha. or NPV of H. armigera 0.43% AS @ 3.0 ml/lit or 2 % AS @ 1.0 ml per lit
Spodoptera litura:
Spray Sl NPV 1.5 x 1012 PIB/ha.
Thrips, aphids and leaf hoppers:
Spray Neem oil 3 % or spray methyl demeton 25 EC @ 2 ml/lit of water or dimethoate 30 EC @ 2.5 ml/lit
Two Spotted Mite
Spray any one of the following insecticide
Insecticide

Dose

Bifenazate 50%WP

7.5 ml/ 10 lit.

Flufenoxuron 10%DC

5.0 ml/10 lit

Milbemectin 1%EC

5.0 ml/10 lit.

Diseases:
Black spot: Spray Carbendazim @ 1 g/l twice at fortnightly intervals or Azoxystrobin @ 1g/l Powdery mildew: Spray Carbendazim @ 1 g/l or Wettable sulphur @ 2 g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 1 ml/l
Crop duration: The plants will start flowering in the first year and will give economic yield from the second year onwards.
Season of flowering and harvesting: Flowering will commence 45 days after pruning. Fully opened flowers are picked early in the morning.
Yield: 7.5 t/ha/year.
Market information
Crop growing districts
Major markets in Tamil Nadu
Preferred varieties and hybrids

 

Krishnagiri,Madurai,Dindigul
Dindigul, Madurai, Chennai
Edward rose, Andra red rose and Button
rose

 

Malligai (Gundumalli): Jasminum sambac Ait.; Oleaceae
Varieties: Ramanathapuram Local, Single Mogra, Double Mogra, Iruvatchi, Arka Aradhana. Climate: Warm summer, mild winter, moderate rainfall and sunny days. Soil: Well drained loamy or red loamy fertile soil.

Propagation: Semi hard wood cuttings (15 - 20 cm long).
Field preparation and planting: Soil is well pulverized upto a good depth. Rooted cuttings are planted in a spacing of 1.25 x 1.25 m (6400 plants/ha) during June to November in pits of 30 x 30 x 30 cm size.

Nutrition: FYM @ 10 kg/pit is applied before planting. NPK @ 60:120:120 g/plant/year is applied in 2 equal splits during November (after pruning) and June-July along with 10 kg FYM per plant.
Micronutrients: Foliar spray of ZnSO4 0.25% + MgSO4 0.5% + FeSO4 0.5% (In case of expression of micronutrient deficiency, spraying should be done at fortnightly intervals until the chlorotic symptoms disappear).

Irrigation: Provided immediately after planting followed by weekly irrigation depending upon weather conditions.
Pruning: Prune the bushes at 50 cm height from ground level during last week of November every year.
Plant protection
Pests
Bud worm:
Spray monocrotophos 36 SL 2 ml/lit or profenofos 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit or thiacloprid 240 SC @ 1 ml /lit
Avoid using synthetic pyrethroids (in particular lambda cyhalothrin ) as it may cause resurgence of mites
Blossom midge:
Spray monocrotophos 36 SL @ 2 ml/lit
Red spider mite: Spray wettable sulphur 50 WP @ 2 g/l or Propargite 57 % EC @ 2ml/l or Fenazaquin 10 % EC @ 2 ml/l
Nematode: Test the soil for nematode infection. Apply 10 g of Phorate granules near root zone and irrigate.
Diseases
Yellowing of leaves: It is caused by 3 major factors viz., iron deficiency, nematode infection and root rot disease.
Root rot: Soil drenching with Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole @ 0.75 g/litre or Difenoconazole @ 0.5g/l.
Alternaria leaf spot: Foliar application of Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/l or azoxystrobin @ 1g/l  

 
Soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 25 g/m2 and foliar application of P. fluorescens @ 5 g/l at monthly intervals after planting.
Harvesting: Flowering season is March - October. Fully developed unopened flower buds should be picked in the morning. For concrete extraction, fully opened flowers are harvested. Yield: Flowers: 8 - 9 t/ha; concrete recovery: 0.14 - 0.19%. Precision production technology

Main field preparation: Ploughing with chisel, disc, rotovator and cultivator and levelling with tractor drawn leveller. Pits of 45 cm3 size are dug.
Spacing: 1.2 x 1.0 m (8333 plants/ha).
Herbicide application: Pre emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 2ml/l. Biofertilizers: Soil application of 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of planting. It is to be mixed with 100kg of FYM and applied in pits. Media consortia: 5kg FYM + 500g Neem cake + 100g Vermicompost are applied per pit at the time of planting.

Irrigation: Once in 3 days through drip system.
Fertigation: 100% RDF (60:120:120g NPK/plant/year) as WSF [Polyfeed (19:19:19), Potassium Nitrate (13:0:45) and Urea].
Biostimulants: Foliar spray of Panchagavya 3% + Humic acid 0.4% at monthly intervals. Micronutrients: Foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.5% + ZnSO4 @ 0.5% at monthly intervals. Yield: 12 t/ha.

 

 

Mullai: Jasminum auriculatum (Vahle.); Oleaceae
Varieties: CO 1, CO 2 and Parimullai.
Climate: Warm summer, mild winter, moderate rainfall and sunny days. Soil: Well drained loamy or red loamy fertile soil.
Season of planting: June to November.
Propagation: Semi hard wood cuttings (15 - 20 cm long).
Field preparation and planting: Soil is well pulverized upto a good depth. Rooted cuttings are planted in 30 x 30 x 30 cm size pits dug at 1.5 x 1.5 m spacing (4400 plants per ha). Nutrition: FYM @ 10 kg/pit is applied before planting. NPK @ 120:240:120 g/plant/year is applied in 6 splits at bimonthly intervals. The first split dose should be given immediately after pruning.

Micronutrients: Foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.25% + MgSO4 @ 0.5% + FeSO4 @ 0.5% (In case of expression of micronutrient deficiency, spraying should be done at fortnightly intervals until the chlorotic symptoms disappear).

Biofertilizers: Soil application of 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of planting. It is to be mixed with 100 kg of FYM and applied in pits. Irrigation: Provided immediately after planting followed by weekly irrigation depending upon weather conditions.

Pruning: The bushes should be pruned at 45 cm height from ground level during the last week of January.
Plant protection
Pests
Bud worm: Spray Profenofos 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit or Thiochloprid 240 SC @ 2 ml/l Red spider mite: Spray Wettable Sulphur 50 WP @ 2 g/l or Propargite 57 % EC @ 2ml/l or Fenazaquin 10 % EC @ 2 ml/l
Harvesting: Flowering season is April to November. Fully developed unopened flower buds should be picked in the morning.
Yield: Flowers: 10 t/ha; concrete recovery: 0.25 - 0.28%.

 

 

Jathi Malli (PITCHI): Jasminum grandiflorum L.; Oleaceae
Varieties: CO 1, CO 2 and Arka Surabhi.
Climate: Warm summer, mild winter, moderate rainfall and sunny days. Soil: Well drained loamy or red loamy fertile soil.
Season of planting: June – November.
Propagation: Terminal cuttings (12.5 - 15 cm long).
Field preparation and Planting: Soil is well pulverized upto a good depth. Rooted cuttings are planted at 2.0 x 1.5 m spacing (3350 plants/ha) in pits of size 30 x 30 x 30 cm. Nutrition: FYM @ 10 kg/pit is applied before planting. NPK @ 60:120:120 g/plant/year is applied in 2 equal splits during December (after pruning) and June-July. Micronutrients: Foliar spray of ZnSO4 0.25% + MgSO4 0.5% + FeSO4 0.5% (In case of expression of micronutrient deficiency, spraying should be done at fortnightly intervals until the chlorotic symptoms disappear).

Biofertilizers: Soil application of 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of planting. It is to be mixed with 100kg of FYM and applied in pits. Irrigation: Provided immediately after planting followed by weekly irrigation depending upon weather conditions.

Pruning: Prune the bushes at 45 cm height from ground level during the last week of December.
Plant protection:
Pests
Bud worm: Spray Profenofos 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit or Thiochloprid 240 SC @ 2 ml/l Holotricha beetle: Install light trap to attract the adults immediately after summer rain. Red spider mite: Spray wettable sulphur 50 WP @ 2 g/l or Propargite 57 % EC @ 2ml/l or Fenazaquin 10 % EC @ 2 ml/l

Diseases
Leaf spot: Spraying of Mancozeb @ 2.5g/l from the onset of monsoon at monthly intervals Season of flowering and harvest: Flowering season is May to October. Fully developed unopened flower buds are picked in the morning for fresh flower trade. For oil extraction, open flowers are to be picked before 10 a.m.

Yield: Flowers: 11 t/ha; concrete recovery: 0.25 - 0.32 %.
 

 

 

Crossandra: Crossandra infundibuliformis L.; Acanthaceae
Varieties: Tetraploid types - Orange, Lutea Yellow, Sebaculis Red. Triploid types - Delhi Crossandra.
Climate: It requires a temperature of 30 - 35C for growth. It is shade tolerant to some extent but susceptible to low temperature and frost.
Soil: Well drained sandy loam and red soils with pH of 6 - 7.5 are ideal. Soil is to be tested for nematodes before planting.
Propagation:
Tetraploids: Propagated through seeds. Seed rate is 5kg/ha. 60 day old seedlings are transplanted in the main field.
Triploids: Propagated through terminal cuttings of 10 - 15 cm length (41,700 cuttings/ha) Preparation of field: Land is ploughed thrice and FYM at 25 t/ha is incorporated. Ridges are formed 60 cm apart. Dip the roots of seedlings in Carbendazim (1 g/l of water) and plant on one side of the ridge at 30 cm spacing.

Spacing:
Tetraploid

: 60 x 30 cm / 60 x 60 cm (for seed production).

Delhi Crossandra

: 60 x 40 cm

Nutrition:
Tetraploids: Apply FYM 25 t/ha as basal and NPK at 75, 50 and 125 kg/ha as top dressing three months after planting. Repeat NPK application at the same dose at half yearly intervals for two more years (Instead of applying N at 75 kg/ha, N at 60 kg/ha + Azospirillum 2 kg/ha can also be applied).

Delhi Crossandra: Apply FYM 25 t/ha, Gypsum 100 kg/ha and P & K at 50 and 100 kg/ha respectively as basal dose. Top dressing is done 30 days after planting with neem cake 250 kg and N 40 kg/ha. Apply N P K @ 40:20:60 kg/ha 90 days after planting and repeat this dose at quarterly intervals for a period of two years.

For both Tetraploids & Delhi Crossandra:
Biofertilizers: Soil application of 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of planting. It is to be mixed with 100 kg of FYM and applied. Growth regulators: Spray Ascorbic acid 1000 ppm (1 g/lit of water) before flowering. Irrigation: Once in a week depending upon the weather conditions. Plant protection

Pests
Aphids: Spray Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l.
Nematode: Avoid planting crossandra in nematode infested fields. To control nematodes, apply of Phorate or Carbofuran 3 G @ 1 kg a.i./ha a week after planting and the same may be repeated siz months after planting.

 

 
Diseases
Wilt: Soil drenching with Carbendazim 1 g/lit or Triflooxystrobin + tebuconazole @ 0.75 g/litre Crop duration: 3 years including ratoon crop.
Harvest: Flowering will start a month after transplanting. Fully opened flowers are picked once in two days.
Yield:
Tetraploid varieties

: 2 t/ha/year

Delhi Crossandra

: 2.8 t/ha/year.

 

 

Chrysanthemum: Dendranthema grandiflora Tzeuleu; Asteraceae
Varieties: CO 1, CO 2, MDU 1, Indira, Red Gold.
Climate: Tropical and subtropical climatic conditions are ideal. However, the best temperature for growing chrysanthemum is 20-280C for day and 15-200C for night. Since chrysanthemum is a short day plant, planting should be done such that flowering coincides with short day conditions. Under Tamil Nadu conditions, it is planted during April - May so that it flowers during September - December.

Soil: Well drained red loamy soil with pH of 6 to 7.
Propagation and planting: Commercial propagation is through terminal cuttings (5-7 cm long) or suckers. Planting during June - July at 30 x 30 cm spacing on one side of ridges (1,11,000 plants/ha).

Nutrition:
Recommended dose - 25 t FYM and 125:120: 25 kg NPK/ha.
Basal application - half of N + entire P and K; top dressing - half of N applied 30 days after planting.
Pinching: Done 4 weeks after planting to induce lateral branches. Desuckering: Remove the side suckers periodically.
Micronutrients: Foliar spray of ZnSO4 0.25% + MgSO4 0.5%.
Biofertilizers: Soil application of 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of planting. It is to be mixed with 100 kg of FYM and applied. Growth regulators: Spray GA3 @ 50 ppm on 30, 45 and 60 days after planting. Irrigation: Twice a week in the first month and subsequently at weekly intervals depending upon the weather conditions.

Plant protection
Pests:
Thrips, aphids and leaf eating caterpillars: Spray Acetamiprid @ 0.3 g/l or Indoxacarb @ 1 ml/l
Diseases
Root rot: Soil drenching with Copper oxychloride 2.5 g/lit or Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole @ 0.75 g/litre or Difenoconazole @ 0.5ml/l
Leaf spot: Foliar application of Mancozeb @ 2.5g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 1g/l Duration: 6 - 8 months for main crop and 4 months for ratoon crop Harvest: Pick the flowers from 3rd month onwards at 4 days interval. Harvesting is done at 3/4 to full open stage for nearby markets and 1/2 open stage for distant markets. Yield: 20 t/ha from main crop; 10 t/ha from ratoon crop.

 

 

Marigold (African marigold): Tagetes erecta L.; Asteraceae
Varieties: Pusa Narangi Gainda, Pusa Basanthi Gainda (IARI varieties) and MDU 1 (TNAU variety).
Climate: Year round production is possible under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Soil: Well drained loamy soil with pH of 7.0 to 7.5.
Propagation and planting: Propagated through seeds. Seed rate is 1.5 kg /ha. 25 - 30 day old seedlings are transplanted in the field on one side of ridges at 45 x 35 cm spacing. Treat the seeds with Azospirillum (200 g in 50 ml of rice gruel) before sowing. Irrigation: Once in a week or as and when necessary. Water stagnation should be avoided. Nutrition: Apply 45:90:75 kg NPK/ha as basal and 45 kg N/ha as top dressing 45 days after planting.

Crop duration: 130 - 150 days.
Harvest: Flowers are picked once in 3 days beginning from 60 days after planting. Yield: 18 t/ha.
Precision production technology
Hybrid: L3 hybrid (cultivated for xanthophyll extraction).
Seeds and sowing: Sown throughout the year. Seed rate is 100 g/acre. Seeds are sown in protrays and 20 day old seedlings are transplanted on raised beds at 90 x 22.5 cm spacing to accommodate 44,400 plants/ha. Treat the seedlings with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 0.5% before planting.

Fertigation: Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF) is 90: 90:75 kg NPK/ha. 75% RDF is applied through fertigation [Water Soluble Fertilizer (WSF) application through drip irrigation]. Water Soluble Fertilizers such as Polyfeed (19:19:19), Potassium Nitrate (13:0:45) and Urea (46% N) can be used.

Biofertilizers: Soil application of 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of planting. Biofertilizers are to be mixed with 100kg of FYM and applied. Micronutrients: Foliar spray of FeSO4 0.5% + ZnSO4 0.5% on 30th and 45th day after transplanting.

Biostimulants: Spray Humic acid @ 0.2% on 30 & 45 days after transplanting. Plant protection
Pests:
Cut worms and Helicoverpa armigera
Spray spinosad 45 SC @ 0.75ml/litre. Spinosad 45 SC is quickly biodegradable and is accepted by the importers
Mealy bug: Spray Prophenophos @ 2ml/l Fish oil rosin soap @ 25 g/l Bud borer: Spray Spinosad @ 0.75 ml / l
Leaf miner / thrips: Spray Fipronil @ 1.5ml/l
Red spider Mite: Spray Abamectin 1.9 EC @ 0.5 ml/l or Fenazaquin @ 2 ml/l or Exodus (natural lactones) @ 2 ml/l

 

 
Diseases:
Leaf spot : Foliar application of Hexaconazole @1ml/litre or Mancozeb @ 2g/litre Yield: Flowers
Xanthophyll

 

: 30 - 35 t/ha.
: 1.7 - 1.9 g/kg of fresh flowers.

 

Tuberose: Polianthes tuberosa L.; Amaryllidaceae
Varieties:
Single – Calcutta Single, Mexican Single, Phule Rajani, Prajwal, Rajat Rekha, Shringar, Khahikuchi Single, Hyderabad Single, Pune Single, Arka Nirantra. Double – Calcutta Double, Hyderabad Double, Pearl Double, Swarna Rekha, Suvasini, Vaibhav. Climate: Tropical conditions with a temperature range of 28 to 300C. Soil: Well drained sandy loam to clay loamy soil with a pH of 6.5 - 7.5. Propagation and Planting: Bulbs are used for commercial propagation. Bulbs of 25-30g weight are planted (1,12,000 bulbs/ha) on the sides of ridges at 45 x 20 cm spacing during June – July at a depth of 2.5 cm. Bulbs are planted after 30 days of harvest. Dip the bulbs in 5000 ppm CCC (5 g/l) before planting to increase the yield.

Manuring
FYM

:

25 t/ha

N: P:K

:

200:200:200 kg/ha
Full P and K can be applied during the final preparation of plots, while N can be applied in 3 equal split doses i.e., at the final preparation of plot, 60 and 90 days after planting of bulbs.

Micronutrients: Foliar spray of ZnSO4 0.5% + FeSO4 0.2% + Boric acid 0.1%. Growth regulators: Foliar application of GA3 at 50 to 100 ppm thrice at 40, 55 and 60 days after planting.
Plant protection:
Pests
Thrips: Spray Dimethoate @ 1.5 ml/lit or Fipronil 5 % SC @ 1.5 ml/ l Aphids: Spary Dimethoate @ 1.5 ml/lit or Imidacloprid @ 1.5ml/l Root knot nematode: Apply Carbofuran 3 G @ 1 g/plant near the root zone and irrigate immediately.

Foliar nematode: Soak bulbs in neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) overnight before planting Diseases
Basal rot (or) stem rot: Soil drenching with Carbendazim @ 0.1 % Crop duration: 2 ½ to 3 years
Harvest:
For Loose flower and concrete extraction: Individual florets are plucked during early morning hours before 8 am daily, when they start to open.
For cut flower: Whole spike is cut leaving 4 to 6 cm from the base. Yield:
Loose flowers: 14 -15 t/ha; Cut flower: 2 - 3 lakhs spikes/ha/year; Bulbs & bulblets: 20 -25 t/ha (at the end of 3rd year).
Concrete recovery: 0.08 - 0.11 %

 

 

Nerium: Nerium indicum Mill.; Apocynaceae
Varieties:
Tall types

: Single Rose, Single White, Single Red, Double types.

Dwarf types

: Petite Salmon, Petite Pink.

Climate: Tropical and subtropical conditions.
Soil: Red lateritic or black or loamy soils with adequate drainage. Propagation and planting: Hard or semi hard wood cuttings of 60 cm length are used for propagation. Rooted cuttings are planted during June - July in 30 x 30 x 30 cm pits dug at 2 x 2 m spacing and filled with FYM, red earth and top soil.

Nutrition: FYM @ 20 t /ha is applied in 2 equal splits during January and August. Pruning:
1st year- remove one third of old mature stems near ground level. 2nd year- remove one half of the remaining old stems and cut back long new shoots. 3rd year- remove remaining old stems and cut back long new shoots. Biofertilizers: Soil application of 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of planting. It is to be mixed with 100kg of FYM and applied in pits. Irrigation: The plants are irrigated once in 10 - 15 days depending on the weather conditions. Plant protection

Pests:
Leaf Caterpillar: Spray Phosalone 35 EC @ 1 ml/l or Monocrotophos @ 2 ml/l. Flowering season: Throughout the year; peak flowering from April to August. Harvest: Flowering begins 4 months after planting.

Yield: 100 - 125 kg of flowers/ha/day.

 

 

Golden Rod: Solidago spp; Asteraceae
Varieties: Ballardi, Golden Gate, Golden Wing, Monte D’ oro, Monte Solo, Peter Pan, Straehlen Krone, Super and Tara Gold.
Climate: Grown under varied climatic conditions; cooler climate gives high quality cut flower. Soil: Sandy loam and red loam soils with proper drainage.
Planting season: Throughout the year.
Propagation: Commercially propagated through division of clumps or suckers. Planting: Soil is ploughed to fine tilth, flat beds are formed and suckers are planted at 45 x 45 cm spacing.
Irrigation: Once in three days depending on weather conditions. Nutrition: 5 t FYM + NPK @ 140:175:150 kg/ha as basal and half the dose applied after every harvest.
Weed management: Hand weeding done as and when required.
Plant protection
Pests
Lace bugs: Spray Malathion @ 1 ml/l.
Diseases
Powdery mildew: Spray Wettable Sulphur 2g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 1m/l. Leaf Spot: Spray Copper Oxychloride 3g/l or Hexaconazole @ 1ml/l or Mancozeb @ 2g/l. Root rot: Soil drenching with Carbendazim @ 1g/l.

Harvesting:
First harvest

: 75 days after planting.

Harvesting stage

: When 25 % of the flowers have opened.

Crop duration

: 2 years.

Yield: 3 lakh stems/ha/crop

 

 

Chapter B

Cut flowers
Cut Rose: Rosa sp.; Rosaceae
Varieties:
Red

- First Red, Grand Gala, Red Corvette, Tajmahal.

Yellow - Aalsmeer Gold, Gold Strike, Skyline.
Pink

- Noblesse, Flirt, Vivaldi.

Orange - Movie Star, Miracle, Tropical Amazon.
White

- Ice Berg, Polo, Holly Wood, Avalanche, Tineke, Aloynica, Biyanka.

Soil: Fertile loamy soil with pH of 6 – 7.
Climate:
Protected cultivation: Day temperature of 25 to 280C and night temperature not below 150C; relative humidity of 60-65%.
Open field cultivation: Moderately cooler places (like Hosur) and sub tropical climatic conditions (foot hills) are suitable.
Propagation: Cut roses are commercially propagated by ‘T’ budding on Briar rootstock. Field preparation and planting: Prepare the soil by repeated ploughing. Roses can be planted on beds or ridges and furrows. One year old budded plants are planted. While planting, keep the budded portion 5 cm above the soil. Plant in such a manner that the budded branch is oriented towards the centre of the bed.

Spacing:
Protected cultivation : 40 X 15 cm (7 plants/m2).
Open field cultivation : 60 x 60 cm (27,777 plants/ha) to 60 x 75 cm (22,222 plants/ha). Irrigation:
Protected cultivation : Drip irrigation with fertigation
Open field cultivation : Irrigate once in 5 to 7 days depending upon the soil moisture. Nutrition:
The following fertigation schedule can be adopted for an area of 1000 m2.

 

 
Crop stage

Fertilizers

Dosage

First 15 days
after planting
15-45 days
after planting
(establishment
of plants)

-

-

Time
interval
(No. of
days)
-

Each 1 kg

2

46-90 days
after planting

91-116 days
after planting
(flower bud
formation to
harvest)

Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) (21: 0 : 0)
Mono Ammonium Phosphate (12-61-0)
Mono Potassium Phosphate (0-52-34)
Calcium Nitrate (CaNO3) (15.5% N, 18.8%
Ca)
Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) (21 : 0: 0)
Mono Ammonium Phosphate (12-61-0)
Mono Potassium Phosphate (0-52-34)
Calcium Nitrate (CaNO3) (15.5% N, 18.8%
Ca)
Copper, Zinc, Boron, Sulphur, EDTA,
EDTHA
Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4)
Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) (21: 0:0)
Mono Ammonium Phosphate (12:61:0)
Mono Potassium Phosphate (0-52-34)
Calcium Nitrate (15.5% N, 18.8% Ca)
Copper, Zinc, Boron, Sulphur, EDTA,
EDTHA
Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4)

Each 2 kg
2

Each 100 g
1 kg
Each 3 kg
2
Each 100 g
1 kg

Special practices:
Training: Early training is essential for plants under polyhouse conditions. Some of the first growth which consists of blind shoots must not be cut or bent, but left upright. Buds appearing at early stages are removed. The second growth will come to flower again in four to five weeks. By then, the plants will be 50 to 60 cm high, which is necessary to have enough growing speed in the plant and to have enough foliage for bending.

Bending: The first bending (basal formation) is done on 35th day after planting. The main shoot is bent down so that lateral branches grow. The second bending is done after 2 years to strengthen the plants.

Shoot thinning: Periodically remove unproductive shoots and water suckers. Pruning: Pruning is followed only under open conditions during the months of March and October.
Pinching: Pinching is done to regulate flowering. Most of the commercial cultivars take about five-and-a-half to six weeks from pinching to produce flowers during summer and about eight weeks during winter.

 

 
Plant protection:
Pests:
Rose chafer beetle: Hand pick Cetonid beetles and destroy during the day time. Set up light traps to attract Holotrichia and Anomala spp. Spray Hostothion @ 2 ml/l. Red scale: Rub off the scales with cotton soaked in kerosene or diesel. Cut and burn the affected branches. Spray Malathion 50 EC @ 2 ml/l at the time of pruning and again during March - April or apply Carbofuran 3G @ 5 g/plant or spray fish oil rosin soap @ 25 g/l. Mealy bug: Spray Dimethoate @ 2 ml/l or Profenophos @ 2 ml/l or Fish oil rosin soap @ 25 g/l. Flower caterpillar:

Helicoverpa armigera: Spray Ha NPV 1.5 x 1012 PIB/ha or Spinosad @ 0.75 ml/l. Spodoptera litura: Spray Sl NPV 1.5 x 1012 PIB/ha or Spinosad @ 0.75 ml/l. Bud worm: Spray Profenophos 50 EC @ 1 ml/l or Thiochloprid 240 SC @ 2 ml/l. Thrips, aphids and leaf hoppers: Spray Acetamiprid @ 0.3 g/l or Carbofuran 3G @ 5 g/plant. Spray Neem oil @ 3 % or Phosalone 35 EC @ 2 ml/l.

Diseases:
Black spot: Spray Carbendazim @ 1 g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 1ml/l twice at fortnightly intervals. Powdery mildew: Spray Carbendazim @1 g/l or Wettable Sulphur at 2 g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 1 ml/l.
Harvest: Harvest the buds at tight bud stage with 60-90 cm long stems. Ensure that the foliage in the cut stem is healthy.
Yield: Under poly house: 1st year: 100-120 flowers/m2
2nd year: 200-240 flowers/m2
3rd year: 300-360 flowers/m2

 

 

Cut Chrysanthemum: Dendranthema grandiflora; Asteraceae
Varieties:
Standard types: Bonfire Orange, Bonfire Yellow.
Spray types: Reagan Yellow, Reagan White, Nanako, etc.,
Climate: Cut chrysanthemums are grown under polyhouses with the following environmental conditions.
Temperature

: 16 - 250C

Relative humidity

: 70 - 85 %

CO2

: 600 - 900 ppm

Photoperiod

: Long day conditions with 13 hours light & 11 hours darkness during vegetative stage (upto 4-5 weeks from planting) and short day conditions with 10 hours light & 14 hours darkness during flower bud initiation stage.

Soil: Well drained sandy loam soil with good texture and aeration or growing medium made of 1: 1: 2 of soil, compost and cocopeat with pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Propagation: Terminal cuttings and tissue culture plants are used. Terminal cuttings are widely used for commercial cultivation. Cuttings of 5-7 cm length are taken from healthy stock plants and are induced to root by treating with IBA (1000 ppm).

Planting: Beds of 1 m width, 0.3 m height and convenient length are formed. Nets (with cell size depending on the spacing adopted) are placed on the beds and planting is done. Spacing: 15 x 15 cm (45 plants/m2) or 10 x 15 cm (67 plants/m2). Irrigation: Drip irrigation with 8-9 litres of water/m2/day. Nutrition:

Basal application of DAP - 50 g/m2
Weekly schedule - from 3rd week after planting
Fertilizer
Quantity (g/m2)
Monday
Wednesday
19-19-19
3.0
1.0
3.0
1.0
KNO
3

CAN
Ammonium nitrate
MgSO4

2.0
2.0
2.0

1.0
1.0
1.0

Special practices
Pinching: First pinching - 3 weeks after planting; 2nd pinching - 5 weeks after planting. Disbudding: In spray varieties, only the large apical bud is removed and the lateral buds are retained. In standard varieties, the lateral buds are removed and only apical buds are allowed to develop.

 

 
Light regulation: Chrysanthemum is very much influenced by light and hence photoperiod should be regulated. (Photoperiod should be regulated as detailed under ‘climate’ Growth regulators: Spray GA3 (50 ppm) at 30, 45 and 60 days after planting to increase flower stem length.

Weed management: Weeding and hoeing are done manually as and when required. Plant protection
Pests
Leaf miner: Spray Imidacloprid @ 0.5 ml/l or Acetamiprid @ 0.3 g/l. Thrips: Spray Fipronil @ 1.0 ml/l. Keep Yellow Sticky Trap 10 nos. for 100 sq.m area. Aphids: Spray Methyl demeton @ 2 ml/l or Monocrotophos @ 1 ml/l. Red spider mite: Spray Abamectin 1.9 EC @ 0.5 ml/l or Propargite @ 2 ml/l. Diseases

White Rust: Spray Azoxystrobin @ 1ml/l or Triflooxystrobin + Tebuconazole @ 0.75 g/l. Leaf spot: Spray Macozeb @ 2g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 2 ml/l or Difenoconazole @ 0.5ml/l. Wilt: Soil drenching with Carbendazim @ 1 g/l or Triflooxystrobin + Tebuconazole @ 0.75 g/l. Powdery mildew: Spray Wettable Sulphur @ 2g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 1ml/l. Harvest index:

Standard types - Flowers are harvested when 2 - 3 rows of rays florets are perpendicular to the flower stalk.
Spray types - When 50% flowers have shown colour for distant markets; when two flowers have opened and others have shown colour for local markets.
Yield:
Standard types: 67 flower stems/m2
Spray types: 260 flower stems/m2

 

 

Carnation: Dianthus caryophyllus; Caryophyllaceae
Varieties:
Red

- Domingo, Master, Gaudina, Leopardii, Big Red, Taureg, Guapo, Aicardii

White

- Baltico, White Liberty, Emotion, White Dona, Lisa

Pink

- Dona, Charmant, Dumas, Pink Dover, Bizet

Light pink - Charmant, Cipro Big Mama, Dona, Golem
Yellow

- Diana, Kiro, Soto, Salamanca, Liberty

Orange

- Solar, Star, Folgore

Double

- Malaga, Star, Athena, Happy Golem

Growing environment: Naturally ventilated aerodynamic steel frame structure. Climate: Cool climate with day temperature of 18-240C and night temperature of 10-150C; relative humidity of 70 -75 %.
Soil: Well drained red loamy soil with pH of 5.5 - 6.5.
Propagation:
Terminal stem cuttings
Field preparation and planting:
Fumigation - Dazomet @ 30g/m2 or H2O2 @ 300 ml/m2 .
Bed size: 100 cm width, 30 cm height, convenient length with 40 cm foot path. Spacing:

6 row planting - 15x15cm (25 plants/m2).
4 row planting - 15x15cm (22 plants/m2) .

Irrigation: Drip system with drippers at 30 cm spacing (5-6 l/m2/day). Nutrition:
The following fertigation schedule can be adopted for intensive production under polyhouse conditions.
Nutrients

Tank-A (Monday and Thursday)
Ammonium Nitrate
19:19:19
Magnesium Sulphate
Boron
Trace elements / micronutrients
Tank – B (Tuesday and Friday)
Potassium Nitrate
Calcium Nitrate

 

Quantity (g/m2/week)
Till bud formation
Bud formation to
harvest
3.0g
3.0 g
2.5 g
1.0 g
1.0 g

2.0 g
2.0 g
2.5 g
1.0 g
1.0 g

5.0 g
8.0 g

5.0 g
9.0 g

 
Special practices
Netting for plant support: 4 layers
1st layer : 7.5 x 7.5 cm
2nd layer : 10 x 10 cm
3 rd layer : 12.5 x 12.5 cm
4 th layer : 15 x 15 cm
Pinching:
 Depending upon the need of crop spread, single, one and a half or double pinch method is adopted.
 Ideal time for pinching is early morning.
 When the plant attains 5 nodes, the first pinch is given. This is called ‘single pinch’. This would give rise to six lateral shoots.
 With a ‘one and half pinch’, 2-3 of these lateral shoots are pinched again. For the ‘double pinch’, all the lateral shoots are pinched off.
Disbudding: In standard carnations, side buds should be removed whereas in spray carnations, the terminal bud has to be removed.
Plant protection
Pests
Thrips: Spray Dimethoate @ 2 ml/l or Fipronil @ 1.5 ml/l
Red spider mites
Release coccinellid beetle Stethorus pauperculus and predatory mite Amblyseius sp @ 10 mites /plant or spray abamectin 1.8 EC @ 0.5 ml/lit of water or Spiromesifen @ 0.8 ml/l or Hexythiazox @ 1.5 ml/l

Diseases
Fusarium wilt: Soil drenching with Carbendazim @ 0.1 % or Difenoconazole @ 0.05 % or Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 25 g/m2 and foliar application @ 0.5 % at monthly intervals or soil drenching with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens @ 0.5 % at monthly intervals Alternaria leaf spot: Bacillus subtilis as soil application @ 25 g/m2 followed by foliar application @ 0.5 % at monthly intervals

Physiological disorder
Calyx splitting: Spray borax @ 1 g/l at fortnightly intervals till flower bud appearance and at weekly intervals thereafter.
Harvest: Flowering starts 110-120 days after planting.
Stages of harvest
Standard types - paint brush stage
Spray types

- when two flowers are open and the remaining flower buds show colour

Yield: 15 flowers/plant (350 - 375 flowers stems/m2) in 2 years period  

 

*Precision production techniques for carnation
S.No.
Cultural Practice
Recommendation
1.
Fumigation
Dazomet @ 30 g/m2
2.
Media consortium
10:1:1 ratio of 30 kg/m2of consortium with 25 kg of Farm
Yard Manure, 2.5 kg of vermicompost, 2.5 kg of cocopeat
with the biofertilizers Azospirillum, Phosphobacteria, VAM
and the biocontrol agents Trichoderma viridae,
Pseudomonas fluorescens each @ 20 g/m2 at bimonthly
intervals
3.
Planting density
15 x 15 cm with 25 plants/m2
4.
Planting
stage
and 30 day old rooted cuttings and single pinching at the 5th pinching level
node
5.
Precooling
4o C for 4 hours
6.
Pulsing solution
Sucrose 10 % + Citric acid 100 ppm + 8-Hydroxy
Quinoline 400 ppm for 24 hours duration
7.
Holding solution
Sucrose 5 % + Citric acid 50 ppm + Benzyl Adenine
75 ppm
8.
Wrapping
and Polyethylene sleeves 50 gauge thickness + CFB with 4 %
packaging techniques
vent
* The precision production techniques are to be followed along with the cultural practices recommended for the conventional system.

 

 

Anthurium: Anthurium andreanum; Araceae
Varieties:
Red

: Temptation, Tropical Red, Red Dragon, Verdun Red, Flame, Mauritius Red .

Orange

: Mauritius Orange, Peach, Casino, Sunshine Orange, Nitta.

White

: Acropolis, Linda de Mol, Mauritius White, Lima, Manoa Mist.

Pink

: Abe Pink, Candy Stripe, Passion.

Green

: Midori, Esmaralda.

Bicoloured : Titicaca, Jewel, Akapana, Cardinal.
Others

: Fantasia (cream with pink veins), Chocos, Chicos (chocolate brownish red).

Growing environment: 75% shade net house with 70 - 80% relative humidity, day temperature of 24 - 280C and night temperature of 15 - 220C.
Growing media: Porous organic media such as leaf mould and cocopeat is ideal. A mixture of 1 part each of coir pith, leaf mould, cattle manure, coarse sand, brick pieces, charcoal, neem cake and coconut husk pieces is highly suitable.

Propagation: Propagated through tissue culture or suckers. Tissue culture plants are widely used for commercial cultivation.
Planting: Grown in pots or raised beds. Tissue culture plants of 15 cm height with 4-6 leaves are ideal for planting.
Irrigation: Mist or over head sprinkler to provide water and to improve relative humidity. Nutrition:
Pot cultivation - Foliar application of 0.2% of NPK @ 30:10:10 during vegetative stage and 10:20:20 during flowering stage is adopted for pot cultivation. Fertigation can be adopted for raised bed cultivation.

Raised bed cultivation - For the first 6 months spray plants with a solution of cow dung and DAP @ 250 ml/plant (10 kg of cow dung + 2 kg of DAP dissolved in 200 l of water and the decanted solution is used for spaying). After 6 months fertigation is adopted with the following schedule.

Fertilizer
Schedule ‘A’ - Weekly once
Calcium Nitrate
Potassium Nitrate
Micro nutrients
Schedule ‘B’ - Weekly once
Mono Ammonium Phosphate
Potassium Nitrate
Magnesium Sulphate

 

Quantity (g/100m2)
250
150
50
250
100
50

 
Special practices
Leaf pruning: Leaf pruning retaining 4-6 leaves per plant has to be taken up at regular intervals to avoid disease problem and to promote flowering. Plant protection
Pests
Aphids

: Spray Dimethoate @ 3 l/l

Scale insects: Spray Malathion @ 1 ml/l
Spider mites : Spray Wettable sulphur @ 3 g/l or Propargite @ 2 ml/l Thrips

: Spray Fipronil @ 1.5 ml/l

Diseases
Anthracnose: Spray Carbendazim @ 1g/l
Leaf spot

: Spray Carbendazim @ 1 g/l or Mancozeb @ 2g/l

Root rot

: Soil drenching with Captan @ 2g/l

Bacterial wilt: Spray Streptomycin sulphate @ 0.1g/l
Harvesting: Plants start flowering from 6-8 months after planting. Harvesting is done at 1/3 colour change on the spadix (i.e. opening of 1/3 of true flowers on spadix) or the angle between the spathe and spadix should be 45 oC.

Yield: 7- 9 flowers/plant/year.

 

 

Dendrobium Orchid: Dendrobium sp.; Orchidaceae
Varieties: Sonia 17, Sonia 28, Emma White, Sakura Pink.
Growing environment: 75% shade net house with 70 - 80% humidity, day temperature of 21 29oC and night temperature of 18 to 21oC is ideal for growing this tropical orchid. In high rainfall zones, the shade net house should be provided with a rainshelter. Growing media: Most common potting mixture consists of charcoal, broken pieces of bricks and tiles, coconut husk and fiber.

Propagation: Division of clumps, keikis, back bulbs and tissue culture plants. Containers and support : perforated earthen pots are ideal and the plants are staked with bamboo sticks.
Irrigation: Mist or overhead sprinkler to provide water and to maintain humidity. Nutrients: Foliar application of NPK 20:10:10 @ 0.2% at weekly intervals starting from 30 days after planting.
Growth regulators: Foliar application of GA3 50 ppm at bimonthly intervals starting from 30 days after planting.
Pests:
Snail and slug: Hand pick and destroy
Post harvest handling:
Pulsing
Holding solution
Wrapping material

:
:
:

8-HQC 500 ppm + Sucrose 5% for 12 hrs
AgNO3 25 ppm + 8-HQC 400 ppm + Sucrose 5%
50 gauge polythene with base of spikes dipped in 8-HQC
25 ppm

Harvest: Harvesting the spike when 75 per cent of the flowers are open and remaining buds are unopen.
Yield: 8 - 10 spikes/plant/year.
Pests:
Snail and Slug: Hand pick and destroy them immediately.
Diseases:
1. Bacterial soft and Brown rot (Ervinia spp.)
Foliar application with Streptomycin Sulphate @ 0.5 g + Copper Oxy Chloride @ 2 g/l. 2. Bacterial Brown spot (Acidovorax sp.)
Foliar application with Streptomycin Sulphate @ 0.5 g + Copper Oxy Chloride @ 2 g/l. 3. Blackrot (Pythium sp.and Phytothora sp.)
Foliar application of Metalaxyl 2 g / lit. (or) Dimethomorph 50% WP 0.5 g / lit. 4. Anthracnose – Foliar application of Thiophanate Methyl 2 g / l (or) Difenoconazole 0.5 ml/l

 

 

Lilium: Lilium sp.; Liliaceae
Varieties:
Asiatic hybrids : Dreamland (yellow), Brunello (orange), Novona (white), Pollyanna (yellow), Yellow Giant (yellow), Vivaldi (pink), Black Out (Deep red) Oriental hybrids: Star Gazer (Pink & white), Nerostar, Siberia, Acapulco (cyclamen pink) and Casablanca

Eastern lily (L. longiflorum): Elegant Lady, Ace, Snow Queen, White, American, Croft and Harbor
Climate: Liliums are best grown in green houses. Day temperature of 18-22°C and night temperature of 10-15°C are ideal.
Soil: Well drained sterile medium (preferably leaf mould, cocopeat and FYM in equal parts) with pH 5.5 to 6.5 is ideal. Fumigate the beds with Dazomet @ 30g/m2. Propagation: Liliums are commercially propagated through bulbs. A six week cold storage period at 2oC to 5oC is needed to break dormancy. Bulbs can be stored at - 20C up to one year. Spacing: 20 x 15 cm, 15 x 15 cm or 15 x 10 cm (plant density varies between 30 and 60/m2 depending on cultivar and bulb size)

Irrigation: 6 - 8 litres/m2/day during summer and 5 - 6 litres/m2/day during winter Nutrition:
The following fertigation schedule can be adopted.
Nutrients
Calcium Nitrate
19:19:19
Potassium Nitrate
Micronutrient mixture

Quantity (g/m2/week)
Asiatic
Oriental
2.5
2.5
0.5
0.5
2.2
2.3
1.2
1.2

Crop support: Supporting plants with nylon mesh is advisable. Plant protection:
Pests:
Aphids: Apply Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL @ 1 ml/l or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l Mites: Spray Wettable sulphur @ 1.5 g/l or Abamectin @ 0.4 ml/l or Propargite @ 2 ml/l. Thrips: Spray Methyl demeton 25EC @ 2 ml/ or Dimethoate 30EC @ 2ml/l Diseases:

Grey mould: Spray Zineb @ 2g/l
Bulb and scale rot: Soil drenching with Carbendazim @ 1g/l or Difenoconazole @ 0.5ml/l Foot rot & Root rot: Soil drenching with Metalaxyl @ 0.1%
Harvest: Harvesting is done when lower most bud shows colour (colour breaking stage) but is not open.

 

 
Crop duration:
Asiatic hybrids : 8 - 10 weeks
Oriental hybrids : 14 - 16 weeks
Yield: The average yield is 30 - 40 flower stems/m2

 

 

Gladiolus: Gladiolus spp; Iridaceae
Varieties: Tropic Sea, White Prosperity, Priscilla, Summer Sunshine, Pusa Swarnima, Jackson Ville Gold, KKL.1, Archana, Basant Bahar, Indrani, Kalima, Kohra, Aarti, Arka Kesar, Darshan, Dhiraj, Agnirekha, Archana, Bindiya, Shree Ganesh

Climate: Subtropical and temperate climatic conditions are suitable. The crop performs well under a temperature range of 27 - 30°C. It requires full exposure to sunlight and performs well with long day conditions of 12 to 14 hour photoperiod.

Soil: Well drained sandy loam soil rich in organic matter with pH of 6 to 7. Propagation: Commercial propagation is through corms. Cold storage of corms at 3 to 7°C for 3 months or treatment with Ethrel (1000ppm) or GA3 (100ppm) or Thiourea (500 ppm) is adopted for breaking corm dormancy.

Field preparation and planting: Beds of size 6 x 2 m are prepared and corms are planted at a depth of 5 cm adopting a spacing of 40 x 25 cm (88,888 plants/ha) or 25 x 25 cm (1,60,000 plants/ha).
Planting season: October for plains and March-April for hills. Irrigation: Irrigate at 7-10 day intervals in sandy soils and at less frequent intervals in heavy soils. Irrigation should be withheld at least 4-6 weeks before lifting of corms. Nutrition: 120 kg N, 150 kg P2O5 and 150 kg K2O per hectare is recommended, of which 60 kg N and entire dose of P2O5 and K2O is applied as basal dose. The remaining N is given in two split doses, 30 and 60 days after planting.

Special practices:
Staking: Large flowered varieties should be staked to avoid lodging. Plant protection
Pests
Thrips: Spray Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l or Fenitrothion 50 EC @ 2 ml/l or Malathion 50 EC @ 2 ml/l or apply Aldicarb 10G @ 5 g/m2
Semi looper and Helicoverpa: Methyl Demeton 25 EC or Monocrotophos @ 2ml/l or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l
Diseases
Leaf spot: Foliar application of Carbendazim @ 1 g/l or Mancozeb @ 2 g/l Core or spongy rot: Foliar application of Benomyl @ 1 kg/ha
Bacterial scab blight and spots: Dipping the corms in 1:100 Mercuric chloride solution for 12 hours before planting.
Harvesting of spikes: Gladiolus takes 110-120 days to produce spikes. While harvesting, at least four basal leaves should be retained on the plant to ensure proper development of corms and cormels.

Yield: 2.0 - 2.5 lakh flower stalks/ha/crop.

 

 

Gerbera: Gerbera jamesonii; Compositae
Varieties:
Red

: Ruby Red, Sangria

Yellow

: Doni, Supernova, Mammut, Talasa

Rose

: Rosalin, Salvadore

Pink

: Pink Elegance, Marmara, Esmara

Orange

: Carrera, Goliath, Marasol

Cream

: Farida, Dalma, Snow Flake, Winter Queen

Climate: Production of quality flowers requires shade house (50%) or naturally ventilated polyhouse. Day temperature of 22-25C and night temperature of 12-16C are ideal. Soil: Well drained, rich, light, neutral or slightly alkaline soil with pH range of 5.5 - 7.0. Propagation: Commercially propagated through division of suckers and tissue culture plants. Field preparation and planting: Soil fumigation with Formaldehyde (100 ml in 5 l/m2) or Dazomet (30 g/m2) is recommended to control soil borne pathogens (Phytophthora, Fusarium and Pythium). Raised beds of 1-2 m width and 30 cm height are prepared. Growing media consisting of FYM: sand: cocopeat/paddy husk (2:1:1) is ideal. Spacing: 40 x 30 cm or 30 x 30 cm

Irrigation: Drip irrigation with 500-700 ml of water/day/plant Nutrition: Fertigation is adopted from 3rd week after planting as per the following schedule. Fertilizer
Quantity (g/500m2)
A tank (Monday, Wednesday, Friday)
Calcium Nitrate
700
Pottasium Nitrate ( 13:0:46)
400
Fe EDTA / sulphate
20
B tank (Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday)
Mono Ammonium Phosphate (12:61:0)
300
Sulphate of Potash (0:0:50)
700
Magnesium Sulphate
700
Manganese Sulphate
5
Zinc Sulphate
3
Copper Sulphate
3
Molybdenum (Sodium Molybdate)
1
Boron (Borax)
3
Special practices
Leaf pruning: Remove old leaves periodically
Plant protection
Pests
Aphids: Apply Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL @ 1 ml/l or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l Whitefly: Spray Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL @ 2 ml/l or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l

 

 
Thrips: Spray Fipronil @ 2 ml/l or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l Red spider mite: Spray Abamectin 1.9 EC @ 0.4 ml/l or Propargite @ 1 ml/l Nematode:
Soil application of Bacillus subtilis (BbV 57) or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2.5 kg/ha at the time of planting for the management of root knot nematode.
Diseases:
Flower bud rot: Spray copper oxychloride @ 2 g/l
Powdery mildew: Spray wettable Sulphur @ 2g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 1g/l Harvest: Flowering starts 3 months after planting. Flowers are harvested when 2-3 rows of ray florets are perpendicular to the stalk.

Yield: Average yield under polyhouse is 200 - 250 flowers/m2/year. Crop can be maintained for 2 years.

 

 

China Aster: Callistephus chinensis; Asteraceae
Varieties: Kamini, Poornima, Shashank, Violet Cushion, Phule Ganesh White, Phule Ganesh Pink, Phule Ganesh Violet, Phule Ganesh Purple.
Climate: Prefers cooler climates with day temperature of 20-300C, night temperature of 15-170C and relative humidity of 50-60%. Bright sunlight is required for growth and flowering. Soil: Open sunny locations with well drained red loamy soils with pH of 6.0 to 7.0 Planting Season: Throughout the year under mild climatic conditions (like Bangalore) Propagation and planting: Propagated through seeds; seed rate is 2.5 - 3.0 kg/ha. 30-45 day old seedlings are transplanted in raised beds of 120 x 60 x 10 cm size. Nutrition: FYM @ 10-15 t/ha is applied during field preparation. NPK recommendation is 180:60:60 kg/ha of which 90:60:60 kg/ha is applied as basal and 90 kg/ha of N is applied as top dressing 40 days after transplanting.

Irrigation: Irrigate once in 7 - 10 days depending upon the weather conditions. Pinching: Pinching of growing tips is done 30 days after transplanting to induce lateral shoots. Plant protection
Pests
Semilooper: Spray Quinalphos @ 1.0 ml/l or Carbaryl @ 1g/l
Leaf miner: Spray Monochrotophos @ 0.5 ml/l or Imidacloprid @ 0.5 ml/l Diseases
Collar and root rot: Soil drenching with Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/l Wilt (Fusarium sp.): Soil drenching with Carbendazim 1 g/l
Harvesting:
For cut flower

: Flowers along with stalks or whole plants are harvested

For loose flower: Individual flowers are harvested with short stems attached Yield: 18 - 20 t/ha.
 

 

 

 

 

PART VII - PARTICULARS OF IMPROVED VARIETIES OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS Crop
A. Fruits
Mango

Name of
Variety

Duration
(Days)

Yield

Special Attributes

Perennial

500 fruits/tree (100
kg/tree)

A high yielder selected from a hybrid
(Chinnaswarnareka x Neelum). Regular bearer, fruit
is big and sweet in taste.

PKM.2

Perennial

Perennial

It yields higher than
Neelum and Mulgoa.
Each fruit weighs
650-700g
8.92 t/ha

A high yielder selected from a hybrid (Neelum x
Mulgoa). Mid season variety, fruit is big and sweet in
taste.

Paiyur.1

Banana

CO 1

13 - 14
months

22 t/ha

Sapota

CO 1

Perennial

12 - 20 kg/tree

CO 2

Perennial

16 - 25 kg/tree

CO 3

Perennial

157kg /tree

PKM.1

 

PKM.1

Perennial

236 kg/tree (3500
fruits/tree)

Dwarf tree, suitable for close planting (400 trees/ha);
regular bearer; medium long fruits, oval yellow skin
and good taste and keeping quality.
A multiple cross involving Ladan (AAB) as
female parent and Musa bulbisiana (BB) and Kadali
(AA) as male parents. Akin to hill banana Virupakshi;
retains the flavour and taste of Virupakshi and suited
to plains.
It is a hybrid between Cricket ball and Oval; small
size with sweet taste
It is a pure line selection from Baramasi; round
shape; bigger than Co.1
It is a hybrid between Cricket Ball and Vavilavalasa.
Fruit weight is 133 g. The trees are highly suitable
for high density planting. Under high-density planting
system it yields 40-50t/ha
Clonal selection from Guthi; dwarf statured and
adaptable to southern and central districts.

 
Crop

80 kg/tree

Perennial

14 t/ha

PKM.4

Perennial

20.08 t/ha

PKM.(Sa)
5

Perennial

18.70t/ha

CO 1

2.5 years

200 t/ha/2 years

CO 2

2.5 years

CO 3

2.5 years

200 t/ha/2 years
Papain 500kg/ha/2
years
120 - 150 t/ha/2 years

CO 4

 

Duration
(Days)
Perennial

PKM.3

Papaya

Name of
Variety
PKM.2

Yield

2.5 years

200 t/ha/2 years

Special Attributes
Hybrid between Guthi and Kirtibarthi. Fruits are
bigger in size, oval shaped. Higher TSS.
Hybrid between Guthi and Cricket ball. Suitable for
high density planting. Tolerant to leaf spot and leaf
webber.
Open pollinated clone of PKM 1. Distinguisely
spindle shaped fruits. Suitable for high density
planting The flesh has a light pink colour with
pleasant flavour.
Selection from OP seedlings of Virudhunagar,
Compact tree canopy, cluster bearer, oval shaped
fruits,coppery brown flesh, High TSS -25.50 brix
Suitable for vertisol and drought areas.
It is a selection from Ranchi. A choice round fruit,
dwarf type suited exclusively for table purpose with
yellow flesh and good quality.
A pure line selection suitable for papain as well as
table purpose; medium tall variety large sized fruit
with yellow flesh.
It involves the parents Co.2 and Sunrise Solo. It is a
hermaphrodite type with red flesh and sweet taste
exclusively suitable for table purpose. It is a medium
tall variety with small sized fruits.
It is a hybrid derivative from a cross between Co.1 x
Washington. It has purple pigmentation on the stem,
petiole, flower stalk etc. Fruits are round with purple
tinged yellow flesh. Tree medium tall, suitable for
home and kitchen gardens; a table purpose variety.

 
Crop

Name of
Variety
CO 5

Duration
(Days)
2.5 years

CO 6

2 years

80 - 100 fruits/year

CO 7

2 years

140 t/ha/ year

CO 8

2 years

200-230 t /ha

Guava

TRY (G) 1

Perennial

16.3 t/ ha

Pomegranate

CO 1

Perennial

50 fruits/bush

YCD.1

Perennial

60 - 70 fruits/bush

Palur.1

Perennial

80
fruits/tree/yearweighing
900 kg

Papaya

Jack

 

Yield
Papain 1200 kg/ha/2
year

Special Attributes
It is a pure line selection from Washington variety,
medium tall with purple pigmentation all over the
plant surface; fruits are large, weighs 2 to 2.5 kg/fruit.
It gives the highest papain yield of 15 g/fruit.
Exclusively suitable for papain extraction only. Not
recommended for table use.
Selection from a giant papaya. Dioecious. Suitable
for papain extraction and also for table purposes.
Dwarf in stature.
Gynodioecious. Parents involved are Pusa
Delicious, Co.3, CP 75 and Coorg Honeydew. Red
fleshed. Fruits oblong with an attractive and firm red
flesh.
Dioecious, derived through improvement of CO.2, red
pulped, suitable for dessert, papain and processing
Selection from germplasm, Off season bearing, shiny
greenish yellow fruit with desirable aroma, high TSS
(100 Brix) & ascorbic acid (180.8 mg/ 100 g edible part),
resistant to fruit fly and tolerant to mealy bug, scale,
mite and wilt, drought and sodicity tolerant.
It is a pure line selection. It is quick growing, high
yielding and with attractive fruit colour both exterior
and interior. It has soft seeds, with sweet taste and
bright pink colour.
Soft - seeded; clonal selection from local varieties.
20% more than the local. The colour of the pulp is
purple. Keeps well for about 5 - 7 days at cold
temperature.
Clonal selection from Panikkan kuppan local.
Suitable for high density planting. Yield fruits in off
season also (Nov - Dec). Regular bearing season
April - June.

 
Crop

Special Attributes

Name of
Variety
PLR 2

Duration
(Days)
Perennial

Yield

PPI.1

Perennial

Apple

KKI.1

Perennial

107 fruits/tree/year
weighing 1018 kg
22 t/ha

Amla

BSR.1

Perennial

155 kg fruits/tree/year

Avocado

TKD.1

Perennial

26.4 t/ha

Fig

Yercaud
Timla
APK. 1

Perennial
Perennial

4000 Nos. per tree per
year
14.9 kg/tree

PKM(MT)
1

Perennial

79 kg/tree/year

Jack

Custar
d apple
Manila
Tamarind

Vegetables
Tomato

100 – 115 fruits / ha
1600 – 1900 kg / ha

135

36.0

CO 2

145

42.0

CO 3

110

50.0

PKM1

135

32.0

Paiyur1

 

CO 1

130

32.0

Clonal selection from Pathirakkotai Local, Good
quality and bigger sized fruits, highly palatable
and edible flakes
Clonal selection from Millagumoodu local. Suitable
for commercial planting and in Home gardens.
Selection from Parlin's Beauty. Best adapted to
warm winter conditions prevailing in Kodaikanal hills.
Selection from Thimbam local type. Fruits contain
more flesh, less phenol and high ascorbic acid
content.
Suitable for high density planting. Fruits are dark
green coloured, round shaped and medium in size.
It is drought tolerant, high yield, fruits are large and
reddish purple in colour.
Clonal selection. Suited to rainfed conditions. Fruit
weight 210 g. Sweet in taste.
Open pollinated selection from Soolakarai,
regular and cluster bearere, 30 % higher yield
compared to local , suits well for sandy, alkaline
& saline soil.
A pureline selection isolated from American variety
"Pearl Harbour". Round fruits, light green when unripe
and red at ripening, bears in clusters.
It is a selection from a Russian introduction. Fruits
ovate, large and flat.
CO.3 (Marutham) was evolved through induced
mutation by treating the seed of CO.1 tomato (IM
39) with EMS. Dwarf plants fruits globular and red;
bears in clusters of 4 - 5 fruits. Suitable for summer.
It is an induced mutant from a local variety called
Annanji. Determinate plants; fruits flattish with ridges.
Suited for long distance transport.
It is a hybrid derivative of a cross between Pusa
Ruby and CO.3 (Marutham).A hybrid derivative

 

COTH1

110-120

90.2

TNAU
Tomato
Hybrid
CO3
CO 1

145-150

96.2

100

24.0

MDU1

135

34.0

PKM1

150

34.0

CO 2

150

35.0

KKM1

130 - 135

37.0

COBH 1

120-130

56.0

PPI 1

 

95.9

COTH 2

Brinjal

110 - 115

185

45.0

suitable for irrigated and rainfed conditions of
Dharmapuri district. Fruits are round, smooth fleshy
and suitable for long distance transport.
F1 hybrid developed by crossing IHR 709 x LE 812.
Plants are semi determinate. Fruits are medium
sized, bright red, smooth, round to slightly oblong and
born in clusters of 4 - 5.
F1 hybrid developed by crossing LCR2 x CLN 2123A.
Semi determinate. Fruits are smooth, round to slightly
oblong, medium sized. Resistant to leaf curl virus.
F1 hybrid developed by crossing HN2xCLN 2123A
semi determinate. Fruits are medium sized, smooth
round borne in clusters of 3-5. Resistant to leaf curl
virus and moderately resistant to root knot nematode.
It is a pureline selection. Fruits light green with white base and oblong. Medium sized fruits (50-60g); good keeping quality.
A selection from Kallampati local type near Madurai.
Fruits round, bright purple and weight 280 g.
It is an induced mutant of a local type called
'Puzhuthi kathiri'. Fruits are medium sized, 45 - 65g;
drought tolerant and can withstand long distance
transport.
It is a pureline selection from the local variety
'Varikkathiri' of Negamum, Coimbatore district.Fruits
are oblong with brown stripes. Suitable for Periyar and
Coimbatore districts.
KKM1 is a pure line selection from Kulathur local
near Tirunelveli. Fruits egg shaped, milkywhite ,
borne in clusters of 2 - 4.
It is a F1 hybrid between EP 45 x CO.2 released
from HCRI, Coimbatore. Fruits are slightly oblong,
glossy violet.
PPI 1 is a single line selection (PPI (B) 1) from
Karungal local type Vazhuthunangai. Fruits are
oblong, pale green and moderately resistant to shoot
and fruit borer and wilt

 
COBH 2

58-60

PLR (BR)
2

145

38.0

TNAU
Brinjal
VRM 1
CO 1

140-150

40-45

90

14.0

CO 2

90

16.51

CO 3

90

16 - 18

120

22.1

CO 1

210

2.1

CO 2

210

2.2

K1

210

1.8

K2

Bhendi

120-130

210

1.98

COBhH 1
Chilli

 

F1 hybrid developed by crossing EP65xPusa Uttam.
Fruits are medium sized, oblong in shape, dark violet,
weighing 55 to 60g.
Single plant selection from Sevanthampatti local.
Fruits are oval in shape, dark purple with pink tinge
and glossy
Pureline selection. Fruits are oval in shape, glossy
pink with green tinge at the distal end.
CO 1 is a pureline selection from the 'Red Wonder'
introduced from Hyderabad. Plants medium tall; pods
pink, long tender and less fibrous; tolerant to yellow
vein mosaic.
It is a F1 hybrid between A.E. 180 and Pusa
Sawani. Fruits fairly long with hairy surface.
It is high yielding F1 hybrid between Parbhani Kranti
x MDU.1 (Hy.8). Fruits medium sized and dark green
. Moderately resistant to yellow vein mosaic disease.
F1 hybrid developed by crossing Varsha Uphar x PA
4(T) Dark green long fruits, slender, less fibrous and
sparsely pubescent. Resistant to YVMV disease.
It is a reselection from Sattur Samba [CA (p) 247].
Fruits long and red at ripening; seed content 55%;
samba type.
CO 2 is a selection from Nambiyur local 'Gundu'
type of Erode district of Tamil Nadu [CA (p) 63].
Fruits oblong and bright red on ripening; seed content
60%, gundu type
K1 is a pure line selection from local Sattur Samba
developed at Agricultural Research Station,
Kovilpatti. Plants bushy; pods green; long samba
type; dark red on ripening.
A hybrid derivative of the cross between B.70 A
(Assam type) x Sattur Samba. Plants tall, compact,
pods long and bright red on ripening; samba type;
high seed content.

 
PMK.1

Dry pod yield 3.08

215

1.8

CO 3

165

3 - 3.5

PLR1

210

CO 4

165

2.3 (green chilli)

TNAU
Chilli
Hybrid
Co1
CO 1

180 days

28.1 (green chilli)
6.74 (dry chilli)

175

30.0

CO 2

 

180

MDU.1

Snake

2.36

PKM 1

Pumpkin

200

135

23.0

CO 1

135

16.0

18.4 (green chilli)

It is a hybrid derivative of a cross CO.2 x
Ramanathapuram gundu (Local) and released from
the Agricultural Research Station, Paramakudi.
Suitable for semi-dry condition. Fruits contain high
capsaicin0.36%, gundu type.
This is a hybrid derivative of the cross between AC.
No. 1797 x CO.1 selected in F4 generation and
fixed by selfing and released from the Horticultural
College and Research Institute, Periyakulam. It is
suitable for cultivation under irrigated conditions. Bold
pods, which are dark red in color. The number of pods
per plant is 204 with 85 seeds per fruit.
It is an induced mutant from K.1 chillies by using
30 KR of gamma rays. Determinte growth. Fruits
borne in clusters of 4 - 9. Fruits are long, dark red
and shiny.
CO 3 is a selection from an open pollinated type
introduced from Sri Lanka (CA, 856). Fruits long,
slender and dark green. Suitable for export.
Pureline selection [CA (Q) 8] from Kanchengadu
local. Suitable for green chilli.
It is a pureline selection made from an open pollinated
type introduced from Sri Lanka released from the
Horticultural
College
and
Research
Institute,
Coimbatore. Vegetable chilli, fruits are dark green,
less pungent and suitable for high density planting
F1 hybrid developed by crossing Selection 1 x CA97.
Fruits are long, smooth and dark green. It possesses
0.58% capsaicin. Suitable for green and dry chilli.
Moderately resistant to fruit rot.
It is a selection from local type. Fruits are globular,
large sized (8 - 10 kg); light pink skin and yellow flesh..
CO 2 is a selection from a local type. Fruits small (1.5
kg), flattish round, light brown skin and yellow flesh.
It is a pureline selection from one of the types

 
gourd

PKM1

143

32.0

CO 2

105

36.0

PLR
(SG)1

135

35.0

PLR (SG)
2
CO 1

130

35.0

125

14.0

CO 2

120

25.0

PKM.1

160

28.0

CO 1

135

36.0

TNAU

Bottle gourd

26.0

MDU1

Ribbed
gourd

145

100 – 110

79.03

collected from Alangulam, Tirunelveli district. Fruits
long (160 - 180 cm) green with white stripes, each
weighs 500 -750 g, smooth flesh of less fibre;
moderately resistant to powdery mildew.
PKM1 is an induced mutant from H.375. Fruits dark
green with white stripes; each weighs 700 g; suitable
for growing all through the year.
Hybrid between Panri pudal x Selection 1. Vineless spreading with moderate branching; flowers in 56 days; fruits are short (40 cm) and weighs 550 g.
CO 2 is a pureline selection from a local type of
Coimbatore district. Fruits are short and stout
weighing 400 to 600 g, light green to white. Does
not require pandal.
It is a pure line selection from white long type. Fruits
are white, long, excellent cooking quality, less fibre
and do not twist due to maturity.
Selection. Fruits are plumpy, fleshy and white, less
fibre.
CO 1 is a selection from the type collected from
Aduthurai. Fruits long (60 - 75 cm) light green and
weighs 300 g each.
It is a selection from a germplasm type. Fruits are
very long (1 m) green and fleshy.
PKM.1 is an induced mutant from the type H.160.
Fruits long, dark green with shallow grooves.
A selection from a germplasm type. Fruits
round at the base and bottleneck at the top, light
green, each weighs 2 kg.
F1 hybrid developed by crossing NDBG 121 x Arka

Bottle

Bahar. Fruits are cylindrical, without crook neck,

gourd

medium sized (0.95-1.00 kg) and suitable for nuclear

Hybrid CO
 

family. Suitable for bower system of cultivation.

 
1
115

14.0

140

32.0

COBgoH
1

120

44.0

CO 1

150

25.0

CO2

120

20.0

TNAU Ash

Ash gourd

CO 1

MDU.1

Bitter gourd

130 – 135

91.82

gourd

CO 1 is a selection from a local type collected from
Thudiyalur (Long Green). Fruits green, 30 - 35 cm
long, 100 - 200 g each.
It is an induced mutant developed by gamma
irradiation to local cultivar (MC 103). Fruits green
and each weighs 410 g.
COBgoH 1 is a F1 hybrid developed by a crossing
MC.84 x MDU.1. Fruits creamy white and weigh 300g
each.
It is a selection from a local type from Tamil Nadu.
Fruits globular, green, large, oblong - oval in shape,
ash coated, weighing 6 – 8 kg.
CO2 is a selection from Coimbatore local. Small
fruited, weighing 2-3 kg. Fruits are oblong or
cylindrical and compressed on both sides
F1 hybrid between PAG 3 x CO 2. Fruits are oblong
and medium sized and suitable for small family.

Hybrid CO
1
Coccinia

TNAU

Perennial

83.09 (per/year)

green with white stripes, less seeded and sweet (4.5o

Coccinia

Brix). Suitable for culinary purpose.

CO1 1
Cucumber

CO 1

100

25 - 28

Watermelon

PKM.1

120

37.0

Butter
Beans
 

Clonal selection from Anaikatti type. Fruits are long,

KKL.1

140

3.47

CO 1 is a selection from a local type of Kanyakumari
District. Ripe fruits are bright yellow with greenish
yellow intermitant stripes.
A selection from a local type. Suitable for arid, semiarid, irrigated conditions; pulp pink in colour; high TSS (9.2° Brix).
KKL 1 Butter beans are a selection from a type
collected from Vilpatti. White seed; good cooking

 

TKD.1

90

5.6 green pods 2.78
dry seeds

YCD.1

105

9.7 green pods
6.3 dry seeds

Ooty 1

90

12.1

Pole type
Ooty 1

80

33.7

Dolichos
Bean

CO 1

210

18 green pods

Moringa
Beans

KKL 1

140 - 160

7 green pods

Vegetable
cowpea

TNAU
Vegetable
Cowpea
PKM -1

125 -130

25 green pods

Annual
Moringa

PKM.1

2.5 years

52.8

PKM 2

2.5 years

96.0

CO 1

45

22.0

French
Bean

Peas

Radish
 

quality, suitable for hilly regions
(1200 - 2000 m)
Pole type selected from germplasm population at
Horticultural Research Station, Thadiyankudisai.
Pods are less fibrous. Seeds turn white on maturity.
A pure line selection from a local indigenous type
collected from Shevroy hill ranges of Tamil Nadu.
Plants are semi dwarf and bushy. Pods are slightly
flat, long, broad and robust.
It is a pureline selection (PS-33-1). Plants dwarf.
Pods long and dark green.
Pure line selection. Plants grow to 2m tall. Pods
are fleshy and stringless.
CO 1 is a pureline selection (Dolichos lablab
var.typicus) from a type collected under All India
Co-ordianted Vegetable Improvement ProjectPods
are dark green, flattish and slightly curled, tender and
fleshy.
A pureline selection from local type collected from
Pallangi village of Kodaikanal taluk. Pods are fleshy
and thick skinned.
Pureline selection, Semi trailing with very long pod
(40-45cm) green pod yield 25 t/ha.

Pure line selection from Eppodumvendran of
Tirunelveli district. Pods are 70 cm long weighs
about 150 g.
PKM 2 is a hybrid derivative developed by cross
between MP31 (Eppodumvendran local) x MP28
(Arasaradi local) at Horticultural College and
Research Institute, Periyakulam.Pods are 120 cm,
long weighs about 370 g.
Selection from germplasm type (RS 44). Roots milky

 

Beetroot

Ooty.1

Garlic

Ooty.1

120 130(direc
t sown)
135 -150
(transplan
ted)
120 - 130

Palak
Cauliflower

Ooty.1
Ooty.1

2 years
110 - 120

15 (leaves)
46.4

Sweet
potato

CO 1

135

28.0

CO 2

115

32.0

CO 3

110

42.0

CO CIP-1

95 - 100

32.0

CO 1

270

30.0

Tapioca

 

31.45

17.1

white, less fibrous; suitable for growing throughout the
year; set seed in plains.
Ooty.1 is a selection from the local type. Roots are blood
red colour with thin skin and good quality.

Clonal selection from the germplasm assembled at
Horticultural Research Station, Ooty.Bigger bulbs
weighing 30 - 40 g each.
Higher carotene content. Rich in vitamins.
It is a selection from OP progenies of local types
and released from Horticultural Research
Station, Ooty. Compact uniform curds with attractive
creamy white colour. Curd is free from ricyness and
have good keeping quality.
CO 1 is a clonal selection (IB 3) from a type
collected from Tiruchirapalli district. Tolerant to root
weevil; tubers with light pink skin and white flesh;
starch content 24%
Clonal selection (IB 81) of seedling progeny obtained
from open pollinated seeds of a type (IB 37) in
germplasm bank. Tubers with light pink skin and white
flesh; starch content 30%; tolerant to root weevil.
Seedling clone (IB 2837) obtained from the seeds of
random mating population of IB 758. Tolerant to root
weevil; tubers - light pink skin and orange flesh; high
carotene content.
It is a clonal progeny of IB 90-10-20. Short duration,
resistant to root weevil, high market value.
CO 1 is a clonal selection from a local type (ME 7)
collected from Triuchirapalli district. Tuber with
whitish brown skin and white flesh; starch content

 

CO 2

36.0

CO (TP) 4

240

50.0

CO 3

240

43.0

TNAU
CTCRI Co
(Tp)5

275-300

38.0

Dioscorea
Coleus

CO 1
CO 1

240 - 255
180 - 190

44.8
31.93

Onion

CO 2

65

12.0

CO 3

65

16.0

CO 4

65

19.0

CO(On)
5(Seed
propagat
 

240-270

90

Seed yield 300 kg/ha
Bulb yield 18.9

35%; field tolerance to mosaic virus; suitable for
consumption and industries.
Clonal selection (ME 167). Branching type, flowers
easily. Tubers with whitish grey and skin and creamy
white flesh; starch 34.5%; moderately tolerant to
mosaic virus; suitable for consumption and industries.
Shorter crop duration, erect with branching habit,
high starch (40%) and suitable for irrigated and
rainfed cultivation
Clonal selection (ME 120-1) from seedling progenies
of open pollinated seeds obtained from IITA, Ibadan,
Nigeria. Shorter crop duration, branching type; high
starch - 36% suitable for irrigated and rainfed
cultivation..
An exotic germplasm introduced from CIAT, Cali,
Colombia (MNga-1). Exotic germplasm introduced
from CIAT, Colombia. Tubers are long cylindrical,
white flesh. It contains 28% starch. Resistant to
cassava mosaic disease.
Tubers are bigger with white flesh.
CO 1 is a clonal selection from local type introduced
from Tenkasi. Tubers have 21.5% starch.
CO 2 is a selection from a germplasm type C.S.
911. Bulbs bigger (10 - 15 g) and crimson in colour;
photo-insensitive type.
Clonal selection from open pollinated progenies of
C.S. 450. Bulbs light pink, bold (10-15 g) bulbs store
well for 120 days.
Hybrid derivative of the cross AC863 x CO.3. Bulbs
light pink, bold (12-15 g) with better consumers'
appeal; bulbs store well for 150 days.
High yielding variety developed by mass pedigree
method of selection. Bulbs redish pink, bold, 80-90
g/cluster

 

20-25

7.0

CO 3

90

31.0

CO 4

90

2.5 t grains

CO 5

Amaranthus

ed)
CO 1

120

10 Mulaikeerai 30
Thandukeerai

C. Spices and Condiments
CO 2
90-100
Coriander

400-500 and 600800 kg of grains/ha
under dry and irrigated
conditions respectively.

It is a dual purpose variety suitable for saline, alkaline
and drought prone areas.

Dual purpose, suitable for irrigated and rainfed
condition & field tolerant to powdery mildew, wilt &
grain mould.

CO 3

85 - 95

650 kg grains/ha

Tamarind

PKM.1

Perennial

263.3 kg/tree

Turmeric

BSR.2

240 - 250

Fennel

 

It is a selection from a type collected from
Tirunelveli (Amaranthus dubius Mart exThell.).
Can be grown throughout the year (25 days Mulaikeerai) (50 - 60 days for Thandukeerai) It is a selection from the local type. Plants dwarf;
clipping type.
CO 4 is a green cum grain type from A.
hypochondriacus L. A grain amaranthus type, seeds
are rich in protein (19.55 %) and aminoacid like
lysine (7.5 mg per 100 g) can be substituted for minor
millet like Ragi and Thenai
CO 5 is a single plant selection from germplasm (A
166-1). Single plant selection from A-166-1. Double
coloured type with dual purpose.
Suitable for
container cultivation.

CO 1

210 –
220200-215

Bear fruits in clusters of 3 - 7 and the fruits are
characteristically semicircular in shape. 39%
pulp recovery.
32. 7 t fresh rhizome/ha Medium statured. Resistant to scale insects.

566 kg/ha grain

Suited for growing in plains as well as in lower hill
slopes under irrigated and rainfed conditions. It can
be grown as border crop with other long duration
crops, and as intercrop in young plantation of

 
80 - 90

600 kg of grains/ha

Dual purpose, early maturing, tolerant to root rot
disease.

85 - 95

480 kg bf grains/ha

Suitable for kharif & Rabi season, short duration, dual
purpose, field tolerant to root rot disease.

YCD.1

Perennial

3800 kg dried leaves
per ha359.75 kg quills
per ha

Quills of sweet and light pungent.

VRI.1

Perennial

7 kg nuts/tree/year

VRI.2

Cinnamon

CO 1
CO 2

Fenugreek

Perennial

8 kg nuts/tree/year

A high yielder bearing good quality nuts suitable for
t
A seedling selection, bearing high jaggery percentage

D. Plantation Crops
Cashew

VRI.3

Perennial

Palmyrah

SVPR.1 Perennial

Betelvine

SGM(BV 2-2.5 years
)-2

Coriander

CO(CR) 65-70
-4
250-260

Turmeric

CO -2

Cinnamon

Cashew

 

PPI (ci) - Perennial
1
VRI-4

Perennial

14.19 kg
nuts/tree/year
298 lit padaneer per
palm/year 140
fruits/palm/year
49 lakh leaves/ha

600 kg/ha of grains

of perfect flowers, with medium sized nuts and high
shelling percentage (28%). Variability in seedling
i
i i
Larger inuts. Shelling - 29.1 %
It is semi dwarf, high jaggery content of 144 g/lit, high
recovery of
13.16%, high brix value 13.3°C
Vines are straight with more branches, leaves are dark
green in colour. Resistant to nematode and scales.
They have mild pungency with good checking quality.
Early maturing, suitable for both rainfed & irrigation
condition, field tolerant to wilt & grain mould

42 tonns fresh rhizome High curcumin content (4.02%), highly resistant to /ha
rhizome rot, field tolerant to thrips, shoot borer, leaf
folder & scale insects
248.42 kg of quills & Tolerant to drought, suitable for coppicing with an 731.58 kg of chips/ha interval of 18-24 months, adopted at lower elevation 18.10 kg nuts/tree/year Medium size nuts, shelling -285% suitable for low rainfall tracts.

 
Betelvine

SGM-1 2-2.5 years

65 lakh leaves / ha

Vines are dwarf vigorous, bushy in growth.

Leaves

posses attractive yellowish green colour with desirable
pungency. Moderately resistant to wilt.
SGM-2 2-2.5 years

49 lakh leaves/ha

Vines are straight with more branches, leaves are dark
green in colour.

Resistant to nematode and scales.

They have mild pungency.
E. Commercial Flowers
Hybrid Rose

YCD 1
1985

Perennial

100-120
flowers/bush/year

-

YCD 2 Perennial
1991

Parimull Perennial
Mullai
(J. auriculatum) ai
1972

CO 1
Mullai
1980

 

Perennial

-

8 t/ha

-

10 t/ha

-

11.1 t/ha

-

Unopened flower bud is bright yellow with a
scarlet red tinge at the tip and the fully opened
flower is in pleasing scarlet colour
A selection from a medium point type
Resistant to gall mite
Medium long corolla tube
Buds are white with moderate corolla tube
length (1.25 cm) The concrete recovery is 0.29
t
It is a secondary clonal selection from a local type
It has bold flower buds with long corolla tube (1.50
cm) than Parimullai.
It enables easy tying in garland making
Suitable for fresh flower marketing
Concrete recovery is 0.34 per cent
It is a clonal selection with long corolla tube (1.70
cm) and
longer bud
193

CO 2
Mullai
1988

Perennial

150 – 200
Nos/bush/year

Suitable for hilly regions of above 1500 m elevation
It is a free bloomer, good for bedding and
decorative purposes
Flowers medium sized (7-8 cm diameter)
Mostly bears in clusters
The colour of the flowers is pleasing yellow
Yi ld 100 1000 - 2000/ ml elevation
t/
Suitable for 120 fl

 
CO 1
Pitchi
J. grandiflorum (Pitchi)
1980
CO 2
(Pitchi)
1991

Perennial

11 t/ha

Perennial

11.68 t/ha

Chrysanthemum CO 1
1985

180-220

16.7 t/ha

190

20 t/ha

CO 2
1989

-

It is a secondary clonal selection with long corolla
tube
- Flower buds have pink tinch
- It is an induced mutant (IM 3) developed by treating
the vegetative cuttings of CO 1 Pitchi with gamma
ray @ 1.5 kR
- The flower bud is 4.41 cm in length and the variety
is amenable for earlier and quicker tying of buds in
garland making
- It is a selection made from Hosur
- Flowers are medium sized (2.5 g) and attractive
canary
yellow in colour
- The flowers have thick, sturdy stalks, which are all
an added
t
f
t i
th
ki
- d It is a clonal selection iand the flowersf are l d
rhodamine purple in colour

MDU 1 180-200
1985
Marigold

30.6 t/ha

-

It is a selection and an early flowering type
The flowers are large and attractive sulphur
yellow in colour with a diameter of 3.90 cm.

MDU 1
1986

41.54 t/ha

-

It is a selection and the plants are medium tall
with moderate branching habit
The flowers are large with a stalk length of 8.39
cm with the light orange colour petals

-

 

 
Gerbera

YCD1
1992

Perennial

60 flowers/plant/year

-

YCD 2 Perennial
1995
Hibiscus

80 flowers/plant/year

-

Perennial
CO 1
Thilaga
m
CO 2
Perennial
(Punna
gai)
CO 3
Perennial

3000 flowers/bush/year

-

1000 flowers/bush/year

-

1300
flowers/bush/year

Gladiolus

KKL1

Perennial

21.1 t/ha

Barlaria

CO 1

Perennial

9.4 t/ha

-

It is a clonal selection and the flowers
are double in form with cherry red colour
Free from the disorders like bent neck, petal
necrosis (during vase life) and temporary wilting
in field are absent
Plants flower earlier (within 45 days
after planting) and produce about 60
flowers per plant per year
Flowers have a retentivity of 8 days on
the plant with a vase life of 7 days
It is a cut flower variety and rosy pink in
colour and the flowers have a vase life of 15
days in hills and 10 days in plains
It is an inter-generic hybrid between Hibiscus
rosasinensis and Malvaviscus arboreus
It is a woody perennial shrub with an erect
It was evolved by selection from the open
pollinated seedlings of ‘Chandrika’ variety
The plants are semi spreading, growing upto
It is a clonal hybrid between Bright Yellow
and Red Gold cultivars
It is floriferous and Apricot yellow in colour
It is an improved selection from the cv.
American Beauty
Mean spike length is 89.4 cm and the average
It is a clonal selection from the local type
It produces flowers early

Medicinal & Aromatic Crops
Geranium

KKL-1

6 years

45.8t herbage /ha/year

Vigorously growing plant with palmately lobed and
yellowish dark green leaves. Oil yield 54.4 kg/ha/year.

Rosemary

Ooty-1

12 years

12.4 t leaves per ha/year High rosemary oil content 0.9 %. Suitable for dry farmimg in high and middle elevation.Resistant to leaf

 

 

Senna

Ooty-1
KKM-1

7-8 years
5-6 months

10.7 t/ha green leaves

High thymoil content 0.7 %. Suitable for dry farmimg in

/year

Thyme

high and middle elevation.Resistant to leaf blight

918 kg green leaves/ha Selection from Thenkalam local (Thirunelveli), recording 352 kg pod/ha

 

 

38.5 per cent higher leaf yield and 69.88 per cent higher

 
 

 

 

Part VIII
Drip irrigation
for fruit crops
Drip irrigation offers scope for enormous savings in water usage and it is the most useful system to boost horticultural production in areas with limited water resources. Research work carried out at TNAU indicates the saving in irrigation water ranges from nearly 40 to 68 per cent with an additional yield benefit of 14-98 per cent over the conventional irrigation methods. Drip irrigation can be thought of in rainfed areas with meager water resources available during the periods other than the rainy seasons. Most of the fruit crops require drip irrigation during the period of flowering to fruit development in order to increase the fruit set and improve the fruit size reflecting on final yield. However, the drip irrigation has to be dispensed 10 – 15 days before the expected harvesting period in order to improve the sweetness of the fruits. Daily water requirement of various fruit crops are given below:

Crops

Water requirement (lit/day/plant)

Mango

30-50

Banana

20-25

Citrus

22-30

Guava

22-30

Sapota

20-30

Amla

15-25

Grapes

15-25

Papaya

15-25

For the young tree which are in their pre bearing stage, 1/3rd of the recommended dose of water may be given and slowly increased to reach the above level during full bearing.

 

 

Part IX
Organic Cultural Practices
1.FRUIT CROPS
Organic farming is a method of farming which avoids or largely excludes the use of harmful chemicals such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides and use of natural resources such as organic matter, minerals and microbes to maintain the environment clean, ecological balance and to provide stability to the production level without polluting soil, water and air. Organic farming system relies on large-scale application of animal wastes or farm yard manure, compost, crop rotation, crop residues, green manure, vermicompost, bio-fertilisers, VAM, bio-pesticides and biological control. The primary requirement for organic manuring sources are presented below:

1.Farm yard manure
S.No.

Crop

First year (kg/tree)

Annual increase
(kg/tree)

6th year onwards (kg/tree)

1.

Mango

10.00

10.00

50.00

2.

Sapota

10.00

10.00

50.00

3.

Citrus

10.00

5.00

30.00

4.

Guava

10.00

5.00

30.00

5.

Grapes

50.00

50.00

100.00 3rd year onwards

6.

Papaya

10.00

5.00

30.00

Besides FYM the following quantity of organic manures may be recommended (kg/tree) Neem cake

0.5

0.5

3.5

Compost

0.5

0.5

3.5

Green leaf manure

0.5

0.5

3.5

Bio fertilizers
S.No.

 

Particulars

First
year(kg/tree)

Annual increase
(kg/tree)

6th year onwards
(kg/tree)

 
1.

0.200

0.200

1.0

2.

Azospirillum

0.05

0.025

0.2

3.

 

VAM

Phosphobacteria

0.05

0.025

0.2

 

II VEGETABLES
Seed treatment
Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g/kg of seeds. Seed treatment with Azospirillum @ 200 g/kg of seeds. Nursery
Apply 10 kg of FYM, neem cake 50 g, Azospirillum 5g, Phosphobacteria 5g and VAM 60g/m2. Main field
Seedling dip with Azospirillum (400 g)
Apply Azospirillum @ 2kg, Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg and VAM @ 4 kg/ha FYM 25 t/ha; composted coirpith 10 t/ha.
Vermi compost @ 2 tonnes, and neem cake 500 kg/ha
Application of Panchakavya @ 3% through irrigation water (Number of application and interval based on duration of crop)
Foliar spray
Panchakavya @ 3% number of sprays depends on the duration of the crop. Moringa leaf extract @ 10% and the number of spray depends on the duration of the crop.

 

 

Part X
Protected Cultivation in
Vegetables (for
Information)
I. Tomato
Greenhouse structure: Low cost polyhouse with natural ventilation Hybrids: SH 7711
Nursery: Protrays Soil: Compost:Cocopeat (1:1:1) + Azospirillum (50 g/sq.m) + Phosphobacteria (50 g/sq.m) + VAM (200 g/sq. met.).
Growing medium: Soil:Compost :Cocopeat (2:1:1)
Irrigation regime: 20 KPa (Kilo Pascals)
Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)
a) Basal 50 Kg/ha K (MOP) + Azospirillum (10 g/m2) + Phosphobacteria (10 g/m2) + VAM (50 g/m2).
b) Fertigation @ 250:250:250 Kg NPK /ha with water-soluble fertilizers. Mulching: Black polyethylene mulch 50-micron (200 gauges) thickness. Training: The plants have to be trained to 2 stems using rope or string. Duration: 180 days including nursery period of 25 days.

Yield: 140-150 t/ha.
II. CAPSICUM (BELL PEPPER / SWEET PEPPER)
Greenhouse structure: Low cost polyhouse with natural ventilation Hybrids: Indra
Nursery: Protrays, Soil:Compost:Cocopeat (1:1:1)
 

 
Growing medium: Soil:Compost:Cocopeat (2:1:1)
Irrigation regime: 20 KPa (Kilo Pascals)

 

 

Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)
a). Basal 50 Kg/ha NPK with straight fertilizers
b). Fertigation @ 150:150:150 Kg/ha NPK with water soluble fertilizers. Mulching: Black polyethylene mulch 50 micron (200 gauge) thickness. Training: The plants have to be trained to 4 stems using rope or string. Duration: 180 days including nursery period of 35-40 days. Yield: 120-130 t/ha.

 

 

 

Part XI
Seed Production Technology of
Horticultural Crops
 

TOMATO
Season : November – March; June – July
Seed rate: 300 g/ha.
Pre-sowing seed treatment
 Seed fortification with 1000 ppm gelatin or 2 % KNO3 or 200 ppm salicylic acid (soaking in double the volume for 12 h) followed by coating with carbendazim (2 g / kg) + imidachloprid (6 g / kg) + polymer (20 g / kg of seed in 40 ml of water). (or)

 Coating with white red polykote (6 g / kg of seed) + Pseudomonas fluorescens (10 g/ kg), Trichoderma viride (4 g / kg) + DAP (4 g / kg) + MN mixture (20 g / kg). (or)
 Soak the seeds in 50 per cent coconut water for 12 h.
Nursery treatment:
For controlling the nematodes, the nursery should be drenched with Metham sodium @ 28 ml/sq.m. (VEPAM) 15 days before sowing, and with Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/lit after 7 days to prevent damping off.

Age of seedling:
25 - 30 days.
Spacing:
CO 1
PKM 1
CO 2
Pusa Ruby
CO 3

: 60 x 60 cm
: 75 x 60 cm
: 80 x 75 cm
: 80 x 70 cm
: 60 x 30 cm

Fertilizers:
Basal: FYM - 25 t/ha, 75: 100: 100 NPK kg/ha
Top dressing: At the time of flowering with 75 kg N.
Foliar application:
NAA @ 20 ppm at 65 and 75 days after transplanting.
 

 

 

 

Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity 30 – 35 days after flowering. Fully matured, red, ripened and healthy fruits alone should be harvested. First 7 - 8 pickings should be used for seed extraction.

Seed extraction:
Well-matured fruits are crushed and made into pulp. For every 1 kg of pulp 25 - 30 ml of commercial HCl acid should be added and left for 30 min. with constant stirring. At the end of 30 min. the seeds are washed for 3 - 4 times with water and shade dried for one day followed by mild sun drying to reduce the moisture content to 7 - 8% Grading:

Seeds are graded with BSS : 12 x 12 wire mesh (2.1 mm) sieve. Seed yield:
150 kg/ha
Storage:
Seeds dried to 7 - 8 % moisture are treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g / kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + Arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed or with white polykote @ 6 g + carbendazim 2 g + Dimethoate 5 ml / kg of seeds using 5 ml water. The treated seeds can be stored upto 12 months in aluminium foil pouches.

BRINJAL
Season:
June - July.
Seed rate:
450 g/ha.
Nursery preparation:
For controlling the nematodes, the nursery should be drenched with Metham sodium @ 28ml/sq.m.(VEPAM) 15 days before sowing and drenched with Fytolan @ 2.5 g/lit of water 7 days after sowing against damping off disease. Age of seedling :

30 - 35 days.
Fertilizers
Basal: FYM: 25 t/ha ; 50 : 75 : 75 kg NPK/ha
Top dressing: 50 kg N/ha just before flowering.

 

 

Spacing:
75 x 60 cm.
Foliar application:
At 65 and 75 days after transplanting , NAA @ 20 ppm is sprayed against flower drop.
Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity 40 - 45 days after flowering. The symptom of harvestable maturity is turning of the skin colour of the fruit from green to bright yellow. Medium size fruits yield more quantity and quality seeds than big or small fruits. Fruits harvested in the first five pickings alone can be used for seed purpose. Seed extraction:

The well-ripened fruits are cut into 4 – 6 pieces and softened by soaking in water overnight. During seed extraction the floaters are removed.
Grading:
Seeds are graded with 5/64" round perforated metal sieve or BSS 12 x 12 wire mesh sieve (2.1 mm).
Seed Yield:
250 kg/ha
Storage:
Seeds treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed can be stored upto 1 year in cloth bag and upto 2 years in moisture vapour proof containers.

BHENDI
Season:
March, April and May.
Seed rate:
8 - 10 kg/ha.
Pre-sowing seed treatment
Sand matrix priming at 60 % water holding capacity for 3 h.
Spacing:
60 x 20 cm.
Fertilizers:
 

 

Basal: FYM : 25 t/ha; 40 : 50 : 30 Kg NPK kg / ha
Top dressing: 20 kg N / ha.
i) 10 kg N/ha at first flowering
ii) 10 kg N/ha 10 days after flowering.
Water Management
Drip fertigation with recommended P (50 kg/ha) as basal application, N and K as drip fertigation.
Foliar application:
Commencing with first flowering DAP 0.5 % is sprayed thrice at 10 days interval to enhance the yield of good quality seeds.
Harvest:
Seed attains physiological maturation 28 - 30 days after anthesis. The pods are harvested as picking when they dry and turn brown and develop hairline cracks along the ridges.
In bhendi, first formed two pickings can be used for vegetable purpose and the next 6 pickings can be used for seed purpose.
Seed extraction:
Harvested pods are dried in the sun for 2 - 3 days and seeds are extracted either using machine thresher or manually by beating with pliable bamboo stick. Grading:
Seeds are graded with 10/64" round perforated metal sieve or BSS 6 x 6 wire mesh sieve (4.2 mm).
Upgrading :
Empty seeds and are removed by water floatation technique, where sinkers are selected as good seeds and are dried well to lower moisture level of 8 per cent. Seed Yield:
700 kg/ha
Pre-storage seed treatment:
Seeds dried to 8 % moisture content are treated with carbendazim 50 %WP @ 2 g /kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed.
Seed storage:
Seed treatment with carbendazim @ 2g/kg + imidachloprid @ 1 ml / kg. Treated seeds can be stored upto 15 months in cloth bag and 24 months in moisture vapour proof containers.

CHILLIES
 

 

Season:
June – July ; November – December
Seed rate:
1 kg/ha.

 

 

Pre-sowing seed treatment
 Seed fortification with 1000 ppm gelatin or 2 % KNO3 or 200 ppm salicylic acid (soaking in equal the volume for 12 h) followed by coating with carbendazim (2 g / kg) + imidachloprid (6 g / kg) + polymer (20 g / kg) of seed in 40 ml of water.

Nursery treatment:
For controlling the nematodes, the nursery should be drenched with Metham sodium @ 28 ml/sq.m.(VEPAM) 15 days before sowing and drenched with copper oxychloride @2.5 g/lit after 7 days, to prevent damping off. Age of seedling:

35 – 40 days.
Spacing:
60 x 30 cm.
Fertilizer
Basal: FYM: 25 t/ha, 70:70 kg PK/ha.
Top dressing : 50 kg N 15 days after transplanting, 50 kg N 45 days after transplanting and 40 kg N 90 days after transplanting.
Foliar application:
At 65 and 75 days after transplanting NAA @ 20 ppm is sprayed to prevent flower drop.
Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity 40 - 45 days after flowering. The fruits are harvested when they turn to capsicum red in colour. Fruits obtained from first 5 to 6 pickings alone are used for seed extraction.

Seed extraction:
Dried fruits are filled in gunny or cloth bag and threshed with a pliable bamboo stick or chilli seed extractor may be used for seed extraction. Grading:
Seeds are graded with BSS 8 x 8 wire mesh sieve or 8/64” round perforated metal sieve (3.1 mm).
Seed yield:
350 – 400 kg/ha

Storage:
 Seeds dried to 7 - 8 % moisture content and treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g / kg seed or Halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g / kg seed can be stored upto10 months in cloth bag and upto 18 months in moisture vapour proof containers.

 

 

 Intact pods can also be stored upto 20 months.

 

 

PUMPKIN
Season:
June - July and January – February.
Seed rate:
1 kg/ha.
Spacing:
Pit size : 45 x 45 cm at a distance of 2.5 x 2.0 m.
Fertilizer:
FYM :10 kg/ pit. NPK mixture (6:12:12) is applied @ 100 g per pit as basal and 30 days after sowing, nitrogen is applied @ 10 g N/pit as top dressing. Foliar application:
Spraying maleic hydrazide @ 400 ppm at 2 leaf stage and 5 leaf stage or ethrel @ 250 ppm for four times at weekly interval commencing from 15th day after sowing enhances the female flower production.

Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity 16 weeks after flowering. The fruits are harvested when surface turned waxy and shiny. At full maturity, the fruit colour changes to yellow or orange yellow accompanying with drying of fruit stalk. Seed extraction:

Fruits weighing less than 1.5 kg should not be used for seed extraction. Fruits are cut and seeds with pulp are scooped out and seeds are separated by washing with water and dried.
Grading:
Seeds are graded with BSS 4 x 4 wire mesh sieve (6.2 mm) or 16/64" round perforated metal sieve.
Seed yield:
250-300 kg/ha
Storage:
Seeds dried to 7 - 8 % moisture content and treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g / kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg can be stored for 10 months in cloth bag and 18 months in moisture vapour proof container.

SNAKE GOURD
Season:
June - July and January - February.
Pre-sowing treatment:
 

 

The seeds are pre-germinated by incubating the seed for 4 days in between gunnies after soaking in double the volume of water for 4 h. Then, pre-sprouted seeds are separated and used for sowing.
Seed rate:
1.5 kg/ha.
Spacing:
Pits are dug to the size of 45 x 45 cm at a distance of 2.5 x 2.0 m Manuring
FYM 10 kg/ pit.
NPK mixture (6:12:12) @10g per pit is applied as basal and 10 g N/pit as top dressing on 30 days after sowing.
Foliar application:
Spraying maleic hydrazide @ 400 ppm or ethrel at 250 ppm at 2 leaf and 5 leaf stages enhances female flower production.
Harvest:
Fruits at initiation of yellow to orange colouration are harvested for seed extraction.
Seed extraction:
Fruits are cut and seeds with pulp are scooped out and seeds are separated by washing with water and are dried to 7- 8 % moisture content. Grading:
The immature seeds can be removed as water floaters during wet extraction. Seeds are graded with 16/64" round hole sieve or BSS 4 x 4 (6.2 mm) for homogenizing the lot.
Seed yield:
300-350 kg/ha
Storage:
Seeds dried to 7 - 8 % moisture content and dry dressed with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g / kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed and stored in cloth bag upto 10 months and more than 18 months in moisture vapour proof containers.

BITTER GOURD
Season:
June-July and January-February.
Seed rate:
 

 

2.5 kg/ha.
Pre-sowing treatment:
The seeds are pre-germinated by incubating the seed for 4 days in between gunnies after soaking in double the volume of water for 4 h. Then, pre-sprouted seeds are separated and used for sowing.
The seeds are hydroprimed for 24 h using seed to water ratio of 1:4 to enhance seedling emergence.
Foliar application:
Ethrel @ 250 ppm (i.e., 2.5 ml of ethrel in 10 liters of water) is sprayed for four times starting from 15 days after sowing and followed in weekly intervals, to increase the number of female flowers.

Spacing
Pit size: 45 x 45 x 45 cm at a distance of 2.5 x 2 metres
Fertilizer:
10 kg FYM and 13 g urea, 72 g super phosphate and 19 g potash / pit is recommended, where urea is applied as two split doses @ 22 g/pit at flowering stage (20 days after flowering) and another 18 g of urea along with 5 g potash/pit, at 40 days after flowering.

Harvest:
The fruits which turn yellowish orange are harvested in different pickings at 5 to 7 days interval. After harvest, the fruits can be stored for 1 or 2 days for over ripening, to facilitate easy seed extraction.

Seed extraction:
The fruits are split open longitudinally and the seeds are collected along with the pulp. The pulp is crushed with hands and washed with excess quantity of water to remove the pulp. The extracted seeds are dried to 6 - 7% moisture content. Grading:

Seeds are graded with BSS 4 x 4 wire mesh sieve.
Seed Yield:
250-300 kg/ha.
Storage:
Seeds dried to 6 - 7% moisture content and treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2g /kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed can be safely stored in 700 gauge polythene bag for one to two years.

 

 

BOTTLE GOURD
Season:
June - July and January - February.
Seed rate:
3 kg/ha.
Spacing:
Pit size : 45 x 45 cm at a distance of 2.5 x 2 m
Foliar application:
Spraying maleic hydrazide @ 400 ppm or ethrel at 250 ppm at 2 leaf stage and 5 leaf stage enhances the female flower production and seed yield. Harvest:
Fruits attain physiological maturity at 65 days after anthesis (the skin of the fruit become woody rough and turn dull in colour). Fruits weighing less than 50 g should be rejected as it contains higher percentage of immature seeds. Seed extraction:

Matured fruits are cut vertically and seeds are scooped and cleaned. Grading:
Seeds are graded with 16/64" round perforated metal sieves or BSS 4 x 4 wire mesh sieve (6.2 mm).
Seed yield:
250 kg/ha
Storage:
Seeds dried to 8 % moisture content and treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g / kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed can be stored upto 1 year in cloth bag and 2 years in moisture vapour proof containers.

ASH GOURD
Season:
June – July and January – February.
Seed rate:
2.5 kg/ha.
Pre-sowing seed treatment
Hydropriming for 24 h with seed to water ratio of 1:4.
Spacing:
Pit size of 45 x 45 cm at a distance of 2 x 1.5 m
 

 

Fertilizer:
FYM 10 kg/ pit is applied along with 100 g of NPK mixture (6:12:12) per pit as basal and 10 g N/pit as top dress on 30 days after sowing.
Foliar application:
Application of maleic hydrazide @ 400 ppm or ethrel at 250 ppm at 2 leaf stage and 5 leaf stage enhances female flower production.
Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity at 80 - 85 days after anthesis when fruit stalk becomes dry and ashy coat on the fruit surface is prominent. Under sized fruits should be rejected.

 

 

Seed yield:
250-300 kg/ha.
Fruit storage:
Matured fruits can also be stored over sand bed at ambient condition. Seed extraction:
Fresh fruits can be used for extraction. The fruits are cut into longitudinal bits and the scooped seeds are allowed for close fermentation in polythene bags for 72 h and repeatedly washed for 4-5 times with water. On fresh extraction immature seeds can be removed as floaters. The extracted seeds are dried under shade and followed by sun drying to reduce the moisture content to 7 %.

Grading:
Seeds are graded using 16/64" diameter round perforated metal sieves or BSS 4 x 4 wire mesh sieve (6.2 mm).
Seed storage:
Processed seeds weighing not less than 10 g/100 seeds at 10 % moisture content should be dried to 8 % moisture content and treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed for extended storage and packed in moisture vapour proof containers.

CUCUMBER :
Season:
June – July (or) January - February.
Seed rate:
2.5 kg/ha.
Pre-sowing seed treatment
Treat the seed with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg or carbendazim 2 g / kg.
Spacing:
Sowing on one side of channel with the spacing of 0.6 m between hills. Fertilizer:
Apply FYM 40 t/ha as basal and 35 kg of N/ha as top dress on 30 days after sowing.
Foliar application:
Application of maleic hydrazide @ 400 ppm or ethrel at 250 ppm at 2 leaf stage and 5 leaf stage enhances female lower production.
 

 

 

 

Physiological maturity

:

35 days after anthesis
Extraction technique

:

Store the fruit for five days after ripening and extract the seed using commercial Hcl @ 30 ml / kg of seed mass for 30 minutes.
Pre-storage seed treatment:
Halogen mixture @ 3 g / kg of seed in 700 gauge polythene bag.

CLUSTER BEAN
Season:
June - July (irrigated)
Seed rate:
10 kg/ha
Pre-sowing treatment:
 Seed treatment with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g/kg.
 Seed fortification with GA3 200 ppm (or) 1 % ZnSO4 (or) 2 % arappu extract for 3 h in seed to solution ratio of 1:0.3
 Seed pelleting with Rhizobium @ 50 g / kg of seed
Spacing:
45 x 20 cm. Seeds are dibbled @ 2 seeds/hole on the sides of the ridges. Foliar application:
Spraying DAP 2 % at 50 % flowering stage to improve the seed set. Harvest:
Seed attains physiological maturity at 55 - 60 days after anthesis and reaches harvestable maturity at 60 - 65 days. The harvest is done by two staggered pickings as soon as the pods turn brown in colour.

Grading:
Seed are graded with 10/64" round perforated metal sieve or BSS 6 x 6 wire mesh sieve (4.2 mm).
Seed yield:
900-1000 kg/ha

 

 

Storage:
Seeds dried to 8 % moisture content and treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g / kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed can be safely stored in moisture vapour proof container for two years.

VEGETABLE COWPEA
Season:
June – July and February – March.
Seed rate:
20 kg/ha
Spacing:
45 x 20 cm.
Fertilizers:
FYM : 25 t/ha along with 25:50:0 kg NPK/ha is applied as basal. Foliar application:
2% DAP (Supernatant solution) is sprayed at 50% flowering. Tendril clipping enhances flowering and fruit yield.
Harvest:
The seed matures 25 – 30 days after flowering (fruit become straw yellow colour). The fruits are harvested in pickings with an interval of 15 days. The early pickings upto 4 can be used for seed extraction.

Seed extraction:
Seeds are extracted manually by beating with pliable bamboo stick. Grading:
Seeds are graded with12/64" round perforated metal sieve or BSS 5x5 wire mesh (4.8 mm).
Seed yield:
500 kg/ ha
Storage:
Seeds treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g / kg seed can be stored upto 8 months in cloth bag and 16 months in moisture vapour proof container provided there is no bruchid infestation.

 

 

DOLICHOS LAB LAB (Bush type)
Season:
October - November
Seed rate:
25 kg/ha
Spacing:
60 x 20 cm.
Fertilizers:
Basal : FYM : 25 t/ha, 25 : 50 : 0 kg NPK/ha.
Foliar application:
NAA @ 20 ppm is sprayed at 65 and 75 days after sowing to reduce the flower drop.
Pre-harvest sanitation spray:
Five days prior to harvest monocrotophos @ 2ml / lit of water may be sprayed to reduce the egg laying by bruchids.
Harvest:
The pods are harvested when the colour changes to straw yellow. Last two pickings can be used for vegetables.
Seed extraction:
Seeds are extracted manually by beating with pliable bamboo stick. Grading:
Seeds are graded with 18/64" round perforated metal sieve or BSS 3x3 wire mesh sieve (7.2 mm).
Seed yield:
600 kg/ha
Storage:
Seeds treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed can be stored upto 8 months in cloth bag and 16 months in moisture vapour proof container provided there is no bruchid infestation.

CORIANDER
Pre-sowing seed treatment
Fortification with KH2PO4 @ 1% for 16 h + polymer coating @ 3ml kg-1 + Imidachloprid @ 2 ml kg-1 + Trichoderma viride @ 4 g kg-1 + Azospirillum @ 100 g kg-1. Foliar spray :

0.5 % FeSO4 at 30 and 45 DAS

Physiological maturity :
 

 

45 days after anthesis. Colour change from green to light olive brown.

 

 

Harvesting :
Should be done between 45 and 52 days after anthesis before the occurrence of shattering.
Pre-storage seed treatment
Halogen formulation @ 3ml kg-1 of seed and emamectin benzoate (2 ppm) + carbendazim @ 2 g kg-1.
Storage container
Seeds store well in high density polyethylene bag.
Grading:
Seeds graded with 25 / 64” round perforated metal sieve.
Storage:
Scarified seed treated with 4 g / kg of chlorine based halogen mixture can be stored in cloth bag.
ANNUAL MORINGA
Season:
July- October
Seed rate:
0.5 kg/ ha
Spacing:
3 x 3 m.
Sowing:
2 to 3 seeds/pit.
Fertilizers:
Basal: FYM: 15 kg/pit, 100:200:50 g NPK/tree. N applied in 3 split doses at flower initiation, flowering and fruit development stage.
Foliar application:
3 - 4 sprays of NAA @ 20 ppm is given at flowering at 10 days interval to reduce flower drop.
Physiological maturity:
Seed attains physiological maturity 70 days after anthesis with a colour change of pod from green to brown. Fruits can be harvested from 70-75 days after anthesis and delayed harvest leads to shattering and loss in seed quality. Grading:

Seed are graded with 24/64" round perforated metal sieve.
 

 

Seed yield:
100 kg/ha
Storage:
Seed treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg seed and halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed can be stored in cloth bag for one year.
BELLARY ONION
Season:
May – June
Pre-sowing seed treatment
Sand matrix priming with 80 % water holding capacity for 24 h drying back to original moisture content
Seed rate:
6 - 8 kg of graded seed/ha.
Transplanting:
Seedlings of 35 - 40 days may be transplanted in the main field on both sides of the ridges.
Spacing:
20 x 10 cm.
Fertilizer application:
FYM : 25 t/ha.
Application
Basal kg /ha
Top dress (30th day) kg / ha

N
30
30

P
60
-

K
30
-

Harvest:
Well-matured bulbs are harvested at 110 - 115 days.
Bulb grading:
Medium sized bulbs weighing 40 - 50 g or bulbs with > 2.1 cm diameter are selected.
Bulb treatment:
The top 1/3rd of the bulb is removed and treated with fungicides either carbendazim or mancozeb at 20 g in 10 lit of water for 5 – 10 minutes. Bulb sowing:
 

 

The treated bulbs are sown on the ridges during October - November. Spacing:
50 x 20 cm.

 

 

Harvest:
The umbels are harvested during March when 50 % of the seeds in umbels turn into black colour, to prevent the shattering loss.
Seed extraction:
The umbels are dried under sun and the seeds are extracted by beating with pliable sticks.
Seed grading:
The seeds are graded by using BSS 10 x 10 wire mesh sieve (2.5 mm) or 6/64" round perforated metal sieve.
Seed yield:
500 - 600 kg/ha.
Seed storage:
Seeds are dried to reduce the moisture content to 6 - 8 % and treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg seed or halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed and stored in polythene bags. AMARANTHUS

Season:
June – July.
Seed rate:
2.5 kg/ha.
Pre sowing seed treatment:
The seeds are soaked in ethrel 200 ppm for 12 hours to enhance germination. Spacing:
45 x 20 cm.
Fertilizers
Basal : FYM : 25t/ha: 40 : 40 : 20 kg NPK/ ha .
Foliar spray:
Spray DAP 2% at flowering and 10 days after first spray to improve seed yield and quality.
Harvest:
Seed attains physiological maturity 35 – 45 days after flowering when glumes turn brown in colour and seeds turn black.

 

 

Seed extraction:
Seeds are extracted by beating with pliable bamboo sticks and dried to 7 – 8 % moisture content.
Grading:
Seeds are graded with BSS 22 x 22 sieve.
Seed yield:
200 kg/ha
Storage:
Graded seeds are treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg of seeds or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed can be stored for 10 months in cloth bag and 18 months in moisture vapour proof containers.

GRAIN AMARANTH
Season:
June – July and October - November
Seed rate:
2.5 kg/ha.
Sowing method:
Direct sowing or transplanting after 12 days of nursery period Spacing:
45 x 15 cm.
Fertilizers
Basal : FYM : 25t/ha: 50 : 30 : 30 kg NPK / ha

Foliar spray:
Foliar application of DAP 2% @ flowering and 10 days after first spray improved seed yield and quality.
Harvest:
Seed attains maturity 30 days after 50 % anthesis when spikes turn yellow in colour and seeds turn orange white.
Seed extraction:
Seeds are extracted by beating with pliable bamboo sticks and dried to 7 – 8 % moisture content.

 

 

Grading:
Seeds are graded using BSS 22 x 22 sieve.
Seed yield:
200 kg/ha
Storage:
Graded seeds are treated with halogen mixture @ 3 g / kg of seed or carbendazim 2 g + imidachloprid 100 mg kg-1, can be stored for 10 months in cloth bag and 18 months in moisture vapour proof containers.

PALAK
Pre-sowing seed treatment
Dormancy breaking : Soaking seeds in 2 % KNO3 solution for 3 h (or) by leaching in running water for 3 h.
Foliar application
2 % DAP at first and 50 % flowering is sprayed along with single leaf cutting at 35 DAS to increase seed yield.
Physiological maturity
Seeds attain physiological maturity 49 days after anthesis.
Seed grading:
Seeds are graded using BSS 8 x 8 sieve.
Seed storage
Seeds can be treated with carbendazim @ 2 g + halogen mixture @ 3 g / kg of seeds and can be stored in aluminum foil pouches.
CARROT
Season:
July – February in hill areas.
Pre-sowing seed treatment
Soak the seeds for 36 h with the seed to water ratio of 1:6 and dry back to original moisture content.
Seed rate:
4 kg/ha
Plant Protection
Root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp.can be prevented by application of neem cake @ 1t / ha at planting.
 

 

Root to seed method:
Stecklings weighing 150g and above can be used for planting. Stecklings having low weight reduces the seed yield and seed quality.
Fertilizers
Basal :FYM : 25 t/ha 50 : 50 : 10 kg NPK/ha
Top dressing:
50 kg N prior to flowering (30 days after stecklings planting) Harvest:
Seeds in the umbel mature 7 weeks after anthesis. Splitting of schizocarp into two mericarp occurs at this time. Delayed harvest results in shattering. Grading:
BSS 12 x 12 wire mesh sieve.
Seed yield:
700-800 kg/ha
Storage:
Seeds are dried to 8% moisture content and treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg of seeds or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed and packed in 700 gauge polythene bag. RADISH

Season:
Hill: March – April, Plain : September – October
Seed rate:
10 kg/ha
Spacing:
30 x10 cm
Root to seed method:
When the roots are fully matured, the crop is harvested. True to type roots are selected and transplanted in a well-prepared field.
Seed to seed method:
Seeds are sown in well-prepared land. On 45th day, the roots are lifted out and then transplanted by giving one-third cut at the top.
Fertilizers
Basal: FYM: 25 t/ha: 50:25:50 kg NPK/ha.
Top dressing: 50 kg N just before flowering.
 

 

Foliar spray:
DAP @ 2 kg/ha is sprayed thrice at 10 days interval during flowering to reduce flower drop.
Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity 35 - 40 days after anthesis. The pods are harvested when dried and turn to creamy straw colour. Drying of pods intact in the plant enables a single harvest and does not affect quality.

Seed extraction:
The seeds are extracted manually by threshing with a pliable bamboo stick. Grading:
Seeds are graded by using 8/64" sieve or BSS 8 x 8 wire mesh sieve. Seed yield:
600-700 kg/ha
Storage:
Seeds are treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg seed or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed and packed in cloth bags.

CAULIFLOWER
Pre sowing seed treatment:
Seeds are soaked in water for 72 h with change of water for every 24 h to leach out the inhibitors present on the seed coat.
Foliar application:
Foliar application of DAP 2% at 30 days after curd formation as supplementary nutrition increases the yield of good quality seeds.
Harvest:
Seed matures 7 weeks after flowering. Delayed harvest reduces germination significantly.
Seed grading
Empty seeds are removed by density grading (using seed blower). Seed yield:
150 kg/ha
Storage:
Seeds treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg of seeds or halogen formulation (Bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed can be stored for 10 months in cloth bag.
 

 

 

 

PAPAYA
Pre sowing seed treatment:
Seeds soaked in 100 ppm GA3 for 16 hours or in 2% fresh arappu leaf extract or 1% pungam leaf extract or pelleting with arappu leaf powder improve the initial seed quality .
Optimum depth of sowing:
Sow seeds at 1 cm depth for better germination and seedling growth. Seed extraction:
There is no correlation between fruit size and seed yield and quality. Hence, all ripened fruits can be used for seed extraction.
Grading:
Seeds are graded with BSS 6 x 6 wire mesh sieve (4.2 mm).
Storage:
Seeds are dried to 8-10% moisture and treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg or halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg and packed in cloth bag to maintain viability upto 5 months. Invigouration of old seeds:

Stored seeds can be invigourated by soaking them in dilute solution of disodium phosphate (10-4 M) adopting 1:8 seed to solution ratio for 4 hours followed by drying back to original moisture content.

BER:
Flowering season
June – July
Fruiting season
September– October
Seed extraction
Manual removal or water soaking for one week.
Physiological maturity:
Seeds of ber attain physiological maturity 12 to 13 weeks after anthesis. It is indicated by yellowish red colour of fruit pericarp.
Grading:
Stones can be size graded using 22/64" round perforated metal sieve or stone grading done with 20% sodium chloride removes ill filled and empty stones. Seeds graded with 25 / 64” round perforated metal sieve.

Germination improvement:
 

 

The stones soaked in thiourea @ 2 % for 24 hours enhances the germination.

 

 

Storage:
Ber stones can be stored upto 30 months in 700 gauge polythene bag without any treatment under ambient conditions. Scarified seed treated with chlorine based halogen mixture @ 4 g / kg of seed can be stored in cloth bag. AMLA:

Flowering season
January - February
Fruiting season
November – February
Pre sowing seed treatment:
Fresh seeds are stratified in sand moistened to 60% with KNO3 @ 5 g/lit kept at 5°C for 10 days to remove the morphophysiological dormancy. Dry storage of fresh seeds for 10 months can also remove this dormancy.

Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity 22 to 24 weeks after breaking fruit dormancy of 5 months when the fruit colour turns to yellowish green and seed colour turns to chestnut brown.
Seed extraction:
Amla seeds can be extracted by soaking the fruits in 30% brine solution during night followed by drying during the day and repeated for 3 days. The mesocarp following soaking in brine solution remained fresh and can be used for pickle/byproducts preparation.

Grading:
Using 8/64" round perforated metal sieve with maximum seed recovery can be used to process seeds. The size-graded seeds can be further upgraded by density grading using water to remove the light weight empty seeds.

Storage:
Seed treated with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg seed and halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed can be stored upto 18 months in cloth bag and at 24 months in moisture proof container. Seeds can also be treated with carbendazim @ 4 g + carbaryl 400 mg / kg and packed in 700 gauge polythene bag and stored in 50C.

JAMUN:
Flowering season
June
Fruiting season
July - August
 

 

Harvest:
Jamun seeds attain physiological maturity 11 weeks after anthesis when the fruit colour changes to purplish black.
Seed extraction:
The collected fruits are heaped for one day and squeezed. Seeds will come out easily.
Grading:
Fresh seed can be size graded using 20/64" round perforated metal sieve with maximum seed recovery.
Storage:
It is a recalcitrant seed and will lose viability upon storage due to desiccation (drying). When stored seeds are to be used for sowing, the dead seeds can be removed by density grading using water. The seeds lose viability completely within one month in tropical condition when the moisture content of seed falls below 20%. The critical moisture for safe storage is around 45%. Packing of seeds in polythene bags containing 2% moist sand stored at 10oC in refrigerator storage prolongs viability upto 3 months. BIXA ORELLANA

Flowering season
June – September
Fruiting season
August - October
Harvesting
October - December
Pre sowing seed treatment:
Scarification with conc. H2SO4 @ 100 ml / kg of seed for 15 min. followed by soaking in GA3 100 ppm or KCl 0.5 % or coconut water 25 % for 6 hrs Flowering induction :
GA3 100 ppm is sprayed to induce flowering.
Harvesting:
Seed attains maturity 84 DAA (October to December) and fruit collection from top of crown gave high quality seed
Seed extraction:
Beating with pliable sticks
Grading:
Seeds graded with BSS 6 x 6 and selection of red colour seed improve the quality. Storage:
 

 

Seeds treated with carendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g / kg and packed in 700 gauge polythene bag preserves the viability upto one year.

 

 

MEDICINAL PLANTS
GYMNEMA:
Pre sowing seed treatment:
Leaching the seeds in tap water for 12 hrs followed by soaking in KNO3 @ 2 g/lit for 6 hours recorded higher germination.
Physiological maturity:
Seeds attain physiological maturity 100 days after anthesis with colour change of pods from green to dark brown. The seeds shatter totally within two days. Grading:
Density grading using South Decota air blower at 0.5" water pressure improves seed germination.
Storage:
Seed treatment with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg of seeds or halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed and packed in moisture vapour proof container prolongs viability. SENNA

Season:
November – December and June – July.
Pre sowing seed treatment:
Hard seededness can be effectively overcome by acid scarification with commercial sulphuric acid @ 100 ml/kg seed for 10 minutes
Physiological maturity:
Seeds attain physiological maturity at 40 days after anthesis associated with colour change of pods from green to brown.
Grading:
Seed are graded with 8/64" round perforated metal sieve.
Storage:
Seed treatment with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg of seeds or halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed and packed in moisture vapour proof container prolongs the viability upto 15 months. PERIWINKLE

Pre sowing seed treatment :
Seed soaking in GA3 600 ppm for 12 hrs (or) KNO3 1 % for 24 hours Physiological maturity:
Seeds attain physiological maturity 40 days after anthesis with a change of pod colour from green to brown with yellow translucent seeds.
 

 

Grading:
Seeds are graded with 4/64" round perforated metal sieve
Storage:
Seed treatment with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg of seeds or halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed and packed in moisture vapour proof container prolongs viability upto 15 months.

ROSELLE
Physiological, maturity:
Seeds attain physiological maturity at 40 days after anthesis. Grading:
Seeds are graded with 7/64" round perforated metal sieve (2.8 mm). Storage:
Seed treatment with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg of seeds or halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed and packed in moisture vapour proof container, prolong the viability upto 15 months. AMBRETTE

Pre-sowing seed treatment:
Dormancy breaking by soaking seeds in hot water at 1000C for 30 minutes Spacing:
60 x 45 cm
Fertilizer recommendation:
150 : 60 : 60 kg NPK / ha
Harvest:
Seed attains physiological maturity at 35 DAA (days after anthesis) when the pod colour changes from green to brown. The seeds harvested from first five pickings can be used for seed purpose.
Grading:
Seeds are graded with BSS 8 x 8 sieve size

ASHWAGANDHA
Germination improvement:
Mechanical scarification of seeds with sand for six minutes followed by soaking in GA3 500 ppm solution for five hours significantly improved the germination of seeds. Harvest:

 

 

Seeds attain physiological maturity at 35 days after anthesis when the colour of seeds changes from orange to deep red. Harvestable maturity of seed attains at 42 days after anthesis.

 

 

KALMEGH – Andrographis paniculata
Pre sowing seed treatment:
Seed soaking in GA3 @ 200 ppm for 3 hrs.
Harvest :
Seeds attained physiological maturity 30 DAA which coincided with the change of pod colour from light green to light brown with brown seeds. Storage
Seed treatment with halogen mixture @ 3 g / kg of seed and stored in 700 gauge polythene bag
GLORY LILY – Gloriosa superba
Pre-sowing treatment :
The seeds are soaked in hot water for 40 minutes for germination improvement. Foliar spray :
GA3 @ 100 ppm is sprayed at 10th and 20th DAA.
Harvest :
Seeds attain physiological maturity 63 – 70 DAA with the change of seed colour to deep yellowish orange.
AROMATIC PLANTS
PALMAROSA
Germination improvement:
Leaching of fluffs in running water for 8 hours followed by soaking in KNO3 at 0.5% for 6 hours recorded maximum germination.
Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity at 40th day after 50% flowering when the fluff (seed) moisture is around 20%.
Grading:
Density grading using South Decota air blower at 0.5" water pressure improves seed germination.
Storage:
Seed treatment with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /Kg of seeds or halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed and packed in moisture vapour proof container prolongs viability.

 

 

Storing of fluffs in 700 gauge polyethylene bags after seed treatment with carbendazim 50 % WP @ 2 g /kg of seeds and halogen formulation (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 3 g/kg seed maintains the shelf life of fluffs upto 10 months and shelf life can be prolonged in moisture vapour proof containers. FLOWER CROPS

MARIGOLD
Fertilizer:
NPK @ 125:125:50 kg/ha
Spacing:
60 x 40 cm
Foliar spray:
DAP @ 1% can be sprayed at second and fourth week after transplanting to improve flowering.
Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity at 35 days after anthesis associated with drying of petals.
Grading:
Density grading adopting water floatation technique or grading with specific gravity separator and selection of first three grades for seed purpose. Storage:
Seed treatment with iodine based halogen mixture @ 3 g/kg seed and packed in aluminium foil pouches prolongs viability.
GAILLARDIA
Germination improvement:
Seed treatment in conc. sulphuric acid for 30 seconds followed by soaking in GA3 200 ppm for 16 hours.
Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity at 40th day after anthesis. Grading:
Seeds are graded with BSS 8 x 8 sieves
Storage:
Seed treatment with chlorine based halogen mixture (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 2 g/kg seed and packed in aluminium foil pouch prolongs viability.
ZINNIA
Germination improvement:
Seed soaking in GA3 100ppm for 16 hours .
 

 

Harvest:
Seeds attain physiological maturity at 40 days after anthesis . Grading:
Seeds are graded with BSS 8 x 8 sieves

 

 

Storage:
Seed treatment with chlorine based halogen mixture (bleaching powder + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder @ 5:4:1) @ 2 g/kg seed and packed in aluminium foil pouch prolongs viability.
CHINA ASTER
Pre-sowing treatment :
Fortification with 0.25 % ZnSO4 or 1 % hibiscus leaf extract for 2 hours Harvest :
Seeds attained physiological maturity at 40 days after anthesis . Storage :
Seeds are treated with Iodine based halogen @ 3 g / kg and stored in 700 gauge polythene bag for 6 months
PETUNIA
Pre sowing seed treatment:
Fortification with GA3 100 ppm (or) moringa leaf extract 2 % for 16 h (or)KH2PO4 2 % for 16 hours
Age of the seedling for transplanting :
The seeds are first sown in primary nursery (pot) and after 16 day the seedlings are transplanted to raised nursery and after 24 days transplanted to main field. Spacing :
75 x 60 cm
Fertilizer :
125 : 75 : 150 kg NPK / ha
Foliar spray :
MgSO4 @ 2 % spraying at 50 % flowering stage
Physiological maturity :
Seeds attain physiological maturity at 25 days after anthesis and it is associated with browning of pod and seed
Harvest :
Pods are harvested in pickings on alternate days and upto 20 pickings pods can be used for seed extraction.
Grading:
Seeds are density graded with acetone and sinkers are selected for sowing. Storage:
 

 

Seeds are treated with halogen mixture @3 g/kg or diflubenzuron @ 1 ppm / kg and packed in aluminimum foil polylaminated pouch.

 

 
SEED CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR FOUNDATION / BREEDER SEEDS

Sl.No.

Field standards

Crop

Seed Standards

WSS

ID

OT

PS

OWP

DD

OCS

ODV

PP

GER

MC

1.

Brinjal varieties

200

0.10

-

-

0.10

0

-

98

70

8

150

2.

Brinjal hybrids PL

200

0.01

-

-

0.10

0

-

98

70

8

15

3.

Bhendi

400

0.10

-

0.00

-

0

10.00

99

65

10

1000

4.

Tomato varieties

50

0.10

-

-

0.10

5

-

98

70

8

70

5.

Tomato hybrids PL

200

0.01

0.05

-

0.10

5

-

98

70

8

7

6.

Chilies

400

0.10

-

-

0.10

5

-

98

60

8

150

7.

Cluster beans

10

0.10

-

-

0.10

10

10.00

98

70

9

1000

8.

French beans

10

0.10

-

-

0.10

0

5.00

98

75

9

1000

9.

Indian beans

10

0.10

-

-

0.10

0

5.00

98

75

9

1000

10.

Bitter gourd

1000

0.10

-

0.00

-

0

5.00

98

60

7

1000

11.

Ash gourd

1000

0.10

-

-

-

0

-

98

60

7

1000

12.

Bottle gourd

1500

0.01

-

-

-

0

-

98

60

7

1000

13.

Pumpkin

1000

0.10

-

-

-

0

-

98

60

7

1000

14.

Ridge gourd

1000

0.10

-

-

-

0

5.00

98

60

7

1000

15.

Snake gourd

1000

0.10

-

0.00

-

0

-

98

60

7

1000

16.

Watermelon

1500

0.01

-

0.00

-

0

5.00

98

60

7

1000

17.

Amaranthus

400

0.10

-

0.01

-

5

10.00

95

70

8

70

PL-Parental lines of hybrid; ID-Isolation distance (Meter); OT-Off-type plants (%); PS-Pollen shedders (%); OWP-Objectionable weed plant (%) DDDesignated diseased plants (%); OCS-Other crop seeds (No./kg); ODV-Other distinguishable varieties; PP-Physical purity (%); GERGermination (%); MC-Moisture content (%); WSS-Weight of submitted sample (Gram)

 

 
Germination and purity standards
Sl. No.

Variety

Germination
minimum
t
75

Purity
minimum
t
98

1
2

Cluster beans

70

98

3

Field beans

75

98

4

Beans

75

98

5

Ladies finger

65

99

6

Bitter gourd

60

99

7

Sponge gourd

60

99

8

Bottle gourd

60

99

9

Cucumber

60

99

10

Snake gourd

60

99

11

Watermelon

60

99

12

Pumpkin

60

99

13

Cauliflower

65

98

14

Cabbage

70

98

15

Knol-khol

70

98

16

Carrot

60

95

17

Radish

70

98

18

Brinjal

70

98

19

Tomato

70

98

20

Chilies

60

98

21

Capsicum

60

98

22

Greens

70

95

23

Fenugreek

70

98

24

Basella

60

96

25

 

Cowpea

Onion

70

98

 

S.No

Name of seed

Max. viability period

A. Vegetables
1

Onion

6

Months

2

Beans, Pea, Cowpea

1

Year

3

Brinjal, Tomato, Chillies, Capsicum, Cucumber, Squashes,
Pumpkin, Carrot, Radish, Turnip, Cole crops.

1.5

Years

4

Bhendi, Lettuce, Amaranthus, Methi, Beet root, Palak.

2

Years

B. Fruits and root stock plants
1

Lime, Mandarin, Citrus rootstock species

1

Week

2

Mango stones, Litchi, Passion fruit, Butter fruit, Rose apple, Jambulana.

1

Month

3

Papaya, Kirni seeds

3-4

Months

4

Guava

4

Months

5

Watermelon, Musk melon

1

Year

6

Custard apple, Ramphal and other Annona sp.

1.5

Years

C. Plantation and Spices
1

Clove, Nutmeg, Cinnamon, Curryleaf

1

Month

2

Arecanut, Cashewnut

3

Months

3

Coconut

4

Months

4

Coriander and other annual spices

1

Year

D.Flowers
1

 

Year

Marigold

1.5

Years

3

  

1

2

 

Aster seeds, Gladioli corms

Other annual flower seeds

1 to 2

years

 

Part XII
IMPORTANT PLANT
NUTRIENTS, THEIR
DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
AND REMEDIAL
MEASURES
MACRONUTRIENTS
Nitrogen
Symptoms: Chlorosis begins in older leaves. Tips and margins of leaves commonly become yellow first.
Stunted growth.
Early crop maturity and low production.
Remedial measures: Spray 500 g of Urea dissolved in 100 lit of water on leaves.
Phosphorus
 

 
Symptoms
1) Older leaves become dark green with purple coloration (due to anthocyanin development) in some species.
2) Stunted shoot growth and poor root development.
3) Delayed crop maturity.
Remedial measures: Use Super phosphate or bone meal in required quantities. Potassium
Symptoms: Symptoms first appear on recently matured leaves and become pronounced on older leaves. Dark green foliage with necrotic spots appearing on older foliage, typically at tips and margins and entire leaf blade becomes scorched or necrotic. Slow growth and susceptibility to wilting.

Potassium is important for fruit taste, size and colour.
Remedial measures: Spray 500 g of Muriate of Potash or Sulphate of Potash dissolved in 100 lit of water.
Calcium
Symptoms: Reduced growth or even death of apical meristems, often leading to multiple branching in tap root crops.
Young foliage may be abnormal, chloritic or even ‘burned’ at tips. Softening of tissues and cell wall breakdown is common in fruits. Remedial measures: Apply 2 to 4 kg of lime once in two years to each plant. Magnesium

Symptoms: Deficiency symptoms first appear in older leaves with chlorosis between veins and along margins progressing inward interveinally.
 

 
Tips and margins of the leaves turn upwards.
Leaves tend to be brittle and may fall prematurely.
Remedial measures: Spray 100 g of Magnesium sulphate in 100 lit of water or apply 25 - 125 kg of Magnesium sulphate to the soil.
Sulphur
Symptoms: Symptoms are similar to ‘N’ deficiency with plants tend to be small and spindly having slender and short stalks.
Young leaves chlorotic, principal veins typically green.
Delayed maturity.
Remedial measures: Apply 20 - 25 kg of Sulphur per ha.

MICRONUTRIENTS: Like the macronutrients such as Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Sulphur, a score of micronutrients play a pivotal role in growth, development and reproductory activities of any crop plant.

The micronutrients such as Iron, Manganese, Boron, Copper, Zinc, Molybdenum, Chlorine and Silicon, etc., are extremely essential for sustained growth and productivity. Their essentiality is there for both seasonal and perennial crops, and their shortage quite apparently manifests in visible deficiency symptoms characterised by stunted growth, narrow or little leaves, chlorosis, crinkling, cupping and other leaf deformities, flower drop, alteration of sex of flowers, poor pigmentation and quality, cracking of stem, die back and oozing of gum. Each micronutrient is capable of producing one or more specific deficiency symptoms if it is in short supply to the plant metabolism. Often the complex deficiency symptoms as a result of deficiency of more than two micronutrients are manifested in sensitive crops such as Limes, Sweet Oranges, Mandarins and Lemons, etc.

Iron: It is essential for the development of chlorophyll in crops. General symptoms: Young leaves become chlorotic.
The principal veins typically green, with absence of green colour in the finest veins and progress of chlorosis may lead to leaves completely devoid of chlorophyll leading to stunted crop growth.  

 
Remedial measures: Spray 250 - 500 g of Ferrous sulphate dissolved in 100 lit of water. Citrus
Symptoms: Pale yellow and small sized leaves, stunted growth and small sized fruits. Remedy: Foliar spray of 0.1 % Ferrous sulphate solution.
Grapes: Iron deficiency in grapes is due to the presence of excess Calcium in the soil. Symptoms: Pale yellow small leaves with stunted growth.
Remedy: Foliar spray of 0.1% Ferrous sulphate solution.
Pineapple: The deficiency is prevalent in the soils with more Calcium and Magnesium. Symptoms: Reddish green leaves.
Remedy: 0.1% Ferrous sulphate solution sprayed with an interval of one month. Vegetables: Iron is essential for the initial growth of vegetable crops. So it is essential to apply Iron containing fertilizers at the initial stage of development to avoid iron deficiency in vegetable crops.

Iron deficiency is common in crops like Beans, Cauliflower, Beetroot, Brinjal, Tomato and Tapioca.
Symptoms: Pale yellow leaves, drying of leaf tips and in severe deficiency drying of whole leaves may occur.
Remedy: Apply 25 kg Ferrous sulphate per ha or spray 0.5 % Ferrous sulphate solution 3 - 4 weeks after sowing/transplanting.
Manganese
Symptoms: Intervenial chlorosis seen in younger leaves first. Dark green bands along midrib and main veins with lighter green areas between the bands. Remedy: Spray lime mixed Manganese sulphate.
Boron
General symptoms
Stunted growth or death of apical meristems, followed by sprouting of lateral buds. Leaves, petioles or stems may be thickened, wrinkled, curled and chlorotic. The fleshy part may show brown flecks, necrosis, cracks or dry rot. Death of meristems causes reduced flower and fruit set.

Boron is essential for the translocation of sugars in plant system. Its essentiality is obvious in  

 
Potato, Tapioca, Cabbage, Grapes, Citrus, Tomato and Guava.
Mango
Symptoms: Drying of leaves. This is more prevalent in the orchards, which are nearer to brick factories.
Remedy: Either by soil application of 500g Borax per plant or by spraying 0.1 % Borax solution. Citrus
Symptoms & Remedy
Red spots on newly emerged leaves, leaves become dry and brittle. Spraying 0.3 % Boric Acid.
Guava
Symptoms: Splitting of fruits, gummosis at the splitted area, rough skin of the fruits. Remedy: Spraying of 0.1 % Borax solution.
Grapes
Symptoms: Small sized fruits. Presence of small sized fruits and large sized fruits in the same bunch is known as “Hen and Chicken” disorder. The fruits are sour in taste. Remedy: Spray of 0.1 % Borax solution.

Vegetables
Cabbage
Symptoms: Leaves become crinkled, rough and brittle. Drying of leaf edges soft spots on the petioles and loose heads.
In hybrid cabbage varieties, heads will not be formed and the leaves become blue in colour. Cauliflower
Symptoms: Browning of leaf margin in young buds. Pale yellow veins and drying of leaves, the flower heads are long and dried with hollow flower stalk.
Radish
Symptoms: Tip drying, pale yellow leaves at initial stages and bluish green leaves at later stages. The leaves become crinkled and brittle. Early flowering. Carrot
Symptoms: Wilting of plants despite enough soil moisture in the field. Deformed leaves with pale yellow colour.
 

 
Potato
Symptoms: Leaves become small and it resembles virus disease infected plant. 30 - 40 % yield loss and sometimes 100 % loss may occur.
Remedial measures for vegetables to correct Boron deficiency For Cabbage, Cauliflower, Tomato, Chillies, application of 40 g Borax per cent area in nursery will produce elite seedlings.
Borax 0.6 kg to 1.2 kg per ha is applied as fertilizer in the main field. For root and tuber crops apply Borax @ 1.2 kg to 3.2 kg/ha
Coconut
Symptoms: Button shedding, hallownut and sometimes fruits without nut. Remedy: Apply Borax 0.6 - 1.2 kg/ha.
Copper: Stunted growth, rosetting and dieback of young twigs in fruit trees. White tipped leaves are early symptoms.
Reproductive growth strongly affected leading to sterility.
Banana
Symptoms: Leaf bud is crinkled and twisted. Delay in flower emergence. Coconut
Symptoms: Stunted growth, non-splitting of leaves.
Citrus
Symptoms: Die back, splitting of bark, gummosis from fruits and browning of fruits with rough skin.
Remedial measures: Foliar application of 0.5% Copper sulphate solution. Zinc: Chlorosis often appears as yellow mottling, between the veins in younger leaves. Reduced stem growth may cause ‘rosette’ condition of terminal leaves. Mango

Symptoms: Stunted growth, leaves small, brittle and interveinal chlorosis, little leaves – rosette appearance.
Remedial measures: Two sprays of 1 - 2 % Zinc sulphate, one at the time of flowering and the other at 1 month after the first spray.
Banana
Excess Phosphorous application leads to the deficiency of Zinc.  

 
Symptoms: Narrow leaves with pale yellow colour.
Remedial measures: Spray 0.5 % Zinc sulphate or apply 30 g Zinc sulphate per plant.

 

 
Citrus
Symptoms: Small, narrow, pale yellow leaves. Small fruits with rough skin. Remedial measures: Three sprays of 0.5 % Zinc sulphate at the time of new flush emergence. Apply 50 g of Zinc sulphate per tree.

Guava
Symptoms: Interveinal chlorosis, small leaves, rough leaf surface with cracks. Small rough skinned fruits and splitting of fruits.
Remedial measures: Spray 0.5 % Zinc sulphate solution 2 times before flowering with the interval of 15 days.
Grapes
Symptoms: Small leaves, widened petioles and small sized fruits. Correction: Smear 10 % Zinc sulphate on the pruned stem or spray 1 % Zinc sulphate solution
10 days before flower formation.
Vegetables
Beans
Symptoms: Dropping of leaves and flower buds and interveinal chlorosis. Tomato
Symptoms: Stunted growth, thickening of leaves, interveinal chlorosis, shortened internode, dropping of flowers and immature fruits. Radish
Symptoms: Interveinal chlorosis at the initial stage and drying of leaves at later stages.
Onion
Symptoms: Tip drying during initial stage and total drying of leaves at later stages. Remedial measures
Seed treatment with 0.01 % Zinc sulphate.
Spray 0.25 - 0.50 % Zinc sulphate solution in the nursery five weeks after germination. Foliar application of 0.5 % Zinc sulphate in the field. Coconut: Button shedding is the common symptom. The deficiency can be corrected by application of 0.25 % Zinc sulphate per plant.

 

 
Molybdenum: Chlorotic interveinal mottling of the lower leaves followed by marginal necrosis and infolding of the leaves.
In severe conditions necrosis and wilting of leaves occur.
Flower formation is inhibited, and if flowers do form, they abscise before setting fruits.
Cauliflower
Symptoms: Drying of leaves from its edges at initial stages, later stages total drying. Leaves become long and narrow and this disorder is known as ‘Whip tail’ in Cauliflower.
Radish
Symptoms: Pale yellow leaves, wilting of leaves with onward crinkling. Tomato
Symptoms: Interveinal chlorosis, inward crinkling of leaves. Remedial measures: Spray 625 g Ammonium molybdate in 400 lit of water as foliar spray before flowering.
Chlorine: Leaves chlorotic and susceptible to wilting.
Deficiency is practically non-existent in nature because even rain water will carry sufficient
Chlorine to provide the required amounts.
Remedy: Add Chlorine compound salts to soil.
Silicon
Wilting growth habit may result.
Abnormal accumulation of Fe + Mn may cause
necrotic spots. Plants become susceptible to
diseases.
Correction: Apply Silicon salts to soil.
Foliar application: The deficiency of micronutrients can be corrected by either soil or foliar application.

Since soil application is often encountered with the

problems such as fixation, leaching,

inabsorbtion and antagonism, foliar

application has been a standard practice of application of micronutrients to plants. Spraying also overcomes the problem of immobility of certain metallic ions inside the plant system. Since the micronutrients are needed in very small  

 
quantity, the spray solution employed for foliar application is normally in terms of parts per million (ppm) and the chemical to be so employed is to be in neutralised form, or else scorching of leaves may occur or may prove toxic to plant system.



Employ right micronutrients in right concentration by consulting the experts. Mixing of two or more micronutrients to correct multiple micro nutreient deficiency.



Take up spray preferably to young expanding foliage to ensure effective absorption. Old leaves absorb very little or nil.



Saline and alkaline water should not be employed for preparing micronutrient spray solution. Pour the spray solution through fine filters or muslin cloth to prevent clogging of nozzle. Ensure fine mist of spray evenly on both surfaces of leaves.



Avoid spraying during blossom period.



Spray preferably during morning or evening.



Do not mix plant protection chemicals with micronutrients.



Wash and clean the sprayer, nozzle with clean water after spraying to avoid corrosion and clogging.

 

 

 

Part XIII
MUSHROOM
CULTIVATION
Agriculture will continue to be the main strength of Indian economy. With the variety of agricultural crops grown today, we have achieved food security by producing about 240 million tonnes of food grains. However, our struggle to achieve nutritional security is still on. In future, the ever increasing population, depleting agricultural land, changes in environment, water shortage and need for quality food products at competitive rates are going to be the vital issues and secondary agricultural vocations are going to occupy a prominent place to fill the void quality food requirements. The demand for quality food and novel products is increasing with the changes in life style and income. To meet these challenges and to provide food and nutritional security to our people, it is important to diversify the agricultural activities in areas like horticulture. Diversification in any farming systems imparts sustainability. Mushroom are one such component that only impart diversification but also help in addressing the problems of quality food, health and environmental sustainability. The present century is going to be a century of functional foods from synthetic chemicals and mushroom cultivation fits very well into this category and is going to be an important vocation.

Mushrooms represent microbial technology that recycles agricultural residues into food and manure. It is a solid state fermentation system in which crop residues are converted into valuable food rich in microbial protein. These are important source of quality protein, minerals and various novel compounds of medicinal value, do not compete for land and have very high productivity per unit area and time. These are considered to be the highest protein producer per unit area and time due to utilization of vertical space and short crop cycle. Due to their cultivation under controlled conditions the water requirements is less than any other  

 
crop grown in the field and has all the potentials of being a major crop in coming years.
Mushroom farming today is being practiced in more than 100 countries and its production is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7%. In some developed countries of Europe and America, mushroom farming has attained the status of a high-tech industry with very high levels of mechanization and automation.. China leads in mushroom production and china alone is reported to grow more than 20 different types of mushroom at commercial scale and mushroom cultivation has become China’s sixth largest industry. The USA is the second largest producer of mushroom sharing 16% of the world output. Presently, three geographical regions- Europe, America and East Asia contribute to about 96% of world mushroom production. With the rise in the income level, the demand for mushrooms at very low costs with the help of seasonal growing, state subsidies and capturing the potential markets in the world with processed mushrooms at costs not remunerative to the growers in other mushroom producing countries.

Commercial production of edible mushrooms represents unique exploitation of the microbial technology for the bio conversion of the agricultural, industrial, forestry and household waste into nutritious food (mushrooms). Our country can emerge as a major player in mushroom production in wake of availability of plenty of agricultural residues and labour. Integrating mushroom cultivation in the existing farming systems will not only supplement the income of the farmers but also will promote proper recycling of agro-residues thereby improving soil health and promoting organic agriculture. In India, mushroom research started in 60s and the cultivation picked up in 70s.

India has varied agro-climate, abundance of agricultural residues and plenty of manpower making it suitable for cultivating different mushrooms. Our country produces about 600 million tonnes of agricultural waste per annum and a major part of it let out to decompose naturally or burnt in situ. This can effectively be utilized to produce highly nutritive food such as mushrooms and spent mushroom substrate can be converted into organic manure/Vermi-compost. Mushrooms are grown seasonally as well as in state-of-art environment controlled cropping rooms all the  

 
year round in the commercial units. Mushroom growing is a highly labour oriented venture and labour availability is no constraint in the country and two factors, that is, availabilities of raw materials and labour make mushroom growing economically profitable in India. Moreover, scope for intense diversification by cultivation of other edible mushrooms like Oyster, Shiitake, Milky and other medicinal mushrooms are additional opportunities for Indian growers.

At present, four mushrooms viz., Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus spp.), Paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella spp.) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) have been recommended for round the year cultivation in India.

The agro wastes of about 600 million tonnes can profitably be utilized for the cultivation of mushrooms. Currently, we are using 0.04% of these residues for producing around 1.2 lakh tonnes of mushrooms of which 85% is button mushroom. India contributes about 3% of the total world button mushroom production. Even if we use 1% of the residues for mushroom production, we can produce 3.0 million tonnes of mushrooms, which will be almost equal to current global button mushroom production (current world production 3.4 million tonnes). To remain competitive it will be important to harness science and modern technologies for solving the problems of production and bio-risk management. Mushroom being an indoor crop, utilizing vertical space offers an solution to shrinking land and better water utility.

Mushrooms have been reported to be capable of transforming agro wastes like paddy straw into protein rich food and have been confirmed to be sources of single cell protein. Mushrooms contain rich source of carbohydrates, proteins, aminoacids and dietary fibre. Vitamins such as riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, and the essential minerals selenium, copper and potassium are abundant in mushrooms. The foremost importance is that mushrooms do not have cholesterol, instead contain ergosterol that act as a precursor for vitamin D synthesis in human body. Mushrooms are believed to help fight against cancer, relieves hypertension, imparts protection from heart diseases. Mushroom crop is in fact a boon that can

 

 
solve several problems like the protein malnutrition, unemployment issues and environmental pollution.
Mushrooms are cultivated indoors and do not require arable land and mushroom is a short duration crop with high yield per unit area. For Small farmers and landless workers mushroom cultivation is highly suitable for the economic and social security. This hi-tech horticulture venture relieves the pressure on arable land, because its cultivation is indoors, and is also more suited to the women folk. Mushrooms supplement and complement the nutritional deficiencies and are regarded as the highest producers of protein per unit area and almost 100 times more than the conventional agriculture and animal husbandry. At present, the annual production of mushroom is around 6,500 tonnes, button mushroom accounts for 4000 tonnes, Oyster accounts for 2000 tonnes and milky mushroom contributes 500 tonnes. During the past two decades, the Mushroom Research and Training Centre of the Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore has made tremendous efforts on transfer of mushroom cultivation technology by imparting trainings. By this way it has contributed for the establishment of about 50 spawn producers and 600 mushroom oyster producers accounting for 5- 6 tonnes / day, 70 button mushroom producers producing 10- 12 tonnes / day and 30 milky mushroom growers contributing 1-1.5 tonnes / day in Tamil Nadu. This account for around 6 per cent of total mushroom production of the country.

 

 
Mushroom varieties/ strains released from TNAU for commercial cultivation

Scientific Name

Variety/
strain
name

Place of release

Oyster mushroom
Pleurotus sajor- caju

M2

Dept. of Plant Pathology, TNAU,
Coimbatore

P. citrinopileatus

Co1

Dept. of Plant Pathology, TNAU,
Coimbatore

P. djamor

MDU 1

Dept. of Plant Pathology, AC&RI,
Madurai

P. eous

APK 1

Regional Research Station,
Aruppukottai

P. ostreatus

Ooty 1

Horticultural Research Station,
Uthagamandalam

P. florida

Pf

Dept. of Plant Pathology, TNAU,
Coimbatore

P. platypus

Pp

Dept. of Plant Pathology, TNAU,
Coimbatore

MDU 2

Dept. of Plant Pathology, AC&RI,
Madurai

Co2

Dept. of Plant Pathology, TNAU,
Coimbatore

P. flabellatus

Hipsizygus ulmarius
Milky mushroom
Calocybe indica

Tricholoma giganteum

APK 2
Co3

Regional Research Station,
Aruppukottai
Dept. of Plant Pathology, TNAU,
Coimbatore

Button mushroom
Agaricus bisporus
 

Ooty1
Ooty 2

Horticultural Research Station,
Vijayanagaram
Horticultural Research Station,
Vijayanagaram

 
Mushroom Cultivation techniques for Oyster and Milky mushroom

I.

Spawn production

Base spawn/ Nucleus spawn:
Tissue culture technique is used to bring the edible mushroom to pure culture so that the mushroom fungus can further be used to prepare spawn, which is an essential material for mushroom cultivation.



This nucleus culture is grown on Potato Dextrose Agar medium in test tubes.



A small tissue from a well-grown mushroom is aseptically transferred to agar medium in a test tube in a culture room.



The test tubes are incubated under room temperature for 10 days for full white growth of fungal culture. This is called base spawn/ nucleus spawn and further used for preparation of Mother spawn.

Mother spawn:
Mother spawn is nothing but the mushroom fungus grown on a grain based medium. Among the several substrate materials tested by TNAU, Coimbatore, sorghum grains are the best substrate for excellent growth of the fungus. Well-filled, disease- free sorghum grains are used as substrate for growing the spawn materials. The various steps involving in preparation of mother spawn are listed below here under.



The sorghum grains are washed in water thoroughly to remove chaffy and damaged grains.


 

The grains are half cooked for 30 minutes to soften them.

 


The half cooked grains are spread evenly over a hessian cloth on a platform to remove the excess water.



Calcium carbonate is mixed thoroughly with the cooked, air dried grains @ 20 g / Kg .



The grains are filled in polypropylene bags up to 3/4th height (approximately 300-330 g / bag),



A one inch diameter PVC ring is inserted on open end of the bag and plugged with non-absorbent cotton wool.



The bags are arranged inside an autoclave and sterilize under 20-lbs. pressure for 2 hours.



The bags after cooling are kept inside the culture room under the UV light. For 20 min.



After 20 minutes the UV light is put off and the fungal culture is transferred in to the sterilized sorghum bags .



The inoculated bags are kept in a clean room under room temperature for 10 days for mycelia growth and further use to prepare bed spawn.

Bed Spawn
The method of preparation of bed spawn was same as that of mother spawn. The cooking, filling and sterilization were similar to that of mother spawn. After sterilization, the bags are taken and the fully grown mother spawn is used for inoculation to prepare bed spawn. Thirty bed spawn can be prepared from a single mother spawn. The bags are incubated at room temperature for 10 days for mycelia growth and used as bed spawn.

II. Cultivation of Oyster mushroom

The oyster mushrooms can be grown indoors in a thatched shed where a temperature of 25-30 C and relative humidity of 85-90 per cent is be maintained.  

 


Paddy straw is used as the raw substrate which has to be soaked in water for 4 h and boiled for 45 minutes or steamed in autoclave for 45 min or by chemical sterilization (soaking in 7-10 g of carbendazim + 120 ml formalin/10 kg substrate /100 lit water in a drum) and shade dried until 6570 % moisture.



Cylindrical beds are prepared using 60 x 30 cm polythene bags with a thickness of 80 gauge.



Paddy straw and spawn are filled as alternate layers in polythene bags and 10-12 holes are made in the beds.



The bags are placed in the sheds in racks or in hanging rope system. After 15-16 days when the paddy straws in the bags are covered with white mycelial growth, pinheads start emerging where water spray is essential to prevent drying of buds.



First harvest begins from 3-4 days after pinhead emergence and like wise at 5 -7 days interval three harvests can be done



Total cropping cycle is around 40- 45 days.



The average bioefficiency ranges (100- 150 per cent) depending on the variety.

III.

Cultivation of Milky mushroom
The milky mushroom requires a temperature of 30-35  C and relative

humidity of 85-90 per cent. For cultivation of this mushroom two shed are needed. 1. Thatched House ( For spawn running).
2. A sunken poly houses ( For Crooping)
Three feet deep pit is dug out and sides are lined with hollow blocks and semi circular structure is built with GI pipe of L angle and covered with Blue silpauline sheet.


Paddy straw is processed as in oyster mushroom cultivation and cylindrical beds are prepared with 90x 30 cm polythene bags and stored at 300C in thatched sheds

 

 


After 18-20 days when the paddy straws in the bags are covered with white mycelial growth, the beds are cut in to two halves and casing soil (autoclaved garden soil) is layered on to the cut halves for 2 cm height and sprayed with water.



The cased beds are placed in poly houses and the required temperature is maintained.



The pinheads emerge from the cut halves over the casing soil on 25-26th day.



First harvest begins on 28th day and like wise three - five harvests can be done. The total cropping cycle is around 45-50 days. The average bioefficiency ranges from 140 - 160 per cent.

 

 
Economics of Spawn Production (100 spawn bags per day)
Sl.No.
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
B.
1.
2.
3.
C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
10.

Item

Quantity

Capital investment
Autoclave
Boiler (GL drum 100 lit. Capacity)
Culture room with work table (low cost)
UV lamp with fittings
Tube light fittings
Advance for LPG gas
Spawn storage room
Bunsen burner
Hear efficient chulah
Glass wares & chemicals
Total
Fixed cost
Interest on capital investment @ 15%
Depreciation (Item 3 & 7 @ 5%)
Depreciation (Item1 2,4,5,8 & 9 ,10-10%)
Total
Recurring cost (100 spawn x 300 days)
Polypropylene bags
Sorghum grains

1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1

150 Kg
8000
Kg
160 Kg
600
--300
--

Total cost of Spawn production / Year (Rs)_
Working expenditure

:

3,34,450

Total fixed cost

:

22,137

:

3,56,587

Income ( Rs.)
By sale of 30,000 spawn bags @ Rs.25 per bag

:

7,50,000

Total cost

:

3,56,587

 

40,000
2,500
15,000
2,000
200
3,000
22,000
150
600

Total (Rs.)
40,000
5,000
15,000
2,000
200
6,000
22,000
150
600
5000
95,950
14,392
1,850
5,895
22,137

Calcium carbonate (commercial grade)
Non-absorbent cotton (400 g rolls)
Fungicides & Fumigants
Electricity & Fuel
Labour @ 2 men per day for 300 days
Miscellaneous
Total

Total Cost

Rate (Rs.)

135
14

20,250
1,12,000

20
110/roll
--320/day
--

3200
66,000
2,000
30,000
96,000
5000
3,34,450

 
Net income per year

 

:

3,93,413

 
Economics of Oyster mushroom production (10 Kg/day/300 days) Low cost Investment
Sl.No.
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
B.
1.
2.
3.
C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Quantity
(nos.)

Item
Capital Investment
Thatched House ( 15’x 25’)
Chaff cutter (Lever type)
Boiler
Drum
Spraying systems
Biomass stove
Total
Fixed cost
Interest on A @ 15%
Depreciation (Item 1 @ 30%)
Depreciation (Item 2,3,4,5 & 6 @ 10%)
Total
Recurring Cost
Paddy straw cost + transport
Spawn @ Rs.25 / No.
Polythene bags for bed & packing
Fungicides, Fumigants & Chemicals
Labour @ 1 Per day
Others
Total

1
1
1
1
1

3 .5 t
2000
25 kg
-300
--

Working expenditure

:

1,19,125

Total fixed cost

:

12,450

:

1,31,575

Income( Rs.)
By sale of 10 Kg/day @ Rs.90 for 300 days :

2,70,000

Total cost

:

1,31,575

Net Income per year

:

1,38,425

 

25,000
1000
2,000
1,000
500
300

Total
(Rs.)
25,000
1000
2,000
1,000
500
300
29,800
4470
7500
480
12450

Total cost of mushroom production / Year (Rs.)

Total Cost

Rate (Rs.)

4500
25
130
-160/day

15750
50,000
3375
1,000
48000
1,000
1,19,125

 
Economics of Milky mushroom production (10 Kg/day/300 days)
Low cost Investment
Sl.No.
A.
1
2
3
4
5
6
B.
1
2
3
C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Item
Capital Investment
Thatched House ( 15’x 20’)
Blue Poly house- 20’x50’ area (1000 sq.ft)
Chaff cutter (Lever type)
Boiler
Drum
Spraying systems
Biomass stove
Total
Fixed cost
Interest on A @ 15%
Depreciation (Item 1 @ 10%)
Depreciation (Item 2,3,4,5, & 6 @ 10%)
Total
Recurring Cost
Paddy straw cost +transport
Spawn @ 25 / day
Polythene bags for bed & packing

Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
1

3 .5 t
1600
25
kg
-300
--

Total cost of mushroom production / Year (Rs.)
Working expenditure

:

1,09,125

Total fixed cost

:

13,700

Total

:

1,22,825

Income (Rs.)

Total cost
 

3,60,000
:

20,000
30,000
1000
2,000
1,000
500
300

Total (Rs.)
50,000
1000
2,000
1,000
500
300
54,800
8,220
5000
480
13,700

Fungicides, Fumigants & Chemicals
Labour @ 1 Per day
Others
Total

By sale of 10 Kg/day @ Rs120 for 300 days :

Rate (Rs.)

1,22,825

4500
25
130

15750
40,000
3375

-160/day

1,000
48000
1,000
1,09,125

 
Net income per year

 

:

2,37,175

 

Part XIV
SEASON OF FLOWERING
AND FRUITING OF FRUIT
CROPS
Crop

Season of flowering

Season of fruiting

Main season
Off season

November - December
August - September

April - June
January - February

Lime

October - November

January - March

Mandarin

July - August

November - December

Grapes

February - March
June - July

April - May
August - September

Papaya

Throughout the year

Throughout the year

Sapota

i. June - August
ii. October - December
iii. March

i. October - December
ii. February - April
iii. July

Guava

i. April - May
ii. July - August
iii. October - December

i. August - September
ii. November - December
iii. January - March

Pineapple

September - October

March - June

Main season
Off season

September - October
May - June

March - June
October - December

Pomegranate

May - July

October - January

Custard apple

May - June

September - November

Ber

June - July

October - November

Mango

Jack

 

 
Crop

Season of fruiting

Indian Gooseberry

i. July - August
ii. February - March

January - February
August - September

Jamun

March - April

August - September

Wood apple

May - June

January - March

Bael

May - June

April - May

Tamarind

September - October

March - April

Karonda

February - March

May - June

West Indian Cherry

August - September

December – January

Mangosteen

January - March

June - August

Passion fruit

i. February - March
ii. June - July

June - July
September - October

Carambola

i. April - May
ii. July - August
iii. September - October

July - September
November - December
January - February

Rambutan

February - March

June - August

Durian

December - January

May - September

Avocado

January - March

May - September

Fig

i. October - November
ii. February - March

February - June
July - September

Apple

February - March

May - July

Pear

February - March

June - September

Plum

February - March

May - June

Peach

 

Season of flowering

January - February

May – June

 

Part XV - CHEMICAL AND COMMERCIAL NAMES OF
INSECTICIDES AND NEMATICIDES
CommonName

Trade/ Common Name

Formulations

Mode of action

Oral

Toxicity LD 50
Dermal

1.CHLORINATEDHYDROCARBONS* Aldrin I

Agroaldrin, Alcrop, Aldrex, Aldrin, Kilter, 5 D, 30 EC,20 EC C, S, F Mildrin, Termalit

67 (38)

200 for rats 15.25 for
rabits

* Chlordane I

Agrosan,Chlordane, Chloroddra, Mitox,
Starchlor, Termex, Termikil,
Vegfrichlorbu

S, C, F

250-500

217 rats, 780-840
rabbits

* DDT I

950,Agdit,Carox, Corodet, DDT,
18.5 EC
DEE,Deetol,Entomit,Hildit-Dinex,IntoxDDT,Kilpest, Ramdit, Starrdit, SulBit-5 D, Tafarol, Tafeidex, TOL, Topdit,

S, C

250-300 (113)

2510

Dicofol I/A

Banmite, Delcofol, Dicofol,
Hilfol,Kelthane,Micothane, Tagfol,
Vikofol,

18 EC

C,

809(575)

1000-1230

* Dieldrin

Dieldrin

18.5 EC

C,S

40-87 (46)

90

5 D, 10 D, 20 EC

*Banned. See the Gazette Notification.

 

 
Endosulfan I/A

 

Agrosulfan,Agirosulfan,
35 EC 4 D
Bangsulfs,Cacosulfan, Citosulfan,
Endocel, Endocid, Endohit, Endomil,
Endosol, Endostar, Endosulfan, Endotaf,
Ensocrop, Ensosulfan, Entacid, Fisulfan,
Hexasulfan, Hildan,
Hysulphan,Kemsulfan,
Kilexantisulpass,Luslfan, Marvel,
Parasulfan, Parry sulfan, Ramfan,
Sicosulfan, Solasulfan, Sujadane,
Tagsulfan, Thiokill, Thiodan, Thiotox,
Vegfro, Vikasulfan

C, S

40-50 (18)

360 for rabbits

 

CommonName

Trade/ Common Name

Formulations

Mode of action

Oral

Toxicity LD 50
Dermal

*HCH (BHC)

Agrobenz, Benzichlor, Corohex,
10 D, 50 WP
Entemix, Gammaxene, Hexido, Hilbech,
IntoxBHC, KeroBHC, KilpestBHC,
Premodole, Ramacholare, Solchlor,
Submar, Sulbez-50

C, F

200(100)

1000

Heptachlor 1

Agrochlor, Heptachlor,Heptaf, Heptar,
Heptox, Heptox, Vegfov

C, S

130 (40)

195-250 2000 rabbits

Lindane 1

Agrodone, Canon, GammaBHC,
6 G 20 EC 0.65 D S, F, C
Knodane, Lindon, Lindone, Lindane, Lin 1.3 D
sulpn, Micodane, Rasayan

88-125 (76)

900-1000

Tetradifon I/A

Agrodifon, Hexamiton, Tedion, Treat

500-15000(566)

10,000

2D, 20 EC

8 EC

C

*. Banned. See Government Notification.
2. ORGANOPHOSPHATES
25 EC 75 SP

Sy, S, C

605-1100 (700)

2000

Carbophenoth- Trithion
ion I/A

25 WP, 3 D, 10 G

C

32-90 (10) 166
mouse

1270 rabbits

Chlorfenvinph- Birlane
os I/N/A

24 EC 10 G

C,F

24-39 (20)

1250-2500 rats 4004700 rabbits

Chlorpyriphos I Agrofos, Bangspan, Chlorofos,

20 EC

C,S,F

135-163 (163)

2000 rabbits

C,S,F

300-850(75)

2150,3600 rabbits

Acephate I

Acemil, Agrophate, Asataf, Orthene,
Start thenet Lancer, Torpedo, Tremor.

Coroban, Danusban, Durmet, Dursban,
Gilphos, Hyban, Lethal, Radar, Ruban,
Strike, Suban, Sulban-20

Diazinon I/N/A Agroziron, Basudin, Bazanon, Delzinon, 5 G 20 EC Suzinnon, Zionovl

 

 

Dichlorvos I/A

 

Agrovan-76, Bangvos, Bargros,
76 WSC
Dichlorvos, Divipan, Divipan, Divisol,
Nukem 776, Nuvan, Nuvasul, Paradeep,
Vapona

C,F

50-8(56-80)

500

 

CommonName

Trade/ Common Name

Formulations

Mode of action

Oral

Toxicity LD 50
Dermal

Dimethoate I/A

Agrodimet-30, Agromat, Champ, Cifor, 30 EC
Corothiate, Cropgor, Cygon, Hygro,
Devigon, Dimor, Dimer, Dimethoate I/A,
Dimethote, Dimex, Entogor, Hexagor,
Kemithoate, Kilxdimethoate, Kilterx,
Micor, Milgor, Paragor, Parrydimate,
Rogor, Sicothate, Sulgor, Tagor, Tara
909, Vikagor

Sy,C,F

250 (152)

600-1200

Disulfoton I/A

Solvirex, Disyston

5G

Sy, C, S

26-125(2)

41 (for 4 hrs)

Ethion I/A;

Demite, Dhanumit, Ethiosul, Fosmite,
Fieathion, Force, Fosmite, Miti cil, MIT
505, Novathion, Tafethion, Vegfru
fosmite.

50,EC

C

208 pure (13)

915 guinea pigs

Fenitrothion I/A

Accothion, Agrothion, Fenitox,
Fenitrogil-50,Fenitrothion,
Fethiol,Folithion,Hexafen, Sumithion

5 D 50 EC

C, S, F

570-740 (250)

1300,300 mice

Lebaycid, Fenthion

100 EC

C, S

241-316 (215)

345-410

Formothion I/A

Anthio

25 EC

Sy, C, S

375-535 (250)

400-1680

Malathion I

Agrolmal,Agromala,
Bangmal,Bugtax,Corothion,
Cythion,Entomol,Hilthion, Kathion,
Kpmalathion, Malahi90,Malamar,Malathion,
Malatox,Malzone, Svlmalathion, Taimal

5D, 25WDP
50,EC

C, S

1375-2800 (885)

4100 rabbits

Menazon I

Sayfos

70 WP

Sy, C, S

1950

500-800 rabbits

Mephosfolan, I

Cytrolane

5G

C, Sy

9-11

28 rabbits

Fenthion I/A

 

 

Methamidophos
I/A

Monitor, Metataf, Tamaron

Methyldemeton I/A Hexasystox, Himax, Knockout,
Metasystox, Parasystox.

 

50 EC, 40 WSC,

CSy

30-50

50-10

25 EC

Sy, C, S

40-60

250

 

CommonName

Trade/ Common Name

Formulations

Mode of action

Oral

Toxicity LD 50
Dermal

Methyl paration

C, S, F

12-42 (6)

67-420 rabbits

Monocrotophos

Azodrin,Agrocron, Agromohare,
Balwan,Corophos,Croton,
Entofos,Glorephos,Hilcron,
Hycrophos,Kagrophos,
Kileximonocrotophos,Luphos,
Macrophos, Micophos, Milphos,
Mondhit,Monocid,Moncil,
Monocron,Monocroto,
Monogil,Monosect,Monosil,
Monostar,Nuvacron,
Paracron,Parryfos,Phosill,
Ramphos,Rasayanaphos, Sicocil,
Triphos, Vegfrokadett, Vimonfos

36 WSC, 36 SL

Sy, C

21

354 rabbits

Phenthoate I/A

 

Agropara, Agrotex, Corocid, Devithion, 2 D, 50 EC 46.7
Dhanumar, Entocid, FolidoIM, Dagrodal, EC
Kempar, Kildet, Kilex, Klofos, Luthion,
Milon, Metacid, Metapar, Methyl
parathion, Metpar-760, M.Devithio,
Paracrop, Parahit, Paramar, Paramet,
Parasul, Parataf, Parathol, Paratox,
Ramcidd, Ramthion, Tagpar, Vegfro,
Vika cid

Agrophen,Aimsan, Cilphenthoate,
Delsan, Dusab, Elsan, Fenthoate,
Phendal, Phenthasul, Phentox, Tagsan

2 D, 50 EC

C,F

200-300 mice

-

 
Phorate I/N/A

10 G

Sy, C

16-37(1.1)

20-30 (24hrs)
Guinea pigs

Phosalone I/A

 

Aelmet,Agrophorate, Cifphorate,
Dragnet, Forate-10G, Foratox, Fortan,
Fortox, Glorate,
Granutex,Grenade,Kamet,
Luphate,Milate,Phorate, Starphor-10G,
Starphos, Thimet, Vegfro, Volphor
Agrosalone, Micozons, Phosal,
Phosalone, Sugalone, Zolone

4 D, 36 EC

S, C

135 (120)

390 female rats

 

CommonName

Trade/ Common Name

Formulations

Mode of action

Oral

Toxicity LD 50
Dermal

Profenofos I

Curocron, Carina

50 EC

S, C

-

-

Propetamphos I

Safrotin (Pesticides)

20 EC

S, C

380-490

4000

Phosphamidon I/A

Agromidon,Agrophos, Bangdon,
85 WSC
Cildon,Daron,Dimecron, Entocron, Kilro
don, Phamidon, Phoskil, Sicomidon,
Sudon, Sumidon, Vimidon

Sy, C, F

17.9-30 (17)

374-530 267
rabbits

Quinalphos I

Agriphos,Agroquin, Agroquinal,
Award,Desalux,Ekalux,
Entolux,Gilquin,Hyquin,
Keterphos,Kilex,Krush,
Quinalphos,Kinalux,Milux,
Pharulux,Quinal,Quinalphos, Quinaltaf,
Quinotox, Ramlux, Sicophos,
Sicophosa, Smash, Solux, Starbrand,
Tagquin

1.5 D, 25 EC, 5 G

C, S

62-137(26)

1250-1400

Thiometon I/A

Ekatin, Hexatin, Thiotox

25 EC

Sy, C, S

86-225 (25)

-

Triazophos I/A

Hostathion

25 EC

S, C

(64)

-

Trichlorfon I

Dipterex, Trichlorfon, Tugon

5 D, 5 EC, 50
WDP

S, C

450-630(450)

2000

Vamidothion

Kilval, Vamidothion, Valoson

40 EC

S

64-105

1160 rabbits

Aldicarb I/N/A

Temik (Production stopped)

10 G

Sy, C

0.9

400-3200

Carbaryl I

Agrovin, Agroyl, Bangwin, Carbamate,
Carbaryl, Carvint, Corovit, Devicarb,
Hexavin, Kervin, Kildiryl, Kilexcarbaryl,
Sevidol, Sevimo, Sevin

5D, 10D,50,80,85 C
WDP 85 S, 40 LV,
4G

400-850 (250)

4000-2000 rabbits

3. CARBAMATES

 

 
Carbofuran, I/N/A

3G

Sy (?), C, S

8-14(5.3)

2550,10200
rabbits (24hrs)

Methomyl I/N

 

Furadan,Hexafuran, Vegfrodiafuran
Dunet, Lannate

12.5 L

C, Sy, S

17-24 (60)

1500 rabbits

 
CommonName

Trade/ Common Name

Formulations

Mode of action

Oral

Toxicity LD 50
Dermal

Oxamyl I/N

Vydate

24 WSC, 10G

Sy, C

5.4

2960 rabbits

Propoxur I

Baygon

20 EC, (PH)

C

100(83)

600-1000

Cypermethrin

Agrocyper, Bilcyp, Bullet, Challenger,
Cilcord, Cymbush, Cymet, Cymetd,
Cyper 10,Cyperhit,Cyperkil, Cypermil,
Cypersul, Cyporin, Hilcyperin, Hipower,
Hycyper, Lacer, Mortal, Parathrin,
Ralothrin, Ramagper, Ripcord, Shakti
Ustod, Sicorin, Sirex, Starcyprin,
Superkiller, Tackle, Trofy, Ustadd,
Vegfrocolt

10 EC, 25 EC

C, S

200-800 (251)

>1600

Deltamethrin I

Decis, Decametherin, Decathrin

28 EC

S, C

128-139 (4)

>2000 rabbits

5 EC

C

56-79

632-696

C, S

3200(451)

5000,2500 rabbits

4. PYRETHROIDS

Lambda Cyhalothrin I Karate
Fenvalerate I/A

Agrofen, Bangrenn, Capvalerate,
20 EC
Fenkil,Fenval,Fencid, Fenicidin, Fenhit,
Fenis, Fenoron, Fenrio, Gilten, Hitten,
Hyfen, Kagrofen, Lufen,Milfen,Parafen,
pavshafen,Pensil,Ramfen,
Sicofen,Starfen,Sujafen,
Sumicidin,Tagfen,Trifen,
Triumpheard,Valour,Vegfro, Vikafen

Fluvalinate I

Marverick, Starfen

-

Pyrethrin I

Pyrocone E

-

C

Alphacypermethrin I

Alphaguard Fastac, Stop

10 EC

C

5. MISCELLANEOUS COMPOUNDS

 

-

-

-

570-1500 (584-900) Not determinable
-

-

 
Aluminium Phoshide
I/R/A

3 g tablet

Bromadiolone R

 

Al-phos, Celphos, Phostoxin,
Quickphos,

F

Bromadiolone, Bromadiolone R

0.25 SP, SL 0.005 Anticoagulant
CAKE,0.005 bait

32-90
1.25 (rats)

21.mg/l g (rabbits)

 

CommonName
Diflubenzuron IGR

Trade/ Common Name
Dimilin

Formulations

Toxicity LD 50
Oral
Dermal

Mode of action

25 WP

C, S

4630 mouse

-

2000 rabbits
Sulphur I/A/F

Sulphotox, Wetsulf,
Devisulfan, Hexsasul, Sulfex,

40,80,85, WP

C

Non-toxic mild
laxative

Warfarin, R

Warfarin,Rotafiin,Rotafin, Ragumin

0.5 SP

Anticoagulant

1.3 (1550)

Zinc phosphide R

Zinc phosphide, Zincox,
Ratol, Agrosphos

50 WP Granules

F

45.7 (45)

EC 1 K

Antifeedant
Repellent,
Oviposition
deferrant,

Skin and
eye irritant
-

6. NEEM PRODUCTS
Neem Oil

GodrejAchoo, Biosol, Kemissal,
Margocide OK, Margosal, Neem
plus, Neemguard, Neem pure,
Nimbecidine, Phytowin, TNAU Neem

Neem kernel

Ecomak, Margocide-OK,
Neemax, NeemactinNeemicide

-

-

-

-

-

-

Note: Oil based emulson contains 0.03% and neem kernel based emulsion contains 0.15% azadirachtin 7. BIOCIDE
Bacillus thuring
iensis Var
kurstaki (B.t.k)

Delfin (Serotype 3 A&B), Biolep (BTKI), Bioasp (BTKII), Biobit, Dipel 8 L, Halt, Lupin, Spectrin.

-

-

-

-

8. NICOTINYL
1. Acetamiprid I

 

Pride

20 SP

C, S, Sy

146 - 270

>5000

 
2. Imidacloprid

70 WS, 600 FS,
17.8 SL, 200 SL

Sy

450

5000

3. Nitenpyram

 

Gaucho, Confidor,
Imidacloprid, Tatamida
Best guard

SP, GR

Sy

1680

>2000

 

CommonName

Trade/ Common Name

Formulations

Mode of action

Oral

Toxicity LD 50
Dermal

4. Thiamethoxam

Actra, Cruiser

25 WG, 70 WS

Sy

5000

>2000

5. Chlothianidine

Poncho

600 FS

Sy

2000

2000

6. Thiacloprid

Calypso

240 SC

Sy

4G, 50SP

C,S, Sy

345

>2000

9. NERISTOXIN
Cartap Hydrochloride Padan, Caldan
10. PYRAZOLE
Chlorfenapor I/A

Pirate, Stalker

EC, SC

S, C

441-1152

>2000

Fenpyroximate A

Danitoron, Ortus, Pamanrin

SC

C, S

245 - 480

>2000

Tebufenpyrad A

Comanche, Masai, Oscar, Pyranica EC, WP, WG

S, C

595 - 997

>2000

Fipronil I

Prince, Regent

SC, GR, FS, EC, WG C, S, Sy

97

345 (rabbit)

Emamectin I/A

Proclaim

5 SG

C, S

>5000

>2000

Spinosyn I/A

Spinosed, Success,
T
N t l t
Regent, Oberon

48 SC

C, S

>5000

>2000

240 SC

C, S, Sy

>2000

>2000

11. AVERMECTINS

Spiromesifen I/A

Abbreviations
A-Acaricide, C-Contact poison, F-Fumigant, I-Insecticide; IGR-Insect Growth Regulator, D-Dust; EC-Emulsifiable Concentrate; GGranules; LV-Low Volume; N-Nematicide; R-Rodenticide, S-Stomach poison, SL-Soluble Liquid; SP-Soluble Powder, Sy-Systemic poison; ADP-Water Dispersible Powder; WP-Wettable Powder, WSC-Water Soluble Concentrate. Fenthion 100 w/v but 80 EC w/w.

NOTE: LD50 values are units for rats unless specified
 

 
Source:
The Agrochemicals Handbook-1983 (eds) Dougals Hartely and Hamish Kidd. The Royal Society of Chemistry (Pub.), England. In parentheses, the values from EPA, 1984 Analytical Reference Standards and Supplemental Data-The Pesticides and Industrial Chemical Repository; Pesticides Annual 1989-90

 

 

 

 

Part XVI
CHEMICAL NAMES OF
FUNGICIDES
Copper Fungicides
Copper Sulphate preparations
It is prepared by mixing Coper Sulphate and lime in water (To get 1 % mixture, mix 1 kg of CuSO4 and 1 kg of lime in 100 litres of water. 4
Bordeaux paste
It is prepared by mixing 1 kg of CuSO4 and 1 kg of lime in 10 litres of water.
Burgundy mixture
It is prepared by mixing of 1 kg of CuSO4 and 1 kg of Sodium Carbonate in 100 litres of water. Burcop, Taytox.
Cheshunut compound It is prepared by mixing 2 parts of Copper sulphate and 11 parts of Ammonium Carbonate.

Bordeaux mixture

Sulphur fungicides
Inorganic Sulphur
Elemental Sulphur
Sulphur dust
Wettable Sulphur
Organic Sulphur (Dithiocarbamates)
Ziram
Thiram (TMTD, Thiuram)
Zineb
Mancozeb
Mercury Fungicides
Inorganic Mercury
Mercuric chloride
Mercurous chloride
 

 
Organic Mercurials
Methoxy ethyl mercury chloride
Phenyl mercury chloride
Ethyl mercury chloride
Tolyl mercury acetate
Heterocyclic Nitrogen Compounds
Captan, Captofol, Glyodin, Folpet
Benzene compounds
Quintozene
Dichloron
Fenaminosulph
Dinocap
Quinone Fungicides
Chloranil
Dichlone
Organo Phosphorus fungicide
Edifenphos
Organotin compounds
Fentin hydroxide
Fentin acetate
Fentin chloride.
Systemic fungicides
1. Oxathalin and related compounds
Carboxin
 

 
Oxycarboxin
Pyracarbolid
2. Benzimidazoles
Benomyl
Carbendazim
Thiabendazole
Funberidazole
3. Thiophanates
Thiophanate
Thiophanate methyl
4. Morpholines
Tridemorph
Dodemorph
5. Phrimidines, Piperidines and imidazole
Triadimefon
Triademenot
Ethazole
6. Hydroxy Pyrinidines
Ethirimol
Dimethirimol
7. Benzanilide Dervative
Mebanil
Benodanil
8. Organo phosphorous compounds
 

 
Pyrazophas
Iprobenphos
9. Piperazine
Triforine
10. Phenot derivative
Chloroneb
11. Triazole compounds
Triazbutyl
12. Other systemic fungicides
Metalaxyl
Tricyclazole
Fosetyl Al
Hexaconazole
Propiconazole
Tebuconazole
Penconazole
Difenoconazole
Pyroxychlor
Other Fungicides
Binapacryl
Chinomethionat
Chlorothalonil
Dodine
Antibiotics
 

 
Streptomycin sulphate
Oxytetracycline
Streptocycline
Aureofungxin
Griseofulvin
Cycloheximide
Thiolutin
Endomycin

Part XVII
WEED MANAGEMENT
AND HERBICIDES USAGE
IN HORTICULTURAL
CROPS
Weed management has become an integral part of Agriculture. There is little doubt that with the progressive modernisation of Indian Agriculture involving intensive inputs, herbicide use will steadily gain an importance in the coming years. In the recent decades, the growth of herbicides took place principally at the expense of fungicides, which declined from a market share of 40 per cent in 1960 to 25 per cent in 1995. About 72 per cent of the herbicide consumption out of the total took place in the developed countries, viz., USA, Western Europe and Japan. As against the growth of 2.5 per cent for insecticides and 3.3 per cent for fungicides, the herbicides  

 
grew at the rate of 5.0 per cent per annum.
In India, commercial use of herbicides came in 1980. During this period, the herbicides registered a significant growth than insecticides and fungicides. From a megre 2 per cent share of the total pesticide consumption in the seventies in India, herbicides now account for about 11 per cent of the pesticides market. While this is a very encouraging development, the herbicide consumption in our country is still much less than that in developed countries, where herbicides constitute 40-50 per cent of the total pesticide consumption. Conjunctive use approach:

There are several advantages of using soil applied herbicides in conjuction with fertilizers. Trials on impregnated of fertilizers with herbicides have been highly successful and fertilizers impregnated with several herbicides are now commercially available in USA. Herbicides like Treflan, Sutan, Sencor and Bladox are being efficiently used through this technique. Adequate research efforts need to be undertaken in this regard to develop appropriate technology for the different agroclimatic conditions including herbigation.

System approach:
Integrated weed management (IWM) practices for individual crops have been developed by several workers. There is a need to study the various components of IWM into a system approach.

 

 
Integrated weed management system
This approach includes the use of high yielding varieties that resist weed competition and reduce the weed-seed reserve in the soil. Practices like preplanting seed bed tillage, effective seedbed preparation and seeding methods enhance crop growth and minimise weed growth. The use of crops that form early canopy with optimum plant population are integrated to optimize the crop growth and thus to minimise the weed growth. Precision in placement and timing of fertilizer application maximise stimulation of crops and minimise stimulation of weeds. The IWM system also includes the use of judicious irrigation practices, timely and appropriate cultivation, sound crop rotation, crop diversification, field sanitation and harvesting methods that do not spread weed seeds, use of biological agents and effective chemical methods. However, the cropweed interactions are complex and needs application of recent advancements for the development of future weed management strategies.

Crop-weed competition
Experimental results have shown that crop-weed competition at critical stages of crop life has reduced the yields in several crops. Often this period is approximately the first one fourth to one third of crop like for annual vegetables and for perennials flowering to maturity periods. Estimation of crop-weed interactions through mathematical models is being attempted. Modelling of crop-weed interactions

Competition between crop and weed for growth inputs (light, water and nutrients) is a critical process in agricultural ecosystems. The mechanisms of competition are not simple. Models on weed invasion, population growth and control will be useful for organizing biological informations on weeds and for developing weed control strategies. Conventional field trials cannot answer several of the key questions in weed control because of the constraints of cost, time or complexity. Hence models are essential as an integral part of weed management research and advice.

Bio-herbicide approach
Fungi are most useful and hence the term ‘mycoherbicide’ is also used to refer bio-herbicides. ‘De vine’ containing a formulation of soil borne fungus Phytophthora palmivora and Collegue containing spores of Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides an endemic anthrocnose fungus are commercialised bio-herbicides. Other fungal bio-herbicides have been developed including ‘Velgo’ based on Fusarium leteriteum and ‘Casst’, which is based on Alternaria cassiae.  

 

 

 

Naturally occurring herbicides
Many chemicals have been found to possess good herbicidal activity. ‘Bialophos’ is the first herbicide developed by this method and commercially marketed in Japan under the trade name ‘Herbiace’ isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces agroscopius and S. viridochromogens enhibits acidity against wide spectrum of grasses and broad leaved weeds on foliar application.

 

 
I. FRUITS
GRAPES
Application of Diuron @ 3.5 kg/ha or Glyphosate @ 2 kg/ha.
Herbicide application in grapevines must be done carefully with low pressure nozzle to prevent drift.
BANANA
Pre-emergence application of Atrazine or Diuron at 1.5 to 2 kg/ha soon after planting would keep the ground weed free for 3 to 5 months. At post emergence, Paraquat or Dalapon or 2,4 – D or Glyphosate can be used.

PINE APPLE
Pre-emergence herbicides like Simazine or Atrazine or Diuron 3 to 4 kg/ha application 4 - 6 weeks before planting and ploughing the field 2 weeks before the leaves of the crop began to curled down to prevent weed establishment. Weed growth emerging later is treated with post emergence herbicides such as or Glyphosate 0.5 kg/ha or Dalopon 3 to 4 kg/ ha or 2,4 - D 0.5 to 1 kg/ha depending upon the predominant weed species. Dalapan spray drift can cause chlorosis on outer leaves and necrosis on leaf tips when pineapple plants are young. It should be applied carefully any time from 6 months.

II. VEGETABLES
TOMATO
In Tamil Nadu, tomatoes are being grown in three seasons namely June-July, December January and March.
The critical period of weed competition in tomato is the first 30 days after transplanting. For the control of annual grasses, preplanting soil incorporation of Trifluralin 3 to 5 kg/ha or Nitralin 3 to 5 kg/ha or Diphenamid 2 to 4 kg/ha is best. Similar application of EPTC 2 to 3 kg/ha controls nutgrass. Effective pre emergence herbicides of Pendimethalin 1.00 kg/ha, Alachlor 1 to 2 kg/ha, Metribuzin 0.75 kg/ha, Fluchloralin 1.0 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding on 30 DAS. Generally, a pre emergence herbicide followed by one hand weeding in the later period of crop growth gives complete weed control.

Herbicides which need preplant incorporation are particularly useful in the nursery.  

 
In the transplanted field they are applied 3 to 4 weeks before planting seedlings.

 

 
BRINJAL
Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg/ha as pre sowing incorporated spray + one Hand weeding at 6 weeks after transplanting or Pre emergence application of Oxyflourfen @ 0.5 kg/ha at 3 days after transplanting followed by one hand weeding at 30 days after transplanting. Post emergence application of Quizalofop-p-ethyl @ 1.00 kg/ha.

ONION
Onion germinates and grows relatively slow and hence weed competition is more critical upto 40 days after sowing. Pre plant incorporation of Fluchloralin 1.0 kg/ha or Pre- emergence application of 0.20 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding at 45 days after sowing. CHILLIES

Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin 1.00 kg/ha or Oxyfluorfen 0.15 kg/ha was supplemented with one hand weeding at 30 days after transplanting. BHENDI


Pre emergence herbicide – Pendimethalin @ 1.00 kg/ha.



Post emergence herbicide –Fluazifopbutyl@ 0.25 kg/ha + hand weeding on 30 DAS.



Pre emergence application of Oxyfluorfen at 0.15 kg/ha (or) Fluchloralin at 1.00 kg/ha (or) Metolachlor at 0.75 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding on 30 DAS.

COLE CROPS (Cabbage and Cauliflower)
Pre emergence application of Fluchloralin @1.00 kg/ha or Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg/ha along with one hand weeding at 40 days after planting.
CARROT
Preplant incorporation of Fluchloralin @ 1.00 kg/ha or pre-emergence Pretilachlor @ 0.5 or Metribuzin at 1.0 kg/ha to control annual weeds.
BEANS
The critical period of weed competition is the first 40 days after sowing. Pre-plant incorporation of EPTC 3 to 4 kg/ha or Trifluralin 0.5 to 1 kg/ha or pre-emergence application of Fluchloralin @ 1.0 or 1.5 kg/ha.

 

 
RADISH
Application of pre-emergence Metolachlor 1.0 – 2.0 kg/ha or Alachlor 1.5 – 2.0 kg/ha or Isoproturon 1.0 – 1.25 kg/ha or Pendimethalin 1.00 kg/ha or Fluchloralin 1.00kg/ha.

PEAS
Pre-emergence application of Alachlor 1 to 2 kg/ha or pre-plant soil application of EPTC 2 to 3 kg/ha.
Dalapan is applied as post emergence when Peas are 5 to 15 cm tall but not within 25 days of harvest. MCPA and MCPB are applied when broad leaved weeds are at 10 to 15 cm tall. GARLIC
Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + one hand weeding at 40 days after sowing. Pre (or) Post transplanting application of Fluchloralin @ 2.00 kg/ha. POTATO
Pre plant incorporation of Fluchloralin @ 2.00 -3.00 kg/ha.
PE (or) Early post emergence of Metribuzin @ 0.75 kg/ha.
PE application of Oxyfluorfen @ 0.40 kg/ha.
All Gourds: Hand weeding thrice at 15 days intervals
Cucurbits: PE application of Oxyfluorfen @ 0.25 kg/ha
PE application of Metribuzine @ 0.50 kg/ha.
III. SPICES
CUMIN / FENGREEK / CORIANDER
Pre-planting incorporation of Fluchloralin 1.00 kg/ha. (or) PE application of Pendimethalin @ 1.00 kg/ha or Quizalofop @ 1.00 kg/ha as post emergence supplemented with one hand weeding.
IV. PLANTATION CROPS
COFFEE
Single tank mix application of Diuron 1 kg/ha with Paraquat 0.4 kg/ha or Glyphosate 0.8 kg/ha. In coffee nurseries, apply Simazine 2 to 2.5 kg/ha immediately after planting coffee in polythene sleeves.

At post emergence spray of 8 ml/ l of Paraquat or Glyphosate @15ml/ l are used to control many perennial weeds.
 

 
Sequential application of Dalapan 1 to 2 weeks later by Paraquat and subsequently by Dalapan controls perennial grasses effectively.
TEA
Although herbicides are now used over 60% of the area under tea, manual methods like cheeling, sickling and mulching are extensively used wherever labour is available than by chemical method. Cheeling removes the above ground weed growth and prepares the ground for pre-emergence herbicide application. Sickling is done to remove the tall growth of perennial weeds and cut it back to the ground level for a follow up application of foliage applied herbicides on the regrowth.

Pre-emergance application of Oxyfluorfen @ 0.40 kg/ha. Foliage application of Paraquat (8ml/l) + 2,4 – D(6g/l) or Glyphosate(15ml/l) depending on the weed spectrum and this would keep tea weed-free for the rest PE application of Oxyfluorfen at 0.40 kg/ha of the year. Nursery:

Weed control in clonal nursery is done by (2 to 3 weeks before planting cuttings) application of Simazine at 2 kg/ha. After 6 months Simazine is applied once again at the same dose. In the case of seed nurseries hand removal is done for 6 months after planting and then Simazine applied at 2 kg/ha.

Young tea (Until 3 years)
Application of Simazine 1.5 to 2 kg/ha or Paraquat 0.3 – 0.4 kg/ha at pre-emergence and 2,4 – D 0.5 to 1 kg/ha at post emergence.
Matured tea (Above 3 years)
Simazine 1.5 to 2 kg/ha or Diuron 2 kg/ha as pre-emergence herbicides. Paraquat or 2,4 – D or Paraquat + MSMA or Glyphosate are applied as post emergence. Common Name

Time of application

Trifluralin

Hexatox; Toxa-phone,
Treflan

Preplant; pre-em

Nitralin

Planavin

Preplant; pre-em

Diphenamide

Dymid, Enide

Preplant; pre-em

Alachlor

Lasso

Pre-em

Metribuzin

Sencor

Pre-em; Post-em

Fluchloralin

Basalin

Pre-em

Nitrofen
 

Trade Name

Tok-E 25

Early post; Pre-em

 
Chloramben

Pre-em

Metolachlor

Dual

Pre-em; Early post

Pendimethalin

Procol, Herbadox stomp

Pre-plant; Pre-em

Oxyfluorfen

Goal

Pre-em; Post-em

Butachlor

Machete

Pre-em

EPTC

Agrothion, Eptam

Pre-plant; Pre-em

Isoproturon

Arelon, Toplkan

Post-em

Dalapan

Dowpan

Post-em

Diuron

Karmex

Post-em

MSMA

Daconate, Ansar

Post-em

Atrazine

Atrataf

Post-em; Early-post

Simazine

Tafazine / Gesatop

Post-em; Post-em

Paraquat

Gramaxone

Post-em

Glyphosate

 

Amiben, Vegiben

Roundup

Post-em

 

Part XVIII Cultural tips for F-1 hybrid
vegetables
S.
Crops
No.

Season

Seed
rate
gram
s/ha

Spacing Numbin cm.
er of
plants/
ha

Farmy- Fertilizers
N:P:K kg/ha
ard
Manure
Tons/ha

Average
Total
Average
fruit weight crop
yield
in grams
duration Tons/ha
in days

Special
features
Tolerance
resistance
to
diseases
etc.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

Brinjal

Arka Navneet,
Suphal, Ajay,
Vijay, Kirti, Mhb1,
Mhb2, Mhb3,
Mhb9, COBH1
COBH2, Kalpa
Tharu, Ravayya

Planted
200
during
May June Oct Nov
Jan Feb

90 x 60

18,520

25

2

 

Varieties

Tomato
(Determinate)

Mangala, Rajani, Planted
175
Rashmi, Rupali, during
Sheetal, Vaishali, March Hybrid No.10,
April Nov
- Dec Sep
Varla- kshmi,
- Dec
Ruchi, Avinash – 2
COTH 1, COTH 2
TNAU Tomato,
Hybrid CO3

75 x 45

29,630

40

11

12

13

200:150:100 200 - 500

150

25

-

200:250:250 80

120

35

Suitable
for
mechanical harvest,
tolerant to
Fusarium
and Verti
cillium wilt

 
S.
Crops
No.

Season Seed
rate
grams/ha

Spacin Number Farmy- Fertilizers
g in
of plants/ ard
N:P:K kg/ha
cm.
ha
Manure
Tons/ha

Average
Total
Average
fruit weight crop
yield
in grams
duration Tons/ha
in days

Special
features
Tolerance
resistance
to
diseases
etc.

1

2

3

4

6

10

3

 

Varieties

Tomato Karnataka,
(Indeter- Naveen,
minate) Suruchi,
Sangam,
Amrut,
Cross-B,
Sonali,
Sadabhakar
Preethi,
Gulmohar,
S-28, S-29,
Morning
Sun,
SH -771

5

7

Planted 120 - 150 75 x 60 22,220
during
May June
Oct Nov
Jan Feb

8

9

40

200:250:250 80 - 200

11

12

13

150 165

100 - 110

Tolerant to
Fusarium
Verticillium
and
Nematode

 
4

 

Bhendi

Shobha
110, Shoba
111,
Badsha,
Hybrid-6,
Hybrid-7,
Varsha,
Vijaya,
Vishal,
HYb.135,
Mahyco.
Hy.10,
CoBHH1

Sown in 15000
Feb March
June –
July, Oct
- Nov

60 x 15 1,11,110

40

200:100:100 -

90

12 - 15

Tolerant to
yellow vein
mosaic
and
powdery
mildew.

 
S.
Crops
No.

Season Seed rate
grams/ha

Spacing Numbin cm.
er of
plants/
ha

Farmy- Fertilizers
ard
N:P:K kg/ha
Manure
Tons/ha

Average
Total
Average
fruit weight crop
yield
in grams
duration Tons/ha
in days

Special
features
Tolerance
resistance
to
diseases
etc.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

5

 

Varieties

Cabbage

Hybrid
No.10,
Hybrid
No.20, Indu,
Pooja,
Namratha,
Sumathi,
Lakshmi,
Iahs-I, IahsIi, Iahs-Iii,
Kranthi,
Kalyani,
Sriganesh
Khol,
Kaveri,
Ganga,
Hariranigol,
NSC .10

Planted
during
May Feb

300 - 550

60 x 30

55,550

25

200:125:150 2000 3500
(Head)

11

12

13

105

50 - 75

Heat
tolerant
(upto 38·
C)

 
6

 

Cauliflo- Iahs-12,
wer
Iahs-18,
Snowball,
Improved,
Swati,
Himani,
Subarna,
Serena ,
Subasini,
Pawas

Planted
during
Jan Feb
June July

300 - 350

60 x 30

55,550

25

200:125:125 500 - 700
(Curd)

105

25 - 30

 
S.
No.

Varieties

Season

Seed
rate
gram
s/ha

Spacing Numbin cm.
er of
plants/
ha

Farmy- Fertilizers
ard
N:P:K kg/ha
Manure
Tons/ha

Average
Total
Average
fruit weight crop
yield
in grams
duration Tons/ha
in days

Special
features
Tolerance
resistance
to diseases
etc.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

7

 

Crops

Capsicum Bharath, Heera, Planted
375
during
California
Wonder, Yolo June –
Wonder, Hybrid July, Sep
No.10, Hybrid - Oct
No.11, Midway, Jan Feb
Indira,

60 x 30

55,550

30

250:150:150 100 - 150

11

12

13

165

35 - 40

Tolerant to
T.M.V.

 
8

 

Chillies

Sujatha,
Surya,
MHB-55,
MHB-58,
MHB-59,
Cayennelarge Red
Thick,Cayenn
e Long Slim,
Divya,Rathna,
Samrat,
Prithivi
Thejeswini
TANU Chilli
Hybrid Co1

Planted
during
June July Sep
- Oct
Jan Feb

200 250

75 x 60

22,220

30

120:80:80

-

150

13 - 16

Wide
adaptability for fresh
market high
degree
uniformity,
Lateblight
& bacterial
leaf spot
resistant

 
S.
No.

Varieties

Season Seed rate
grams/ha

Spacing Numbin cm.
er of
plants/
ha

Farmy- Fertilizers
ard
N:P:K kg/ha
Manure
Tons/ha

Average
Total
Average
fruit weight crop
yield
in grams
duration Tons/ha
in days

Special
features
Tolerance
resistance
to diseases
etc.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

9

Watermelon

Madhu,
Sown
Milan,
in Nov
Mohini, Arka - Jan
Jyoti,
Amruth,
MHW-11,
Sunthrupthi,
MHW-15,
MHW-6,
Apoorva,
Madhuri

1500 2750

150 x
30

22,220

30 - 40

10

 

Crops

Musk
Melon

Swarna,
MHC-2,
MHC-5,
MHC-6,
Honeydew,
Sona, EarliDew,
Magnum-45

525 - 800

150 x
30

22,220

30 - 40

Sown
in Nov
- Jan

11

12

13

200:100:100 5000 8000

90 105

100 - 110

Tolerant to
Fusarium
wilt

200:100:100 800 1000

120

25 - 30

Tolerant to
Fusarium
wilt

 
11

 

Cucumber

Priya, Bliiz,
Lucky
Strike,
Poinstt-76,
Harsha,
Calypso,

Sown
in Nov
- Jan

373

150 x
60

25

150:75- 300
:75

90

20 - 25

Tolerant to
downy
mildew,
powdery
mildew
and
mosaic

 

Crops
S.
No.

Season Seed rate
grams/ha

Spacing Numbin cm.
er of
plants/
ha

Farmy- Fertilizers
ard
N:P:K kg/ha
Manure
Tons/ha

Average
Total
Average
fruit weight crop
yield
in grams
duration Tons/ha
in days

Special
features
Tolerance
resistance
to
diseases
etc.

1

2

3

4

6

7

8

9

10

12

Bitter
Gourd

Hybrid-49,
While Long,
COBgoH1
Greenlong,
MPDH-101,
MPDH-102

Sown
1800
inJune july

180 x
60

9,259

25 - 30

13

Bottle
Gourd

Pusa
Megdooth,
MGH-1,
Varath,
Hybrid-204
TNAU
Bottle
gourd
Hybrid
Co1

Sown
1800
throughout the
year.
Yield
will be
more if
it is
sown
during
June July

180 x
60

9,259

14

 

Varieties

Ribber
Gourd

Sureka,
MSGH-1,
Haritha

Sown
1800
inJune July

180 x
60

9,259

5

11

12

13

200:100:100 100 - 120

90 105

60 - 65

Thick flesh
with less
seeds,
attractive
colour

25 - 30

200:100:100 3000 5000

90 105

45 - 60

Suitable
for long
distance
transport

25 - 30

250:100:100 125 - 150

105 120

40 - 45

Attractive
green
colour.

 

 

 

Part XIX
FARM IMPLEMENTS FOR
HORTICULTURAL CROPS
TRACTOR DRAWN LOW DRAFT CHISEL PLOUGH

1. Function

: Suitable for deep tillage up to a depth of 40 cm for opening hard soil pan.

2. Specification
i. Type
ii. Power requirement

: Mounted implement
: 35 to 45 hp tractor

iii. Overall dimensions
iv. Weight

: 450 x 940 x 1250 mm
: 42 kg

v. Capacity

: 1.4 ha / day at a spacing of 1.5m between rows

3.General Information

:

The chisel plough has a sturdy but light structure made of 3mm thick hollow rectangular tubular mild steel sections. The implement has only three components namely frame, standard and share. The implement is protected by shear pin, which prevents damage from overloading. 4.Cost of the unit

5. Salient features

 

: Rs. 8000/-

:

 
The implement could be used for deep tillage up to 40 cm depth. Easily operated by any 3545 hp tractor.

TRACTOR DRAWN TRENCHER

1. Function

:

2. Specification

To form rectangular trench of 30 x 30 cm

:

i. Type

:

Mounted implement

ii. Power requirement

:

35 to 45 hp Tractor

iii. Overall dimensions

:

160 x 940 x 1250 mm

iv. Weight

:

240 kg

v. Capacity

:

1700 m run per hour

3. General Information

:

The unit consists of two mould board bottoms placed in line one behind the other. The front and rear bottoms operate at a depth of 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm respectively. The two bottoms throw

 

 

the removed soil in opposite directions and form vertical walls one on each side of the trench. A safety pin is provided to protect the unit from over loading.

4. Cost of the unit

: Rs. 35,000/-

5. Salient features

:

Can also be used for laying drip irrigation pipes by opening trenches Application of manure in coconut fields Cost of operation is Rs. 0.10 per m run of trench as against Rs. 2.00 per m run using manual labour

TRACTOR DRAWN CHANNEL FORMER

1. Function

:

2. Specification

To form channels and beds at regular intervals for irrigation.

:

i. Type
ii. Power requirement

:
:

Mounted implement
35-45 HP

iii. Overall dimensions
iv. Weight

:
:

2200 x 1126 x 900 mm
90 kg

v. Capacity

:

1.2 to 1.5 ha/hr

3. General Information

:

The unit consists of two inner blades of size 100 cm x 25 cm and two outer blades of size 130 cm x 25 cm. The front portions of the two inner blades are joined together such that they form an angle of 30 in between them. At the junction of these two inner blades a cultivator shovel is fixed to penetrate into the soil. The two outer blades are placed one on each side of the inner blades and at an angle of 60 to the direction of the travel. The soil collected in 105 cm width is formed as bund of size 35 cm on both the sides of the irrigation furrow formed by the inner blades.  

 

4. Cost of the unit

:

5. Salient features

Rs. 20,000/-

:

Saving in Cost of forming irrigation channel at 5 m interval is 57%

POWERTILLER OPERATED HEAVY DUTY AUGER DIGGER

1. Function

:

2. Specification

To dig holes for planting tree saplings

:

i. Type

:

Screw auger type

ii. Power requirement
iii. Overall dimensions
iv. Weight

:
:
:

8 to 10 hp power tiller
400 x 635 x 1635 mm
50 kg

v. Capacity

:

25 -30 holes per hour

3. General Information

:

It consists of a spiral auger of 300 mm dia and 150 mm pitch actuated by a rack and pinion arrangement. A shaft mounting worm gear box has been designed and fabricated to accommodate the sliding auger shaft. This gear box provides a speed reduction of 10:1 to reduce the engine

 

 

speed. The auger bit was fabricated as a double start auger having two cutting edges. The hand wheel provided at the side of the unit can be effectively used for the depth control. 4. Cost of the unit

:

5. Salient features

Rs. 45,000/-

:

Results in 16.0 and 91.0 per cent saving in cost and time when compared to manual digging of holes
Application of manure in coconut fields. Cost of operation is Rs. 0.10 per m run of trench as against Rs. 2.00 per m run using manual labour

POWERTILLER OPERATED AXIAL FLOW PUMP

1. Function

:

2. Specification

To lift water from open water sources

:

i. Type

:

Axial flow type

ii. Power requirement

:

8 to 10 hp power tiller

iii. Overall dimensions

:

300 x 750 x 620 mm

iv. Weight

:

26 kg

v. Capacity

:

2500 litres per minute at 3.0 m head

3. General Information

:

The unit consists of a axial flow impeller, pump shaft casing pipe, pump stand and swiveling mount for hitching to the power tiller. A telescopic swivel assembly facilitates the pump to be mounted to the power tiller front. The pump as a whole is supported by a pump stand at the  

 
discharge end. The main pump shaft of two sections is supported by the spider armed bracket and a simple bushed bearing with a stuffing box to prevent leakage of water. 4. Cost of the unit

:

5. Salient features

Rs. 20,000/-

:

Highly suitable for lifting water from open water sources

POWERTILLER OPERATED BOOM SPRAYER

1. Function

:

2. Specification

For row crop spraying

:

i. Type

:

Power tiller mounted

ii. Power requirement

:

8 to 10 hp power tiller

iii. Overall dimensions

:

1550 x 5000 x1550 mm

iv. Weight

:

100 kg

v. Capacity

:

1 ha per hr

3. General Information

:

The boom sprayer attachment consists of spray boom mast, spray pump, pressure regulator, chemical tank, and double tail wheel and foliage deflectors. The tail wheels are carried on a

 

 

separate frame and length 75 cm and hitched to the power tillers’ hitch bracket. The spray boom of length 6 m was chosen with 3 m either side of the power tiller. The boom had 16 hollow cone nozzle with a total discharge rate of 7.3 lit/min. the nozzle spacing was made continuously adjustable. A cut off valve is also provided on the discharge line to the boom to avoid dripping from the nozzle while closing the spray. Two number of foliage deflectors were provided on both the front of the power tiller drive wheels and the tail wheels to deflect the crop canopy to spread in the rows.

4. Cost of the unit

:

5. Salient features

Rs.30,000/-

:

Light in weight and suited for row crops

SPRAYER FOR TALL TREES

1. Function

:

2. Specification

To spray chemicals in orchard trees

:

i. Type
ii. Power requirement

:
:

Mounted implement
35 hp tractor

iii. Overall dimensions

:

65 x 65 x 1950 mm

iv. Weight

:

200 kg

v. Capacity

:

35 trees per hour

3. General Information

:

The unit has a telescopic (62 and 37 mm ) G.I. pipes which can extend from 9 m to 14 m height by winding a cable. At the base of the frame, a 200 lit capacity chemical tank is mounted. A reciprocating pump is mounted on a base plate near the PTO shaft of the tractor. At the top of the 37 mm G.I. pipe, two spray guns with nozzles for cone or jet spray are hinged so that they  

 
can be moved up and down by ropes from the ground level. In addition the spray guns can be rotated about the vertical axis of the telescopic pipe arrangement. These features ensure that the entire canopy area of the tree is easily sprayed.

4. Cost of the unit

:

5. Salient features

Rs. 40,000/-

:

The total height of spray is 55 feet. The sprayer can be used in orchard trees and for spraying in field crops, by bifurcating the delivery section into spray lines with spray lances and spray guns.

POWERTILLER OPERATED LAWN MOWER

1. Function

:

2. Specification

For mowing lawn grass

:

i. Type

Mounted type

ii. Power requirement

:

8 -10 hp power tiller

iii. Overall dimensions
iv. Weight

:
:

400 x 636 x 1665 mm
79 kg

v. Capacity

 

:

:

0.8 ha per day

 

3. General Information

:

The cylindrical lawn mower attachment to power tiller consists of 750 mm width and 235 mm diameter cylinder fitted with 12 numbers of helical steel blades on its periphery. A horizontal ledger plate with a concave groove is provided beneath the cylinder. The power is transmitted from the power tiller rotary drive shaft to the cylinder shaft through chain and sprocket. A tail wheel is provided for controlling the height of cut. The unit is attached to the power tiller rotary hitch bracket assembly of the transmission case and the rear portion of the unit derives support from the power tiller handle through two support arms.

4. Cost of the unit

:

5. Salient features

Rs.25,000/-

:

The unit is simple to operate and easy to handle. Results in 50 per cent and 64 per cent saving in cost and time respectively

POWERTILLER OPERATED TURMERIC HARVESTER

1. Function

:

2. Specification

For harvesting turmeric rhizomes

:

i. Type

:

Mounted type

ii. Power requirement

:

8 -10 hp power tiller

iii. Overall dimensions
iv. Weight

:
:

400 x 636 x 1665 mm
67 kg

v. Capacity

:

0.6 ha per day

3. General Information

:

The unit consists of a blade with three bar points for easy penetration into the soil. To the rear end of the blade six slats spaced at mm apart are hinged at both ends. The oscillating motion for the slats is obtained through eccentric provided on either side of the unit. The power is transmitted from the clutch pulley of the power tiller to a reduction gearbox mounted near the hitch bracket  

 
assembly of the power tiller. From the gear box the power is transmitted to the shaft of the turmeric digger unit through V belt transmission. The pneumatic wheels are replaced with a pair of special type cage wheels to accommodate the height of ridges. 4. Cost of the unit

:

5. Salient features

Rs. 28,000/-

:

65 % saving in cost and 90 % saving in time. Damage caused to the rhizomes is 0.5 % as compared to 4.2 % in manual harvesting.

TRACTOR DRAWN TURMERIC HARVESTER

1. Function

:

2. Specification

For harvesting Turmeric rhizomes

:

i. Type

:

Mounted type

ii. Power requirement
iii. Width of the digger

:
:

35 - 45 hp Tractor
120 cm

iv. Capacity

:

1.6 ha per day

3. General Information

:

The unit consists of a blade with five bar points for easy penetration into the soil. The blade is fixed at an inclination of 200

to a cultivator frame with straight tynes at both ends. It can

be hitched to the tractor through three – point linkage connection provided in the front portion of the unit. The rake angle of the blade can be adjusted by moving the blade through a clevis provided at the bottom of the two tynes. At the rear end of the clevis two converging slats are fixed to convey the harvested turmeric with the soil on to the lift rods without spilling to the side ways. To the rear end of the blade seven lift rods of 250 mm length are provided. For digging, the bar points with the blade penetrate into the soil, lift the turmeric rhizomes from the soil. The  

 
soil slip back to the ground and the dug out rhizomes deposited at the centre of the unit. 4. Cost of the unit

:

5. Salient features

Rs. 22,000/-

:

Results in 70 per cent saving in cost and 90 per cent in time. Extent of damage caused to the rhizomes is very much less (2.83 per cent).

POWER ROTARY WEEDER

1. Function

:

2 , Specification

For mechanical control of weeds in crops such as sugarcane,
tapioca, cotton and orchards.

:

i. Type

:

Self propelled

ii. Power requirement

:

8.38 hp Diesel engine

iii. Overall dimensions
iv. Weight

:
:

2400 x 1750 x 1100 mm
200 Kg

v. Capacity

:

1 - 1.2 ha per day

3. General Information

:

A 8.38 hp diesel engine operates the weeder. The engine power is transmitted to ground wheels through V belt-pulley. A tail wheel is provided at the rear to maintain the operating depth. Weeding is done by the rotary weeding attachment. The rotary weeder consists of three rows of discs mounted with 6 numbers of curved blades in opposite directions alternatively in each disc. The width of coverage of the rotary tiller is 500 mm.

4, Cost of the unit

5. Salient features
 

:Rs. 1,00,000

:

 
Useful for weeding between rows of crops like tapioca, tomato and crops whose rows spacing is more than 45 cm.
POWERTILLER DRAWN BUND FORMER
1. Function

:

2. Specification

For forming bunds

:

i. Type

:

Trailed type

ii. Power requirement

:

8 -10 hp power tiller

iii. Overall dimensions

:

1080 x 770 x 520 mm

iv. Weight

:

15kg

v. Capacity

:

2.5 ha per day at 3 m interval

3. General Information

:

The unit consists of two converging steel blades fixed to a frame which can be attached to a power tiller. The size of the bund is regulated by the size of the wings and adjustable holes provided on the wings. Three sizes of the bunds can be formed with the unit. 4. Cost of the unit

:Rs. 5000/-

5. Salient features

:

It forms bunds in irrigated lands and across the slope of dry land to conserve soil moisture. Mechanical thresher for pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

Pepper (Piper nigrum L.), the king of spices is the most important spice of India. It is the dried fruit of perennial climbing vine, mostly found in hot and moist parts of Southern India. Kerala alone contributes 96% of the total production in India.

The spikes of well-matured, unripe berries are manually picked when they are blackish green  

 
and most pungent by climbing on the ladders. Normally two women jointly do the harvesting. Threshing of pepper berries is done by manual trampling, which involves either a man / woman labour. A labourer will be able to trample about 200 kg of spikes and separate the berries. The empty spikes are disposed to the compost pit and used as manure. To overcome the drudgery to the labourer, a mechanical thresher has been developed at the Department of Agricultural Processing, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

This pepper thresher consisted of a metallic drum provided with rasp bars, concave, oscillating sieve, power source and power drive. On the periphery of the drum, 8 numbers of rasp bars made of wood are mounted. The drum is placed inside a concave provided with an opening and a suitable cover. A feed hopper is provided for easy feeding of spikes into the concave. An oscillating sieve is provided with an eccentric to separate the berries and spikes after threshing. The power to the drum is transmitted through V pulley arrangement from a 2 hp motor. The pepper spikes fed through the hopper reach the threshing drum and undergoes threshing. The separated berries and empty spikes fall on the sieve and separated. The performance of the thresher was evaluated in the plantations for the capacity, breakage and threshing efficiency at various speeds of operation. The capacity of the thresher is 320 kg/hour. The percentage of broken berries was negligible and the threshing efficiency was above 95% at 300 rpm of drum speed.

Salient features:
!  Suitable for threshing black pepper from the pepper vine !  Operated by a 2 hp electric motor/ suitable power drive
!  Efficiency - 95%
!  Capacity - 320 kg/hour
!  Cost of the thresher - Rs.30,000/!  Cost of operation - Rs.125/- per tonne of pepper Fluidised Bed Dryer for Mushroom
Mushroom, contains about 90% moisture and is highly perishable. To reduce the spoilage  

 
and increase the shelf life of the mushroom, drying is one of the techniques. By the traditional sun drying method it takes about 10 to 14 hours to dry the mushroom to a final moisture content of about 8 per cent. By mechanical drying, mushroom is dried at higher temperature and faster which preserves the colour and the quality of the final product. Hence, a mechanical dryer suitable for drying of oyster and milky mushroom by the medium and large growers has been developed in the Department of Agricultural Processing, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

The developed dryer is of fluidised bed type, as this type of drying is faster and uniform compared to that cabinet drying and tray drying. The fluidised bed dryer consists of a centrifugal blower, holding bin, heating coils, motor and thermostat control. The blower is run by a 3 hp, three phase motor. The delivery of the blower is connected to the heater drum, provided four numbers of fin type electrical heaters of each 500 Watts and controlled through a stem type thermostat. At the other end of the heater drum, the drying chamber is placed. Hot air of 50 to 90°C temperature at a flow rate of 9 to 32 m3/ minute can be obtained in this dryer. The whole assembly is placed on a suitable frame made of mild steel.

The atmospheric air discharged by the blower reach the heater drum and come in contact with the heaters and heated. The hot air entering into the drying chamber dries the mushroom. The velocity of air is controlled by adjusting the position of the shutter in the suction of the blower, so that the mushroom pieces float over the bin surface during drying. It takes about 2 and 6 hours to dry the oyster and milky mushroom to a final moisture of 8-10 %(w.b) from an initial moisture content of 70-80%(w.b).

Salient features:
!  Suitable for drying oyster and milky mushroom
!  Dries oyster mushroom in 2 hours and milky mushroom in 6 hours !  5 hp power is required for the blower and heaters
!  Capacity is 6 kg of mushroom per batch
 

 
!  Cost of the dryer is Rs.50,000/!  Cost of drying is Rs.50/- per kg of dry mushroom Pulper cum Washer for Coffee
Coffee is an important commercial and high altitude crop grown in southern and north- eastern parts of our country. Its annual production is 2.1 lakh tonnes. Pulping and washing are the important unit operations in the coffee processing. The coffee pulper and washers available at present are of higher capacities and the cost is beyond the reach of small farmers. To meet the requirement of small and marginal farmers an integrated unit with pulping and washing mechanism has been developed by Department of Agricultural Processing, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 3.

The unit essentially consists of a trapezoidal hopper, drum type pulper and a screw auger model washer. The hopper holds and feeds the coffee fruits to the pulper uniformly through a fluted roller mechanism. The pulper has a drum with projections and two breastplates. Provisions are made to adjust the clearance between the breastplate and drum so as to pulp different sizes of fruits. The pulper removes the skin from the matured ripened fruits. The skin is discharged over the perforated inclined tray fitted below the pulper and collected separately. The washer has an inner roller and a perforated outer cylinder. The inner roller is made of mild steel pipe with screw auger and helical bars with cross stoppers for conveying the parchment. The inner roller is mounted on bearings inside the perforated outer cylinder. During operation, the parchment is moved in between the perforated outer cylinder and inner roller. Friction and abrasion developed due to movement of beans remove the mucilage present over the parchment. By adjusting the counter weight provided at the discharge end, the pressure inside the washer is regulated and thorough washing of the bean is achieved.

Water for washing is provided on the top of the perforated outer cylinder through five nipples placed at equal intervals and is regulated by a valve. Both pulper and washer are operated by a 3-hp electric motor through suitable pulleys and belt.

Salient features:

 

 
!  Capacity of the unit is 500 kg of fruits per hour
!  Water requirement is only 4 litres of water per kg of fruits. !  The approximate cost of the unit is Rs.50,000/-.
Mechanical Chipper for Tapioca
Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) is a root crop cultivated for use of food, animal feed and production of starch. In India tapioca is grown in 0.35 million ha. area and produces about 6 million tonnes annually. The physiological deterioration of tapioca root is related to accumulation after the harvest within a shorter period of one week. This spoilage can be prevented by chipping and drying of tapioca tubers. At present the tuber is sliced manually which is highly time consuming and in-efficient, besides causing drudgery to the personworking. Therefore a vertical feed type motorised tapioca chipping machine has been developed in the Department of Agricultural Processing, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

The developed tapioca chipper consists mainly of a feed hopper with guides, chipping disc with knives, chips outlet and a 0.5 HP single phase electric motor. The feed hopper is provided with vertical guides made of pipes of diameter 25 to 80 mm for 100 mm length to facilitate feedings of tubers of varying diameters. Through these guides the tubers reach the chipping disc having three blades, rotating at 300 rpm. The radially mounted blades on the chipping disc slice the tuber and the chip is collected through the outlet. Salient features:

!  Suitable for varying diameters of tubers
!  Thickness of chips can be varied
!  Also suitable for slicing other tuber crops like radish, carrot, potato °etc. !  The capacity of the unit is 270 kg per hour.
!  The cost of the unit is Rs.10,000/-.
Tomato Seed Extractor
 

 
Tomato is one of the important commercial crop ranking second in importance to potato in India. At present, seed extraction from tomato is carried out manually by squeezing the fruits and by scooping the seeds, with hands. Manual method is unhygienic, tedious, highly labour intensive and time-consuming process. In certain places, mechanical seed extraction is practiced using a juicer or pulper. The juice is filtered out while the pulp and seeds are separated by acid, alkali, or fermentation methods. The pulp is discarded since the whole fruit is pulped and the seed is separated by filtration with repeated washing. In order to make use of the flesh in the tomato for further processing, the extraction of the seed has to be done by crushing the fruits in a hygienic way. Considering all these facts, a tomato seed extractor has been developed by Department of Agricultural Processing, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 3. The newly fabricated tomato seed extractor consists of a feed hopper, fruit crushing chamber, seed separation unit, water recycling system and seed collecting trough. The fruit crushing chamber consists of a rotating shaft with a screw auger of 90 mm diameter and 45 mm pitch. In the crushing chamber the tomato fruits are crushed and squeezed by the rotating screw auger. As the squeezed fruit crosses the squeezing zone seed separation starts. The seed separation unit consists of a rotating shaft with studs (arranged in a helical fashion throughout its length), a perforated outer cover, water distribution nozzles, rectangular trough, seed outlet and squeezed fruit outlet.

As the squeezed fruit enters the seed separation unit, the studs open the squeezed fruit, exposing the seeds to the stream of water. The water separates the seed from the flesh and comes down along with the seed through the perforated outer cover and is collected in a rectangular trough, placed at the bottom of seed separation unit. The water collected in the trough is recycled by means of a centrifugal pump. The flesh coming out of the seed separation unit is collected separately. The power for the crushing the fruits and water recycling is taken from the 0.5-hp electric motor fitted at the bottom of the unit.

Salient features:
!  Capacity of the unit is 180 kg of fruit ( 1.8 kg of seed) per hour. !  The cost of unit is Rs.25,000/-.
 

 
!  Cost of seed extraction per kg is Rs.10/-.
!  The saving in cost is 90 per cent
!  Saving in time is 97 per cent.
Brinjal Seed Extractor

Brinjal, a non-seasonal important vegetable crop is grown all over India throughout the year, in an area of 0.45 million ha had recorded about 5.8 million tonnes of production. Seed is one of the important inputs and plays a key role in the productivity and production of any crop and brinjal too. At present, seeds are extracted from brinjal fruits, manually by beating the fruits with mallet, trampling under feet, squeezing with hands, splitting the fruits and scooping seeds, etc. The manual methods of extraction of seed are tedious, highly time and labour consuming process. Sometimes delayed seed extraction resulted in decreased seed quality and increased cost. Keeping this in view, a new gadget for the extraction of seeds from brinjal has been developed. The brinjal seed extractor consists of a fruit crushing chamber and seed separation unit. In the fruit crushing chamber, 70 mm length crushing rods are fixed in the shaft which crushes the fruit into pulp with the help of feed water and discharges the same into the bottom portion of the seed separation unit. The seed separation unit houses a horizontal sieve bottom, sloping solid bottom below the sieve bottom, seed outlet, agitator, pulp outlet and drain cock. The inclined bottom of the seed separation unit helps for easy collection of seeds towards the seed outlet. Seeds are collected along with water by opening the value and keeping a sieve tray with 3 mm holes. The brushes fixed in the agitator move over the sieve surface, remove the lodged seeds if any and keep the sieve always clean for easy passage of seeds through the sieve. The brinjal fruit pulp with seeds is introduced into the seed separation unit at the bottom in a standing column of water. The rotating agitator with radial arms, agitates and separates the denser healthy seeds from pulp and ill filled light seeds. Due to the difference in specific weight, the good seeds are moving towards the bottom, pass through the sieve and get collected through seed outlet. The lighter pulp and other ill filled seeds rise to the surface and discharged through the pulp outlet.

 

 

Salient features:
!  Capacity of the unit is 120 kg of fruits or 2 kg of seeds per hour. !  The cost of the unit is Rs.25,000/-.
!  The cost of seed extraction is Rs.10/- per kg of seed.
!  Savings in cost is 88.9%.
!  Savings in time is 97.5%.
Coconut tree climber (TNAU Model)
The coconut tree climber has two components, the upper frame is operated by hands and the lower frame is operated by foot. The two components are connected by adjustable belts. The upper frame is provided with a seating arrangement and the lower frame is having provision for gripping by foot.

The frames are mounted to the tree by removing the end

member. By standing on the lower frame, the upper frame can be lifted up or down along the tree. Similarly, by sitting in the upper component, the lower frame can be slide up or down over the tree. The operator can climb up or down the tree by operating the upper and the lower frames alternately. Since the operator is safely held against the tree by the upper frame, there is practically no possibility of the operator falling down. An operator takes 13 minutes to safely climb, harvest the nuts and descent a tree. The cost of the unit is Rs.3000/-. An improved model with added safety features is available for Rs.4000/Semi automatic Needle type tray seeder for vegetable nursery production Nowadays, vegetable growers prefer pro-tray grown seedlings over conventional ones for manual transplantation. Moreover, the tray seedlings are grown under controlled environments and have appreciable vitality and plant

stand after transplantation. One of the major tasks in
the production of tray grown seedlings is to sow the
seeds into the tray cells, which is presently a tedious
manual process. Manually picking and placing of
 

 
single flat seeds such as chilli and tomato into the pro tray cells is all the more tedious and slow.
A pneumatic pick and place seeder has been developed, which has an air sealed box that is moved in an semi circular locus as mounted on a set of four bar linkages on either side of the box. The box holds 98 receptacles for needle pickers as arranged in the same configuration of the pro-tray. Picker needles of various sizes ranging from 21 to 16 G can be directly fitted to these receptacles. The seed feed tray has longitudinal compartments with a sloping bottom, meant for each of 7 rows of 14 picker needles. It is imparted a low amplitude vibration by an eccentric coupled small electrical motor, to loosen the seed mass and to sift down the dust. A vacuum source (house hold vacuum cleaner) is connected pneumatically to the picker box through a custom made spring return valve, through a vacuum buffer to even out pressure. When the picker needles are positioned over the seed tray, the valve is manually actuated to create suction on the needles to pick and hold seeds. Then the picker box is moved by a lever to the partially media filled pro-tray and vacuum released to drop the picked seeds into the cells.

The device was evaluated for its pick/place performance on different type of seeds such as tomato, brinjal and chilli. The operating cost analysis based on experiments found that the device can save the cost by 50% and labour by about 60%. The cost of the seeder is Rs. 10,000 and its capacity is 860 trays per day.

Automatic needle type tray seeder for vegetable nursery production

 
       
 
 
 

 
              
                     
To mechanize the placement of seeds in the pro-tray cells, an automated protray sowing machine has been developed. The device has an automated needle picker, which can handle a queue of protrays. A flat conveyor belt is moved in steps on a table top to cater the inter cellular distance of a standard 98 celled protray. A media filling mechanism with a media hopper and a feed roller are provided along with regulating shutters, so that the volumes of media metered correspond to fill each row of the protray cells. Similarly another feed hopper for dispensing media to top up the tray after the sowing operation is also provided. The device has a solenoid actuated tray compacting device, that press the media down a single row of the media filled protray at a time. The seed picking arm having a row of 7 needle pickers which alternately dip into a vibrating seed tray and shuttles back to drop the seed into each row of the protray below. An electrical drive and appropriately mounted limit switches control the above action. This is integrated to the main control circuit operating the compacter and the vacuum release solenoid. Since the seed pick/drop mechanism needs to be stopped when the seed tray is not present below it, an optical sensor is incorporated in the circuit to sense the tray’s presence. A rotary vane vacuum pump is provided from which the vacuum is sourced to the picking array. A solenoid valve is coupled on the line between the pump and the picker manifold to make and break the vacuum supply to the picker. This intermitted air flood is used to pick and drop the seeds at the appropriate locations. Cams are mounted to actuate limit switches to control the seeding/ compacting actions appropriately.

The protrays once fed on the conveyor are automatically filled with growth media, compacted, sown, topped up with media and passed out to the other side of the conveyer, thus achieving fully automating the process. About 80 sown trays can be prepared in an hour. Cost of operation works out to Rs 350/ day for sowing 600 trays /day. The savings in cost and labour is about 117 per cent and 60 per cent respectively. The cost of the unit is Rs. 30,000 only.

 

 
Aerial access hoist for coconut and tall tree crop
management
All existing tools and devices involve the operator to climb up the

tree for harvesting and carrying out other

management practices at the crown. Farmers who own large
areas are interested in having a system which can elevate a
person up to the tree crown by a portable aerial access
platform. The existing aerial access platforms are having the following limitations.
1. The access is vertically upward and not side
wards
2. The machines are designed to operate by resting
on firm surface
3. Most machines have very wide stabilizing legs which cannot be operated under field conditions.
4. Require long time for setting up and operating
Keeping the above constraints in view and after a through study of the planting pattern and space requirements the following technical requirements of a tractor mounted aerial access hoist were formulated.

Lifting capacity
Platform size

1000 x 700 x 1000 mm

Working height

16 m

Platform access height from the ground

15 m

Platform outreach

6m

Rotation/slewing angle

360 degrees

Stabilizer

Hydraulically operated 4 nos. to provide
absolute stability

Power

 

120 kg

PTO of tractor, with exclusive hydraulic
system and controls

 
The time required for locating unit and operating stabilizers was 1 min. The time required for positioning against a tree of 10 m height was 2 min. Suitable safety devices were incorporated to ensure stability of the hoist. The positioning of the operator platform can be done by the operator himself using electro hydraulic controls. a)

Cost of the operation, Rs./hr

:

Rs. 296 /- per hr

b)

Comparative savings in time and labour

:

At par

c)

Coverage

:

8 -10 trees per hour

:

Rs. 7.6 lakhs

d)

Cost of implement / equipment

Dehusker for fresh arecanut
              Arecanut is being cultivated in 3.86 lakhs ha in India with a production of 4.76 lakhs tones of kernels. Most of the areca produced in Tamil Nadu is dehusked in green state. Labour requirement for dehusking is estimated as 7-8 kg of nuts per hour per labour. This involves huge labour requirement and high cost. Existing models are expensive and also cause damage to the kernels.

The

machine

has

longitudinal

profiled blades. The concave had two spring loaded rubber pads that press the fruit gently against the rotor. The fruits are fed at the top manually. The fruits travel half the circumference and are dehusked in the process. The dehusked kernals fall to the bottom along with the husk. Tests were conducted with

both the models. The speed was

varied from 40 to 80 rpm. The results showed that the dehusking efficiency was 53 to 67%. The best dehusking performance was observed in 60 rpm. The breakage was observed in the range of 8 to 10 %.

 

 

Part XX
FOOD PROCESSING
TECHNOLOGIES
TECHNOLOGY

SALIENT FEATURES

Bio-Colours

 Increased preference for natural
colours.
 Extraction
of
colour
from
beetroot.
 Standardization
of
colour
extraction with acetone and
maltodextrin for maximum colour
retention and yield recovery.
 Rich in antioxidants with
enhanced sensory appeal.
 Good storage stability and
maintenance of colour intensity
for
12
months
at
room
temperature.
 No health hazards.

Greens based
Paruppu and Idli
podi

 Greens add colour, flavor,
nutritional and therapeutic value
to foods.
 Incorporation
of
greens
enhances the quality of the
parupu and idli podi.
 Good source of -carotene
(7473 g), B-vitamins and iron
(37 mg).
 Shelf life upto 10 months.

 

PICTURES

 
Aonla mouth
freshner

 Aonla granules can be used as
mouth fresheners and as
substitutes for areca nut and
tobacco.
 Developed from shredded and
dehydrated pieces of aonla and
source of lime juice and spices.
 Vitamin C (960 mg/100g) and β
carotene (98 µg) with improved
flavor and sensory appeal.
 Contains 226 mg calcium, 273
mg phosphorous, 20 mg iron and
16 mg fibre / 100g.

Protein Enriched
Spicy Mango
Bar

 Protein rich mango bar is a
combination of pulse (soya and
green gram) with mango pulp
 Enhanced
protein
carotene content.

and

β

 Shelf life upto nine months
 Provides 10 g protein, 5 g fibre,
15 mg vitamin C and 305µg β
carotene.
 Can be used in nutrition
intervention
programmes
to
prevent protein malnutrition and
vitamin A deficiency.

Papaya Fruit Bar

 Fruit bars are manufactured by
the dehydration of papaya fruit
pulp.
 Papaya based bars are rich
sources
of
β
carotene
(1688µg/100g) with 16 %
moisture content.
 Shelf stable up to six months at
room temperature.

 

 
Tomato Powder

 Ready to use convenience food.
 Can be readily rehydrated and
used to substitute tomato pulp or
puree and also used to thicken
soups, sauces, stews, and
gravies.
 Rich source of lycopene,
natural antioxidant.

a

 Low moisture food and has good
storage stability.
Coconut Powder

 Contain high fibre content of
32.67-35g%
 Also provides 40 to 45% fat, 350
to 370 mg% of calcium, 6.5 to
8% protein, 2-3% moisture and
2-3 % ash.
 Has a shelf life of six months.
 Ready to use in, extruded
products, snacks foods and
confectionery.

Ginger Garlic
Powder

 Ready to use and an easy
substitute for fresh ginger garlic
powder.
 Low moisture food and has shelf
life for more than 12 months.
 Easy to use and blends well with
food preparations.
 Less bulk and hence saves cost
on transport and storage.

Bael Fruits
Noodles

 Bael fruit pulp its incorporated for
the preparation of noodles.
 The phyto-chemical analysis
showed
the
presence
of
alkaloids in bael fruit pulp.
 The noodles contain 13.12 %
protein, 964 µg/β carotene, 110
mg
calcium,
15.30
mg
potassium, 2.60 mg iron, 2.51
mg zinc and 2.69mg magnesium

 

 
per 100g.
 Shelf-life upto six months in MPP
packaging materials.
 Low glycemic index and suitable
for diabetes.\

Mushroom
products

Probiotic enriched
food products
from fermented
cassava flour

 

 Mushroom protein comparable to
meat protein.
 Dehydrated mushroom powder
finds application in formulation of
a variety of value added
products.
 Mushroom powder (100 g)
contains 12 g protein, 47 g fibre,
57 mg calcium and 29 mg iron.
 Instant mushroom soup mix and
mushroom biscuits which are
rich in protein and fibre.
 The products have a shelf life of
three
months
at
room
temperature.
 Fermentation has been reported
to be responsible for product
stability, flavor development and
cyanide elimination.
 Using mixed culture inoculums
the cassava chips has been
fermented dried and milled.
 New and alternative nutritious
bread, noodles and biscuits can
be produced from different
combinations
of
fermented
cassava flour ( FCF) and
Refined Wheat Flour (RWF) in
the ratio of 75;25 and 50;50 as
base and fortified with 15,20,25
and 30 per cent Defatted soy
Flour ( DSF).
 The calcium, phosphorus and
iron content of the fermented
cassava and defatted soy flour

 
substituted
products
were
increased when compared to
control products. Protein content
increased upto 12%
 Important essential amino acids
like lysine and metheonine were
comparatively
higher
in
fermented cassava flour and
defatted soy flour incorporated
bread, noodles and biscuits.

Part XXI
Soil Test Crop based Integrated Plant Nutrition
System for Horticultural Crops (STCR-IPNS)
Soil test crop response based fertilizer prescriptions under integrated plant nutrition system (STCR-IPNS) for horticultural crops provide a scientific basis wherein the fertiliser doses for NPK are tailored to the requirement of NPK for specific yield levels of crops taking into account the contribution of NPK from soil, fertilizer and organic and or biofertilisers. Being a site and situation specific technology, STCR-IPNS along with entire improved package of practices for various crops ensures balanced nutrition, increased productivity and efficiency of applied NPK with sustained soil health over long run. The STCR- IPNS recommendations for various horticultural crops are furnished in Tables 1-13 and can be adopted to similar and allied soil types. I. VEGETABLES

Onion (1)
Soil

:

Red sandy loam (Irugur series)

FN

Season :

Kharif/Rabi

FP2O5 = 0.58 T - 1.43 SP - 0.69 OP

Target :

170 q ha-1 fresh bulb

FK2O = 0.67 T - 0.25 SK - 0.44 OK
NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM @25 t ha-1 + Azospirillum
@ 2 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 2 kg ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN
 

SP

= 0.99 T - 0.37 SN - 0.58 ON

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

 
180

10

200

53

60

37

200

12

220

46

58

32

220

14

240

39

55

27

240

16

260

31

52

22

260

18

280

24

49

17

Note: FN, FP2O5 and K2O are fertilizer N, P2O5 and K2O in kg ha-1, respectively; T is the yield target in q ha-1; SN, SP and SK respectively are available N,P and K in kg ha-1 and ON, OP and OK are the quantities of N, P and K supplied through organic manure in kg ha-1.

Bhendi (2)
Soil

: Mixed black calcareous

FN

= 1.15 T- 0.46 SN - 0.81 ON

(Perianaickenpalayam series)

FP2O5 = 0.52 T -1.31 SP - 0.87 OP

Season

: Kharif / Rabi FK2O = 1.77 T - 0.64 SK - 0.91

OK
Target

: 150 q ha-1 green fruit
NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM@25 t ha-1 +
Azospirillum@ 2 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 2 kg ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN

SP

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

180

10

250

51

40

60**

200

12

300

42

37

47

220

14

350

33

35

15*

240

16

400

23

32

15*

14

30

15*

260
18
450
*maintenance dose ; **maximum dose

Cabbage (3)
Soil
 

: Red Sandy loam

FN

= 0.55 T- 0.89 SN - 0.76 ON

 
FP2O5 = 0.29 T -2.75 SP - 0.86 OP

(Irugur series)

FK2O = 0.36 T - 0.31 SK - 0.56 OK

Season : Rabi
Target

: 700 q ha-1 fresh head
NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM@15 t ha-1 +
Azospirillum@ 2 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 2 kg ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN

SP

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

180

10

200

181

144

160

200

12

250

163

138

145

220

14

300

145

133

129

240

16

350

127

127

114

260

18

400

110

122

98

Cauliflower (4)
Soil

: Red Sandy loam

FN

(Irugur series)

FP2O5 = 0.44 T -1.74 SP - 0.85 OP

Season : Rabi
Target

= 0.93 T- 0.79 SN - 0.63 ON

FK2O = 0.44 T - 0.18 SK - 0.46 OK

: 400 q ha-1 fresh curd
NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM@15 t ha-1 +
Azospirillum@ 2 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 2 kg ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN

SP

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

180

10

200

185

124

112

200

12

250

169

120

103

220

14

300

153

117

94

240

16

350

137

113

85

260

18

400

122

110

76

Potato (5)
Soil
 

: Laterite- Sandy clay loam (Ooty series)

FN

= 0.70 T - 0.24 SN - 0.41 ON

 
Season :

FP2O5 = 1.40 T - 0.55 SP - 0.95 OP

Kharif / Rabi

Target : 400 q ha-1 fresh tuber

FK2O = 0.72 T - 0.25 SK - 0.39 OK
NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM @ 15 t ha-1 + Azospirillum
@ 2 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 2 kg ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN

SP

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

(Bray)
200

300

300

185

361

178

225

350

350

179

334

166

250

400

400

173

306

153

275

450

450

167

279

141

300

500

500

161

251

128

Carrot (6)
Soil

: Laterite -Sandy clay loam (Ooty series)

Season :

-1

Target : 400 q ha fresh root

FK2O = 0.83 T - 0.40 SK - 0.43 OK
NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM@ 15 t ha-1 + Azospirillum
@ 2 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 2 kg ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SP

= 0.48 T - 0.17 SN - 0.33 ON

FP2O5 = 1.11 T - 1.17 SP - 0.31 OP

Kharif / Rabi

SN

FN

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

(Bray)
200

200

300

110

175

183

225

250

350

106

117

163

250

300

400

102

68*

143

275

350

450

97

68*

123

300

400

500

93

68*

103

*maintenance dose

Beetroot (7)
Soil

: Red Sandy clay loam (Palathurai series)

Season :
 

Kharif / Rabi

FN

= 0.64 T - 0.65 SN - 0.96 ON

FP2O5 = 0.52 T - 1.58 SP - 0.92 OP

 
Target : 500 q ha-1 fresh root

FK2O = 0.61 T - 0.27 SK - 0.92 OK
NPK (kg ha-1) + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 +
Azospirillum @ 2 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 2 kg ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

180

10

300

152

206

194

200

12

350

139

203

180

220

14

400

126

200

166

240

16

450

113

197

153

260

 

SP

18

500

101

193

139

 
Radish (8)
Soil

: Red Sandy clay loam (Palathurai series)

Season :

FN

= 0.69 T - 0.74 SN - 1.03 ON

FP2O5 = 0.28 T - 1.35 SP - 1.15 OP

Kharif / Rabi
-1

Target : 500 q ha fresh root

FK2O = 0.43 T - 0.21 SK - 0.64 OK
NPK (kg ha-1) + Vermicompost 5 t ha-1 +
Azospirillum @ 2 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 2 kg ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN

SP

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

180

10

300

200

12

350

100**
100**

91
88

100**
100**

220

14

400

100**

85

100**

240

16

450

100**

82

94

260

18

500

98

80

83

**maximum dose

Tapioca (9)
Soil

: Red Sandy loam (Thulukkanur series)

Season :

FN

= 0.56 T- 0.61 SN- 0.81 ON

FP2O5 = 0.35 T- 1.80 SP- 0.53 OP

Annual

Target : 500 q ha-1 fresh tuber

FK2O = 0.94 T- 0.67 SK- 0.70 OK
NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM / Coirpith compost/ Poultry
Manure @ 12.5 t ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

180

10

200

105

124

272

200

12

220

93

120

259

220

14

240

81

116

245

240

16

260

69

113

232

260

 

SP

18

280

56

109

218

 

Tomato (10)
Soil

: Red Sandy loam (Palaviduthi series)

Season :

FN

= 0.45 T- 0.63 SN- 0.72 ON
FP2O5 = 0.42 T- 4.18 SP- 0.73 OP

Kharif /Rabi

Target : 90 t ha-1

FK2O = 0.40 T- 0.48 SK- 0.66 OK

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)

NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1

SN

SP

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

200

14

200

239

297

229

220

16

220

226

289

219

240

18

240

214

281

210

260

20

260

201

272

200

280

22

280

189

264

191

II. SPICES
Chilli (11)
Soil

: Red Sandy loam (Irugur series)

Season :

FN

Kharif /Rabi

= 8.29 T - 0.32 SN
FP2O5 = 7.13 T – 5.24 SP

-1

Target : 20 q ha dry pod

FK2O = 5.86 T – 0.15 SK
NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM / Coirpith compost/ Poultry
Manure @ 12.5 t ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN

SP

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

180

10

200

68

70

47

200

12

220

62

60

44

220

14

240

55

49

41

240

16

260

49

39

38

260

18

280

43

28

35

Turmeric (12)
Soil
 

: Red Sandy loam (Irugur series)

FN

= 1.11 T - 0.83 SN - 0.98 ON

 
Annual

FP2O5 = 0.57 T - 5.21 SP - 1.02 OP

Target : 350 q ha-1 fresh rhizome

FK2O = 0.83 T - 0.50 SK - 0.61 OK

Season :

NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM / Coirpith compost / Poultry
Manure @ 12.5 t ha-1

Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)
SN

SP

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

175

10

175

168

102

138

200

12

200

148

92

126

225

14

225

127

82

113

250

16

250

106

71

101

275

18

275

85

61

88

III. MEDICINAL CROP
Ashwagandha (13)
Soil

: Mixed black calcareous

FN

(Perianaickenpalayam series)

= 24.77 T - 0.61 SN - 0.74 ON

FP2O5 = 18.33 T - 2.68 SP - 0.84 OP
FK2O = 18.12 T - 0.21 SK - 0.59 OK

Season : Kharif / Rabi
Target : 9 q ha-1 dry root
Initial soil tests (kg ha-1)

NPK (kg ha-1) + FYM@ 12.5 t ha-1

SN

SP

SK

FN

FP2O5

FK2O

180

10

300

74

114

69

200

12

350

61

109

58

220

14

400

49

103

48

240

16

450

37

98

37

260

18

500

25

93

26

Note: (i) FN, FP2O5 and K2O are fertilizer N, P2O5 and K2O in kg ha-1, respectively; T is the yield target in q ha-1; SN, SP and SK respectively are available N,P and K in kg ha-1 and ON, OP and OK are the quantities of N, P and K supplied through organic manure in kg ha-1. (ii) 50% of blanket dose is fixed as maintenance dose to avoid nutrient mining. (iii) 200% of blanket dose is fixed as maximum dose.

 

 

Part XXII
APPENDICES
Appendix - I
Number of plants per acre

Distance in feet

No.of plants per acre

Distance in feet

No. of plants per acre

1 x1

43560

12 x 12

302

1½ x 1½

19460

13 x 13

257

2 x2

10890

14 x 14

222

2½ x 2½

6960

15 x 15

193

3 x3

4840

16 x 16

170

3½ x 3½

3556

17 x 17

150

4 x4

2722

18 x 18

134

4½ x 4½

2151

19 x 19

120

5 x5

1742

20 x 20

108

6 x6

1210

22 x 22

108

7 x7

889

24 x 24

55

9 x9

537

28 x 28

55

10 x 10

435

30 x 30

48

11 x 11

360

40 x 40

27

1 Acre = 4840 sq. yard
1 Acre = 43.560 sq.ft.
1 Acre = 40 Guntas
1 Acre = 4046.80 sq.mt.
 

 
1 Hec = 10000 sq.mt.
1 Hec = 250 cents
1 Hec = 2.47 acres

 

 

Appendix - II
Number of trees per acre
Spacing(ft)

Square

Quincunx

Hexagonal

10

435

870

500

16

170

340

195

20

109

218

125

24

75

150

86

28

56

112

64

36

34

68

39

40

27

54

31

Appendix - III
Number of plants per acre
Distance in metre

No. of plants per acre

1 x1
2 x2

1000

3 x3

444

4 x4

250

5 x5

160

6 x6

111

7 x7

81

8 x8

62

9 x9

43

10 x 10

 

4000

40

 

Appendix - IV
Germination and purity standards
MinimumGermination
percentage

Purity minimum
percentage

Sl. No.
1

Cowpea

75

98

2

Cluster beans

70

98

3

Field beans

75

98

4

Beans

75

98

5

Bhendi

65

99

6

Bitter gourd

60

99

7

Sponge gourd

60

99

8

Bottle gourd

60

99

9

Cucumber

60

99

10

Snake gourd

60

99

11

Watermelon

60

99

12

Pumpkin

60

99

13

Cauliflower

65

98

14

Cabbage

70

98

15

Knol-khol

70

98

16

Carrot

60

95

17

Radish

70

98

18

Brinjal

70

98

19

Tomato

70

98

20

Chillies

60

98

21

Capsicum

60

98

22

Greens

70

95

23

Fenugreek

70

98

24

Basella

60

96

25

 

Variety

Onion

70

98

 

Appendix - V
Viability of Horticultural seeds
S.No Name of seed

Max. viability period

A. Vegetables
1

Onion

6 Months

2

Beans, Pea, Cowpea

1 Year

3

Brinjal, Tomato, Chillies, Capsicum, Cucumber, Squashes,
Pumpkin, Carrot, Radish, Turnip, Cole crops.

1.5 Years

4

Bhendi, Lettuce, Amaranthus, Methi, Beet root, Palak.

2 Years

B. Fruits and root stock plants
1

Lime, Mandarin, Citrus rootstock species

1 Week

2

Mango stones, Litchi, Passion fruit, Butter fruit, Rose apple, Jambulana.

1 Month

3

Papaya, Kirni seeds

3-4 Months

4

Guava

4 Months

5

Watermelon, Musk melon

1 Year

6

Custard apple, Ramphal and other Annona sp.

1.5 Years

C. Plantation and Spices
1

Clove, Nutmeg, Cinnamon, Curry leaf

1 Month

2

Arecanut, Cashewnut

3 Months

3

Coconut

4 Months

4

Coriander and other annual spices

1 Year

D.Flowers
1

1 Year

2

Marigold

1.5 Years

3

 

Aster seeds, Gladioli corns

Other annual flower seeds

1 to 2 Years

 

Appendix VI
Average composition of manures and fertilisers
Percentage of Nutrients
Materials

N

P

K

Ammonium sulphate

20.5

-

-

Ammonium sulphate nitrate

26.0

-

-

Ammonium nitrate

33.5

-

-

Ammonium phosphate

16.0

20.0

-

Calcium ammonium nitrate

20.5

-

-

Nitrate of soda

16.5

-

-

Urea

46.0

-

-

Superphosphate-single

-

18.0

-

Superphosphate-double

-

35.0

-

Superphosphate-triple

-

45.0

-

Ultraphos

-

28.3

-

Mussoriephos

-

20-24

-

Rock phosphate

-

28.4

-

3.5

21.0

-

-

-

50 or 60

Poultry manure

1.2 - 1.5

-

-

Sheep manure

0.8 - 1.6

-

-

Farm yard manure

0.4

0.3

0.2

Compost

0.5

0.25

0.5

Bone meal
Muriate of Potash

 

 

Appendix VII
Conversion of pure nutrients to various N, P and K fertilisers Rate of
application
(kg/ha)

Ammonium
sulphate (20%
N)

Muriate of potash

Super
phosphate
(18% P)

Urea (46% N)

(50 % K)

(60 % K)

10

50

22

56

20

17

20

100

44

112

40

34

30

150

66

168

60

51

40

200

88

224

80

68

50

250

110

280

100

85

60

300

132

336

120

102

70

350

154

392

140

119

80

400

176

448

160

136

90

450

198

504

180

153

100

500

200

560

200

170

110

550

242

616

220

187

120

600

264

672

240

204

130

650

286

728

260

221

140
150

700
750

308
330

784
840

280
300

238
255

Appendix VIII Neutralising value
of liming materials
Calcium carbonate or lime stone
Burnt lime
Slaked lime
Dolomite

 

CaCO3

100

CaO

179

[Ca(OH)2]

136

[CaMg(CO )2]
3

109

 
S
o
u
r
c
e
:
P
a
c
k
a
g
e
o
f
P
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
s
r
e
c
o
m
m
e
n
d
a
t
i
o
n
s

c
 

rops’ 1993, KAU.

 

Appendix IX
a.i.

0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.2
0.3
Schedule for 0.05
preparation of 10 litre standard spary solution

0.4

0.5

Quantity of plant protection chemical required to be added to 10 litres of water (in ml or gm) 20

10

20

25

30

40

50

100

150

200

250

25

8

16

20

24

32

40

80

120

160

200

30

7

13

17

20

27

33

67

100

133

167

35

6

14

17

23

29

57

86

114

143

40

5

10

13

15

20

25

50

75

100

125

45

4

9

13

18

22

44

67

89

111

50

4

8

10

12

16

20

40

60

80

100

55

4

7

9

10

15

18

36

55

73

90

60

3

7

8

10

13

17

33

50

67

83

65

3

6

8

9

12

15

30

46

62

77

70

3

6

7

9

11

14

29

43

58

71

75

3

6

7

8

11

13

27

40

53

67

80

3

5

6

8

10

13

25

36

50

63

85

2

5

6

7

9

12

24

35

47

59

90

2

4

6

7

9

11

22

35

44

56

95
100

2
2

4
4

5
5

6
6

8
8

11
10

21
20

32
30

42
40

53
50

11

11

Source: Horticultural Technical Guide, GOK

 

 
Appendix X
Vernacular names of Horticultural Crops
Crop

Scientific name of the crop

Tamil

Telugu

Malayalam

Kannada

Mango

Ma

Mamidi

Manga

Marinna

Guava

Psidium gujava L.

Koyya

Jama

Pera

Seba

Pomegranate

Punica granatum L.

Madulam

Danimma

Madulam

Dalimbari

Jack

Artocarpus heterophyllus

Pala

Panasa

Pilavu

Alasu

Jamun

Eugenia jambolana

Naval

Neerudu

Navil

Neredu

Tomato

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

Thakkali

Seemavanga

Thakkali

Vanga

Bhendi

Abelmoschus esculentus L.Moench.

Vendakkai

Bhendakaya

Bhendakayi

Vendakai

Onion

Allium cepa var. aggregatum L.

Vengayam

Neerulli

Bawanj

Nirulli

Cluster beans

Cyamopsis tetragonolobus L.

Kothavarai

Goruchikkudukaya

Kothavarakka

Govardanakayi

Pumpkin

Cucurbita moschata Poir.

Poosani

Gummidikaya

Mattanga

Kumblakayi

Ribbed gourd

Luffa acutangula Roxb.

Peerkankai

Nunnabheera

Peechinga

Heerekkai

Bitter gourd

Momordica charantia L.

Pavakkai

Kakarakaya

Kaipakka

Hagalakkai

Snake gourd

Trichosanthes anguina L.

Pudalankai

Potlakaya

Padavalanga

Padivalakkai

Ash gourd

Benincasa hispida Cogn.

Kalyanapoosani

Budeethagummidi

Kumbalam

Budikumbla

Bottle gourd

Lagenaria siceraria Standl.

Sorakkai

Anapakaya

Churakkai

Soarekkai

Cucumber

Cucumis sativus L.

Velliri

Dosakaya

Vellirikkai

Southikadi

Cowpea

Vigna sinensis L.Walp.

Karamani

Alasandalu

Kottapairu

Avadai

Lablab

Lablab purpureus var.typicus L.

Avarai

Chikkudukayalu

Avarakka

Avaraikkai

Potato

 

Mangifera indica L.

Solanum tuberosum L.

Urulaikizhangu

Urulaigadda

Urulakizhangu

Urulagadda

 
Sweet potato

Sakkaraivalli

Genusagaddalu

Chakkaraikizhangu

Genusa

Tapioca

Manihot esculenta Crantz.

Maravalli

Karrapandalam

Kappakka

Maragenusa

Elephant yam

 

Ipomoea batatas L.Lam.

Amorphophallus companulatus Blume.

Shenaikizhangu

Thiyyakanda

Chenai

Suvarnagadda

 
Crop

Scientific name of the crop

Tamil

Telugu

Malayalam

Kannada

Colocasia

Seppankizhangu

Chamagadda

CHEMBU

KERUGADDA

Amaranthus

Amaranthus sp.

Keerai

Thotakoora

Cheera

Arivesoppu

Coccinia

Coccinia indica

Kovaikkai

Donda

Kovaikkai

Thondikkai

Curryleaf

Murraya Koengii

Karuveppilai

Karepaku

Kariveppillai

Kariberu

Mint

Mentha sp.

Pudina

Pudina

Muthina

Pudina

Pepper

Piper nigrum L.

Milagu

Mirialu

Kurumulagu

Karimenasu

Nutmeg

Myristica fragrans Hoult.

Jathikkai

Jajikaya

Jatikka

Jajikayi

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume.

Lavangapattai

Sannalavanga

Erikkolam

Dalacinnicakke

Coriander

Coriandrum sativum L.

Kothamalli

Dhaniyalu

Kothumpalari

Kothumpari

Garlic

Allium sativum L.

Vellaipoondu

Tellagadda

Vellulli

Bellulli

Tamarind

Tamarindus indicus L.

Puli

Chintha

Puli

Hunase

Ginger

Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Inji

Allam

Inji

Shunti

Fennel

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Perunjeeragam

Saompu

Peerunjeeragam

Sompu

Fenugreek

Trigonella foenumgraecum L.

Venthayam

Menthulu

Uluva

Menthya

Cardamom

Elettaria cardamomum Maton.

Yelakkai

Yelakayalu

Elathari

Yelakki

Cumin

Cuminum cyminum

Seeragam

Jeelakkara

Jiragam

Jeerigae

Turmeric

Curcuma domestica Val.

Manjal

Pasupu

Manjal

Arashina

Mustard

Brassica juncia L. Czern. Coss

Kadugu

Avalu

Katuka

Sasive

Clove

Eugenia caryophyllus Spregel.

Kirambu

Lavangam

Grambu

Lavanga

Cashew

 

Colocasia esculenta L.Scott.

Anacardium occidentale L.

Munthiri

Jeedimamidi

Parangimavu

Geru

 
Betelvine

Vethalai

Tamalapakulu

Vettala

Veeluvadele

Senna

Cassia augustifolia Vahl.

Surathnilavakai

Nilathangadu

Sunnamukki

Sunnamukki

Ajowan

 

Piper betle

Trachyspermum ammi L.

Omum

Vamu

Omum

Oma

 

Appendix XI
WAITING PERIODS FOR THE SAFE HARVEST OF HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE Crops

0.05

14

0.01

6

0.05

12

0.05

14

0.20

7

350 g a.i/ha

---

Chlorpyriphos

0.05

9

Methyl demeton

0.05

12

Methyl parathion

0.05

7

Monocrotophos

0.04

12

Carbaryl

0.10

5

Dimethoate

0.06

5

Fenthion

0.05

4

Malathion

0.10

7

Methyl parathion

0.05

9

Monocrotophos

0.05

9

Phosalone

0.07

4

Quinalphos

0.05

12

Endosulfan

0.07

5

0.04

15

Quinalphos

0.05

7

Phosalone

0.05

3

Fenitrothion

0.07

2

Methyl parathion

0.05

5

Quinalphos

0.05

5

Mancozeb

 

14

Lindane

6.

0.06%

Mancozeb

5.

Dimethoate

Methyl demeton

4.

Mango

Quinalphos

3.

Waiting period (Days)

Cypermethrin

2.

Concentration (%)

Fenthion

1.

Pesticide

0.20

5

Acid lime

Grapes

Guava

Ber

Tomato

 

Crops

Phosalone

0.07

2

0.10

5

0.07

3

0.10

3

Methyl parathion

0.05

5

Mancozeb

0.20

2

Disulfoton

1 kg a.i/ha

60

Aldicarb

1 kg a.i/ha

60

Phosalone

0.07

5

Fenitrothion

0.05

6

Endosulfan

0.07

3

Carbaryl

0.10

3

Methyl parathion

0.05

7

Triazophos

350 g a.i/ha

5

Lindane

350 g a.i/ha

5

Disulfoton

1 kg a.i/ha

55

Aldicarb

1 kg a.i/ha

55

Dicofol

0.05

1

Quinalphos

0.05

8

Mancozeb

0.20

6

Lindane

350 g a.i/ha

2

Aldicarb

1.25 g a.i/ha

60

Carbofuran

1.25 g a.i/ha

60

Dimethoate

0.03

5

Acephate

0.06

7

0.075

5

0.151

8

0.07

6.8

0.14

9.9

0.05

12, 0

0.1

10.

Brinjal

Carbaryl

9.

Waiting period (Days)

Endosulfan

8.

Concentration (%)

Fenitrothion

7.

Pesticide

16.5

Bhendi

Chillies

Lablab

Endosulfan
Monocrotophos

 

 
11.

Cardamom

Methyl parathion

0.05

Fresh capsules : 18-20
Cured capsules : 24-31

Endosulphan
12.

 

Betelvine

0.07

16

Carbofuran

0.75 kg a.i/ha

33

 
About . . .

Government Botanical Gardens, Udhagamandalam
The Government Botanical Gardens, nestled in a beautiful ravine with its entire splendor lying adjacent to the Raj Bhavan within the town. It covers an area of 22 ha ascending the slope on the hill at an elevation of 2400 - 2500 metres above MSL. The gardens enjoys a cool temperate climate with an average rainfall of 140 cm per annum, most of which is received during South-West monsoon with frostly nights from November to February. The maximum and minimum temperatures are 290

C to 00

C

respectively.
Before the garden was laid out, the area was then a patch of vegetable Garden. The upper portion with a wildness of Shola and shrubs, the lower part a swamp traversed by deep ravines. Early in 1847 at the aspiration of Marquis of Tweedale who was then the Governor of Madras, a fund was raised by donations and subscriptions to start a public garden. In 1848, Mr. C. Mc Iver who had the training at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, London was appointed as Superintendent of the Government Botanic Gardens, Udhagamandalam. The main garden is divided into six different sections, viz., !

The front gardens

!

The band stand

!

The conservatory and its surroundings

!

The fountain terrace and picnic gardens

!

The new band stand and its surroundings

!

And the nurseries

The Government Botanic Gardens, Udhagamandalam had played an important role in the earlier years by introducing many crops in the Nilgiris. Systematic introduction and maintenance of plants has resulted in the collection of about 2000 spices of plants representing 119 natural orders.

The Government Botanic Gardens, Udhagamandalam is from the inception, the primary  

 
centre of Horticulture development in the Nilgiris.
In the recent past, studies on various aspects of ornamental plants such as propagation techniques, cultivation methods, etc., are undertaken apart from introduction of new species of plants enriching the existing collection.

The special feature of the Government Botanic Gardens, Udhagamandalam is the conduct of flower show in the middle of May, every year.

Exhibitions and competitive shows on

various collections of flowers are held during the show.
crowd of enthusiasts and tourists every year.

 

The show draws an immense

 

(For information only)
Growth and development of moringa under organic and inorganic systems of culture An experiment was conducted to find out the efficacy of organic manures viz., FYM, poultry manure, neem cake, biofertilizer viz., azospirillum, VAM and natural organic product panchakavya on the growth and yield of moringa. The treatment combinations of poultry manure + neem cake + panchakavya (2% spray) out yielded other treatments for the growth and yield characters. Days to 50% flowering was advanced to 14.93 days in the above treatment. The yield attributes viz., number of pods / tree (225.57), pod weight (95.37g), pod yield 35.67 kg / tree were highest in the above treatment combination of poultry manure + neem cake + panchakavya. The nutrient contents viz., carotene (144.97 mg / 100g ascorbic acid (131.53mg / 100g) and soluble protein (5.74 g/100g) were found to be highest in the same treatment combination of poultry manure + neem cake + panchakavya. It was also found that the treatment combination of poultry manure

+ neem cake + panchakavya was very effective in controlling the fruit fly incidence (26.4%), when compared to control (38.22%).
Studies on the manipulation of source – sink relationship for increasing the fruit size of tomato hybrid H24 x CLN 2123 A
In tomato, the hybrid H2s x CLN 2123 A showed greater response for the application of panchakavya. It was found that the treatment combinations of panchakavya 5% at nursery state and 40 days after transplanting + tender coconut spraying (10% once in a week for 3 times) (T8)

recorded highest number of fruits per plant of 71.40, followed by 71.0 in the

panchakavya 5% spray at nursery stage alone (T4) whereas the control registered the lowest number of fruits of 43.25. Similarly, the fruit weight and yield per plant were also highest in the treatment T8 (59.4g and 3.65 kg respectively). Fruit quality parameters viz., TSS ,Total acidity and ascorbic acid contents were also highest in the treatment T8 (7.5, 0.73% and 16.8 mg/100g respectively).

Organic production package of Coleus forskohlii
In a study conducted with Coleus forskohlii revealed that application of panchakavya 4% spray was found to be superior in respect of root yield 12.40 kg / plot. when compared to control 5.23 kg / plot. Similarly, number of roots same (14.99), root length (13.73 cm), root  

 
diameter (2.49 cm) and root weight (459.35 g/ plant) was maximum in the above treatment when compared to control.

 

 

Standardization of organic production package of Withania somnifera An experiment was conducted for the standardization of organic production package of Withania somnifera at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Panchakavya 2%, 3% and 4% sprays and moringa leaf extracts 10 ml /plant, 20 ml / plant and 30 ml/ plant and chemicals cytozyme 1%, A tonic -1% and Miraculan – 1% sprays were given. Panchakavya 4% was found to be the best among all the treatments for growth and yield characters viz., plant height (145.63 cm), shoot fresh weight (976.24g), number of fruits (498.46) fruit yield (64.74 g / plant) and root length (54.21cm) . Compared to control, with only 98.48 cm, 720.61 g, 348.67, 36.23g /plant, 38.62 cm respectively.

 

 
Effect of organics on growth and yield of Bhendi var. Varsha Uphar An experiment was conducted to study the effect of panchakavya and moringa leaf extract on growth and yield of bhendi var. Varsha Uphar at Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Four sprays panchakavya (3%) and moringa leaf extract (25 ml/plant) were used started from 2 weeks after sowing and then the subsequent sprays given at 15 days interval.

Both the

treatments viz., panchakavya and moringa leaf extract were revealed the higher plant height, number of branches per plant, number of fruits per plant and fruit yield than the control (water spray). Moringa leaf extract increased the higher plant height and numbers of branches, while the number of fruits and fruit yield were the highest in panchakavya treated plants. Physiology of petal shedding in Rose

A study was conducted on the physiology of petal shedding in two cultivars of rose, viz., Edward rose and Red rose. It was found that the treatment calcium acetate 0.5% + panchakavya 5% significantly influenced the morphological characters, such as the height of the bush, length of the flowering shoot and the floral characters, such as the flower diameter, pedicel length, receptacle diameter, number of petals and petal : receptacle ratio. The treatment panchakavya 5% resulted in earlier flowering of 45.6 days and 53.31 days in cv. Edward rose and cv. Red rose respectively.

Studies on the effect of pinching, spacing and growth regulators on growth, yield and quality of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera )
In Ashwagandha, the yield attributes viz., root length (50.67 cm), root girth (4.93cm), root primaries (6.50 cm), root fresh (96.33g), dry weight (38.27 g) and root bark weight (22.33g) per plant were the highest under the treatment pinching + wider spacing + panchakavya (3% spray).

However the treatment pinching + closer spacing (60 x 30cm) + panchakavya (3%) registered the highest root yield of 1350 kg / hectare.
Biodynamic Agriculture
(Pfeffer, 1984) “Biodynamic Farming” refers to

working with energies, which create and

maintain life. The term derives from Greek Word “Bios (life) and ‘dynamics’ (energy). The use of word “method” indicates that one is not dealing merely with the production of another  

 
fertilizer, organic though it is, but rather that certain principles are involved which in the practical application secure a healthy soil and plants which in turn produce healthfuy food for man and healthy feed for animals . Biodynamic agriculture works on the following principles:

!

To restore to the soil, the organic matter in the form of humus, which holds it’s fertility.

!

To establish, maintain and improve soil living system.

!

Organic matter as the basic factor for the soil life.

!

Biodynamic method is not only fertilizing the soil but skillfull application of the factors contributing to soil life and health.

Courtesy : R.K. Pathak and R.A.Ram (2003). Approaches for green food production in horticulture. Precision Farming in Horticulture

 

 

!
!

!

!

Establish a system that brings into balance all factors which maintain life. In biodynamic way of treating manure and composts, the knowledge of enzymatic, hormone and other factors are also included.

The biodynamic method puts special emphasis on the importance of crop rotation, green manuring and cover crops.
The soil is not only a chemical, mineral or organic system, but it also has a physical structure. Maintenance of a crumbly, friable, deep, well-aerated structure is essential feature of fertile soil.

Efforts are being made to elaborate the concept and brief account of preparations used in biodynamic agriculture with a few explanations and experiences with the cultivation practices. Cosmic integration

Zodiac Principles
The ultimate fine tuning of biodynamic principles lies in harnessing cosmic influences for cultivation. Only at particular times of month or year, the cosmic influences are most supportive to growth of a particular part of a plant. (Schilthuis 2000). The cosmic factor that determines a month is the Moon. The movement of the Moon in relation to the Zodiac is more interesting. These Zodiac symbols are Greek in origin. The system has 12 constellations though represented by different archetype figures and animals. Within these 12 signs, there are four groups of these constellations, each of which have same qualities. They are related to basic four elements, i.e. earth, water, fire and air. These four elements can be placed in relation to influencing the four parts of the plant, the root, leaf, flower, and fruit as summarized below.

!

Root is associated with the earth. There is no root growth without earth,

!

Leaf is associated with water because it contains more than 80 per cent water,

!

!

Flower corresponds to air and light. There is no light without air (no light on the Moon) because there is no atmosphere,
Fruit and seed associated with fire, there is no fruit seed maturity without warmth.

Performing farm operations on specific days means harnessing these cosmic influences for development of a particular plant part.
The earth is emerged in the planetary spheres of solar system and these forces stamp themselves  

 
for example, morphology of the plants. The earthly forces of Moon, Mercury and Venus soak into the earth form the air above and the cosmic forces of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn moves upward from the rocks below. They interact in the region of clay so that the plants grow out of it. The light of the Sun, Moon, Planets and stars reaches to the plants in regular rhythms.

Each contributes to the life, growth and form of the plant. Planets impress effect on metals, rocks, plants, animals and man, so called “astral influences” coined from Greek where astar means, “star”. Just as sunshine contributes to the growth of plants and moon affect water content of all organisms, the planet also influences the earth and all who dowell on her. Since olden time, they have been divided as inner planet (Moon, Mercury and Venus between earth and Sun) and outer planets (Mars, Jupiter and Saturn). The inner planets work directly through atmosphere are indirectly via water, humus or calcium (limestone, potassium and sodium) on growth of plants.

The influences of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn are channeled through warmth and silica (quartz, feldspar and mica), they stream in through silica contents of soil and on plants being expressed in colours of flower and in fruit and seed production.

By understanding the gesture and effect of each rhythm, agricultural activities like soil preparation, sowing, intercultural operations and harvesting need to be programmed accordingly. Biodynamic Calendar

Biodynamic farmers use the knowledge practically by choosing time to show on plant, to use various plant husbandry techniques. Agricultural practices, i.e. field preparation, sowing, manuring, harvesting etc. performed as per constellation are more effective and beneficial. Every constellation has dominant elemental influence and affects four specific parts of the plants as enumerated below in Table 1.

Table 1. Showing interaction of element and constellation on plant parts Element
Earth

 

Plant part

Constellation

Root

Virgo, Capricorn, Taurus

 
Air

Flower

Germini, Libra, Aquarius

Water

Leaf

Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces

Fire

Fruit

Aries, Leo, sagittarius

Agricultural practices for better root activity (manuring and rooting), flowering, growth and fruiting/ seed is to be done as per constellation.
Ascending period of moon: During this period, cosmic forces are active above the earth / ground. Any agricultural practice (spray, propagation etc.) performed during the period show beneficial effect.

Descending period of moon : During this period, cosmic forces are active below the earth. Therefore, agricultural practices (field preparation, sowing, manuring and harvesting of root crops) performed during the period shows better success.

Agricultural Operation as per Movement of Moon : The moon moves regularly around earth and it travels monthly through each of the 12 signs of the Zodiac, staying approximately two-and-a half days in each sign. As it does so, it forms an angular relationship with the sun that is known as a Phase of the Moon, which means the angle between moon, earth and sun. Moon orbits the earth and the earth orbits the sun. It is the earths orbit that defines the ‘ecliptic’, which is divided symbolically into the zodiac. (Table 2)

 

 

Table 2. Showing position of earth and moon for harnessing cosmic forces.

Ascending moon

Descending moon

The earth is breathing out- the
The earth is breathing in - the development of
development occurs in upper parts of
the plant occurs parts below the ground, eg.
th l t
t
Cosmic energy works above the rhizosphere Cosmic energy works below the rhizosphere Spring and summer season

Autumn and winter season

Foliar applications, propagation
activities, harvesting and sowing

Root development, transplanting,
manure application and harvesting
ft b
Phases occur in two stages – waxing and waning
The moon is “waxing” (ascending period) – growing during these phases stages are : New moon, crescent moon, first quarter moon, gibbous moon.
The moon is waning (descending period) – shrinking – during these phases Full moon disseminating second quarter balsamic.
As a general thumb rule, when moon is waxing plants develop leaves above the ground systems and when moon is waning, plants develop their root system. Planting leafy crops that grow above ground are best sown at waxing moon and those that will require strong root system or grow below ground should be snow after full moon, in the waning phase.

Perigee (Poornima : full moon) when the moon is nearest to the earth, this occurs after every 29 and half day. In 48 hours, proceeding to full moon, there appears to be distinct increase in the moisture content of the earth and in the atmosphere. Growth promoting activities of the plants seems to be enhanced and plants are more susceptible to fungal attack because of relatively higher moisture content in the rhizosphere and atmosphere.

Apogee (new moon) – when the moon is farthest from the earth. This occurs every 27th and ½ days. Owing to moisture deficiency, harvesting and seed storage practices show better response.
Moo opposite to Saturn – this is favourable period, agricultural operation performed during this period show better response.
Lunar Node
 

 
Imaginary point when moon crosses path of sun. It occurs twice in 27.2 days of a month and known as Rahu and Ketu
Rahu Ketu -

 

Lunar node in ascending period of moon not suitable for agricultural activities. Lunar node in descending period, not suitable for agricultural activities.

 
Biodynamic preparations
Basically there are two types of biodynamic preparations.
!
!

Biodynamic field sprays (BD-500-501).
Biodynamic compost preparations (BD-502-507).

Biodynamic Field Sprays (BD 500-501)
Cow horn manure (BD-500) : This is fundamental biodynamic field spray preparation. The cow is an earthy creature with a very strong digestive system. The cow horn has the ability to absorb life energies during decomposition of the dung being incubated in winter months. Steps in preparation

!

Cow horns are cleaned properly with water. While collecting the horn it should be ascertained that only cow horn to the picked which is solid from proximal end their rings are at distal end.

!

Cleaned cow horns are filled with fresh cowdung (especially from lactating and indigenous one) and buried at 30 cm depth in the soil in root free zone in descending period of moon during October – November.

!

!

After 6 months of incubation, horns are taken out in descending period from moon during March- April.
If decomposition of dung is not proper, cow horns should not be taken out and should be left for some more period and again is to be taken out during descending period of moon.

!

Properly decomposed compost is to be stored at cool and dry place in earthen pot.

Specially prepared manure is made into a spray to vitalize the soil, enhance seed germination, root formation and primary root development. For spraying, 25g of BD-500 is dissolved in 13.5 litres of water in wooden / plastic bucket by making vortext in clock and anti-clockwise for one hour in the evening and the solution is spread either with the help of natural brush or with a tree twig. Spraying of BD-500 is done at the time of field preparation in descending period of the moon. Stirring small quantities of material in large amount of water is called Dynamization. This process transfers the forces and energy from the preparation to the water. Thimmaiah (2001) observed the microbial activity of BD-500 during stirring and very interesting response has been obtained. (Table. 3)

 

 
Table.3. Microbial analysis of BD 500
Stirring interval (minutes)

Bacteria (cfu/g)

Actionmycetes (cfu/g)

Fungi (cfu/g)

15

26 x 10

22 x 10

3

10 x 103

30

35 x 103

35 x 103

14 x 103

45

58 x 103

60 x 103

12 x 103

60

66 x 103

88 x 103

35 x 103

3

It is interesting to observe that during stirring period, there was a corresponding increase in number of cfu’s of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi during one hour of stirring. The CISH, Lucknow, has also identified the following microorganisms (fungi) from BD-500 preparation. * Fusarium semitatum

* F. sporotrichiodes
* Syncephalastrum racemosum
Cow horn silica (BD-501) : In this, ground mountain quartz (silica) after proper incubation is made in to spray on plants. It helps them to achieve optimum development and maturity and particularly affects taste, colour and aroma.

Steps in preparation
!

!

!

!

After taking out of cow horn manure (BD-500), cow horns are thoroughly cleaned with water.
Cow horns are filled with silica with powder paste, and buried in same pit where cow horns were buried for the preparation of BD-500 during ascending period of moon in March-April. After 6 months of incubation, horns are taken out in October-November during the ascending period of moon.

Light yellowish silica powder is taken out from the horn and stored in light near the house window in glass jars.

BD 501 works on photosynthetic process in the leaf. Its action is to strengthen the effect of light and warmth on the plant and promotes healthy growth. It strengthens the quality of plant and the plant product and encourages the development of fruit and seeds. For maximum effect, the BD 501 should be applied once at the beginning of a plant’s life, at the four-leaf stage and again at the flowering or fruit maturation stage. BD 501 should be applied on the leaves in the form of ‘mist’ in the morning at the sunrise and the best constellation is moon in opposite to Saturn. Following fungi are isolated from BD -501 at this Insitute.

 

 
* Fusarium monliformae
* Penicilium chrysogenum
* Syncephalastrum racemosum

Biodynamic Field Sprays
Biodynamic sets (BD-502-507) are prepared from six herbal plants, which have healing properties and influence the fermentation processes in the compost, liquid manure and Cow Pat Pit. These are also associated with particular constellations as summarized in Table.4. All these preparations are made in descending period of the moon, except BD-507, which is best prepared in air / light day. The BD sets are used in the Cow Pat Pit (CPP), BD – compost, Biodynamic liquid manure and Biodynamic liquid pesticides.

 

 
 

Table 4. Basic BD sets used CPP, BD compost, liquid manures and pesticides Preparation

Constellation Substances from which preparation is prepared

Role

BD-502

Venus

Fermented flower heads of Yarrow (Achillea
millefolium)

Rich in S, K and N

BD-503

Mars

Fermented Chamomile (Matricaria recutita)
blossom

Rich in S, K and N

BD-504

Mercury

BD-505

Whole shoot of Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)
with flower, fermented in the soil

Rich in Fe

Moon

Fermented oak (Ouercus robur) bark

Rich in Ca

BD-506

Jupiter

Fermented flower heads of Dandelion
(Taraxacum officinale)

Rich in K and Si

BD-507

Saturn

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) flower extract

Rich in P

These work to regulate the composting process and enable the different elements (calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus) needed for healthy plant growth to be present in a living way. The specifications of BD sets used in these preparations are described in the Table.5. Table.5 Showing number of sets used for specific preparation. Specific preparation

No. of sets used

Cow Pat Pit (CPP)

2 sets per 60 kg of cow dung

Liquid manure

2 sets per 200 litres

Biodynamic compost

1 set per 5 m3

Cowdung and urine are important components of Cow Pat Pit (CPP), BD liquid manure and BD pesticides. Their brief account are summarized below.
Cow Pat Pit (CPP) or Barrel Manure
It is a biodynamic field preparation also called as soil shampoo. Cow Pat Pit (CPP) is a strong soil conditioner. It enhances seed germination, promotes rooting in cutting and grafting, improvement in soil texture, provides resistance powers to the plants against pests and diseases, replenishes and rectifies the trace element deficiency. CPP is increasingly used for improving soil biological activities in the seed treatment and foliar applications. The CPP may be prepared throughout the year.

Steps in preparation
!

 

Preparation of a pit of 60cm x 90cm size in shade and root-free zone. Precaution is to be

 
taken that pit should be 15cm higher than plane surface.
!
!

!

 

Pasting of inner wall of the pit with fresh cowdung paste.
Dung of lactating cow (60kg) mixed thoroughly with 250g each of bentonite and egg shell powder and filled in the pit.
Compost gets ready in 75-90 days depending upon the temperature.

 
 

One kg CPP dissolved in 40-45 litres of water overnight and sprinkled in the next morning as field sprays on the plants. This should be applied at the time of field preparation and on plants. CPP can also be applied in BD compost and with FYM for improving their nutritive value. The preparation is ready for use when it is dark brown, friable and has lost the smell of cowdung. Biodynamic Compost Heap

Biodynamic compost is an effective soil conditioner and is an immediate source of nutrient for a crop. Biodynamic Compost Heap can be prepared by using green leaves (nitrogenous material) and dry leaves (carbonaceous material) in 8-12 weeks. Integrating with cowdung slurry is always good in the decomposition process. The composition of air, moisture and warmth is very important in the breakdown and decomposition of material. The enrich compost is ready in 75-100 days depending upon the prevailing temperature.

Steps in preparation
!

Five-meter long thick wood is placed on higher elevation where waterlogging does not occur during rainy season.

!

Thick layer (20 cm) of dry grasses is spread on the area of 5 m x 2.5 m on the ground.

!

Water (100-150 litres) mixed with dung sprinkled on the grasses.

!

!

!

!

Again 20 cm thick layer of green grasses are sprayed equally on the heap and 100 to 150 litres of water mixed with dung sprinkled on the heaps.
Above process (putting 20 cm thick layers of dry and green grasses alternatively) is repeated to the height of 1.5m.
For enriching the compost with different nutrients as per the need, rock phosphate (P), slacked lime (Ca) wood ash (K) etc. can also be used in between the layers of dry / green grasses.
Two B.D sets (502-507) are incorporated and the heap is plastered with mixtures of dung and clay.

The BD compost is said to be more fertile with a stronger ability to improve soil than the conventional compost. When the specially prepared CPP and BD compost have been applied to the soil, the plants become more sensitive to their environment and responsive to the rhythms of the day, seasons and planets.

Vermicompost
Vermiculture technology is an aspect involving the use of earthworms as versatile natural  

 
bioreactors for effective recycling of non-toxic organic wastes to the soil. They effectively harness the beneficial soil microflora, destroy soil pathogens, and covert organic wastes into valuable products such as biofertilizers, biopesticides, vitamins, enzymes, antibiotics, growth hormones and proteinous biomass (5).

Earthworms participate in soil farming system in following ways : !
!

As agents of physical decomposition of organic wastes

!

Promoting humus formation

!

Improving soil structure

!

 

Through their influence on soil pH

Enriching soil and water-holding capacity.

Steps in composting
Vermicomposting on plane surface
!

!

!

!

Partially decomposed organic wastes are piled up on 2 m x 1 x 0.5 m areas at cool and elevated place.
Two to five thousand red worms (Eisenia foetida) are released in the middle of bed by putting 2-4 kg one week-old dung.
Water (2-5 litres) is sprayed everyday to keep the earthworms active. To protect earthworms from the excessive heat and rain, shade should be provided. Depending upon the weather conditions complete heap of the organic waste get converted into fine compost within 75-120 days.

!

Ready compost is sieved to separate the earthworms.

!

Separated worms are released in another heap of partially decomposed organic waste.

!

As the time passes population of worms and vermicompost production increases very fast.

Vermicomposting in pit
!

Brick structure (3 cm x 1.5 cm x 5 cm) is prepared in shade.

!

One brick wall made of cement is preferred.

!

!

After putting 5 cm thick layer of concrete and sand, each 40 cm thick layer of partially decomposed or soften organic waste is spread equally above the sand. One –week-old cowdung (1-2 kg) is kept at 6-8 places on the organic waste and 50-100 earthworms are released in each heap of cowdung.

!
!

 

Water (2-5 litres) is sprayed in the bed and covered with 5 cm thick layer of organic waste. The bed is covered with thatch to protect earthworms from excessive heat, rain and cold.

 
!
!

To keep the worms active, light spray of water is essential everyday. Worms convert all the organic waste into compost. Again 30-40 cm thick layer of partially decomposed organic waste is spread equally in the bed and moistened and it takes another 30-45 days for full conversion of organic waste into compost within 45-60 days.

!

Prepared compost is taken out and sieved to separate earthworms from the compost.

!

Pit is again filled up with organic waste and earthworms are released as discribed earlier.

!

As earthworm’s population increases very fast, a few more pits are to be required to increase the verimicompost production.

Vermiwash
Vermiwash is prepared from the heavy population of earthworms reared in earthen pots or plastic drums. The extract contains major, micronutrients, vitamins (such as B 12) and hormones (gibberellins) secreted by the earthworms. Earthworms produce bacteriostatic substances and it was found the vermiwash can protect the bacterial infections. Vermin wash can be sprayed on crops and trees for better growth, yield and quality.

Steps in preparation
!

!

Bio earthen pot / plastic drum with capacity of 200 litres (provided with tap in the bottom) is placed in shade.
Five cm each of concrete and coarse red sand (Morang) is laid in the bottom of the pot for effective drainage.

!

Layer of soften kitchen waste or one-week-old dung (30-40cm) is filled in the pot.

!

Red worms (200-300) are released in the waste / dung.

!

!

!

An earthen pot with minute hole in the bottom from where water comes out in the form of drops is hanged over the pot / drum after 30 days of worms inoculation. After 2-3 days, extract collected in earthen pots from the tap provided in the bottom of pot / drum which is called ‘Vermiwash’.

Extract diluted in the water (1:5 ratio) can be used as a foliar spray.

Precaution : Continuous pouring of water in the pot / drum having hole in the bottom and the organic waste in the pot / drum should be changed regularly, after its full conversion into the compost.

Nadep Compost
 

 
A farmer at Indore developed this method of aerobic composting.

Because of aerobic

respiration, composting is very fast and nutritional status of the compost is better than the ordinary compost. In this method of composting, farm wastes (cow-dung, green / dry grasses, wheat / paddy straw and weeds and garden soil) are used and the technique has been summarized below. The compost can be enriched through incorporation of rock phosphate, wood ash, slacked lime, Azotobacter and Rhizobium. Incorporation of two BD sets (BD 502-507) further improves the nutritive status of NADEP compost, Thimmaiah (2001) named it as hybrid compost.

Methods of composting
!

!
!

!

!

Brick aerobic structure (2m x 3.30m x 1m) is constructed at elevated place in farm area. First and the last two rows are provided without any gap to strengthen the structure. Length of the structure can be altered as per the requirement Thick layers (18-20 cm) of organic wastes are piled and water 100-150 litres mixed with cowdung is drenched on the waste.

Again 18-20 cm thick layer of organic waste pile, covered with thick layer (2-3cm) of garden soil is sprayed and sprinkled with water (100-150 litres). The above processes are repeated till the piling goes 30-45 cm higher than the structure. Total heap is plastered with mixture of dung and mud.

!

After 10-15 days heap gets settled leaving 15-30 cm gaps from the top.

!

Process of filling and plastering are again repeated.

Incorporation of any of these preparation and the following other associated activities will suffice the nutritive requirement for production of horticultural crops, which can be summarized as below.

In green food production nutritional requirement can be taken care through !

 

Regular incorporation of organic waste through NADEP, Vermi, Biodynamic Compost (BD) or Microbe Mediated Compost (MM compost).

 
!

Use of cakes (neem, mahuwa, pongamia, castor, groundnut etc) as per availability need to be promoted.

!

Promotion of green manuring and legumes as inter and cover crops whenever and wherever possible.

!

!

Promotion of mulching with organic wastes which can be further promoted by spread of 520 kg vermin / BD compost or 100g CPP and incorporation of 50-100 earthworms. In order to encourage soil biological properties, regular use of Cow Pat Pit (CPP), Cow Horn Manure (BD -500) are also helpful.

Need-based use of liquid manure prepared from cowdung, cow urine, leguminous leaves or vermin wash are also effective in promotion of growth and fruiting.

Wide variations in nutrient status of composts and CPP have been observed as evident from Table 6. This can be further enriched through incorporation of rock phosphate, bone-meal, slacked lime, blood and fish meal. Various combination of green vs dry leguminous nonleguminous may be helpful. These need to be worked out for meeting the nutritional requirement of various horticultural commodities.

Biodynamic Tree Paste
In a biodynamic process for the management of orchards and gardens, the “biodynamic tree paste” is prepared by mixing of cowdung, bentonite (clay), BD 500 and sand. The tree paste is polished on the tree trunks and cut surfaces

Table 6. Nutrient status of compost and CPP
Preparation

P (%)

K (%)

General compost

0.3 - 0.5

0.20 - 0.35

0.50-1.50

Vermi compost

1.12-1.75

0.214-0.285

0.506-1.72

Cow Pat Pit

0.70-2.24

0.214-0.428

0.718-0.925

Nadep compost

 

N (%)

1.33-2.03

0.202-0.389

0.775-2.35

 
The important properties of biodynamic tree paste are :
!
!

Seals and heals wounds.

!

Helpful in prevention and control of disease.

!

 

It nourishes, strengthens and protects the bark and cambium of tree to make it healthy.

On application after pruning, stimulates tree growth.

 

In rejuvenation of mango orchard, copper oxychloride pasting (CoC) is very expensive. Pasting with the above paste on tree trunk and cut surfaces, alone has shown better response compared with CoC pasting. Similar to tree paste, cowdung has been found to be rich in actionmycetes. Cowdung paste and actionmycetes isolated from cow dung paste has also shown positive response in control of dieback, stem end rot and anthracnose in mango and guava. Similarly, BD pesticides have shown effective control of bacterial fruit canker and tent caterpillar in mango. These need to be validated for control of pest and diseases of horticultural crops. Biodynamic system is almost new, but the preliminary observation over 4 years by the authors and overview of world literature including personel communications have shown very encouraging response with number of horticultural and field crops and following interferences can be drawn at this juncture.

If appears to be sustainable, economic and eco-friendly
There is minimum risk of residual toxicity
There has been continuous improvement in soil fertility and produce quality including self-life. Considering these experiences, following strategies are proposed to be initiated. Strategies for green food production

!

Various aspects of green food production particularly for horticultural commodities need to be standardized.

!

Promotion of establishment of demonstrations for preparation of biodynamic compost, cow horn manure (BD0-500), horn silica (BD-501), Cow Pat Pit (CPP), liquid manures and liquid biodynamic pesticides.

!

Promotion for field demonstrations for organic biodynamic system of cultivation.

!

Organizing intensive training to farmers, NGO representative, entrepreneurs, and extension personnel of Department of Horticulture for biodynamic preparations and their applications.

 

 
!

Scientific explanation for responses of the above materials with reference to soil physical and microbiological properties and their impact.

!

Helping State Agriculture Universities (SAUs) to initiate a few courses on Organic / Biodynamic Agriculture.

!

Facilitation for certification / Demeter for organic /biodynamic production.

!

Establish national standards for covering marketing of certain agricultural products as green produced products.

!

Assure consumers that these meet a consistent standard.

!

Market promotion for ‘Green Food’ and their processed products.

!

Regular monitoring of nutrients status of the soil.

!

Study on various combination of locally available waste recycling for meeting the nutrient requirement and techniques of compost enrichment.

!

Impact of organic / biodynamic farming on flora and fauna of the area.

!

Impact analysis of organic /biodynamic farming on agro-ecosystem of the region over the years.

 

 
 
References
01. Pathak, R.K and Ram, R.A (2002). Approaches for green good production. In : Souvenir, National Seminar-cum-workshop on Hi-Tech Horticulture and Precision Farming, held at Taj Residency, Lucknow, pp.33-35.

02. Pathak, R.K and Ram, R.A (2001). Approaches for biodynamic farming. Approaches for Sustainable Development of Horticulture. Singh, H.P., Negi, J.P and Samuel, J.C. (Eds), NHB, Gurgaon, pp. 113-19.

03. Pfeffer, E. (1984). Using the bio-dynamic compost preparation and sprays in garden, orchard and farm. Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association, Inc, Kimberton, PA, 64 pp.
04. Schilthuis W. (2000). Biodynamic Agriculture, S&H Home Ag. Library Biodynamic Agriculture.
05. Sharma, A.K.(2001). A Hand Book of Organic Farming. Agrobios, India, Jodhpur,pp.193215. 06. Thimmaiah, A. (2001). Studies on biodynamic system and vermitechnology for sustainable Agriculture. Ph.D thesis, IIT, New Delhi.

HIGH DENSITY PLANTING IN FRUIT CROPS
High density planting is the current concept by which productivity of the fruit crops can be enhanced per unit area . As most of the perennial fruit crops takes long years to attain a bigger canopy, it is possible to accommodate and maintain more trees per unit area till such canopy development interferes with general cultural operations or performance of the nearby plants by competing for light, water , nutrients and other inputs. High density planting of similar kind of fruit trees is also advantageous as it will not require much labour as required for intercropping with seasonal crops to make use of the alley spaces available otherwise. The following are some of the advantages of high density planting.

!

!

 

The yield per unit area could be increased.
Reduced labour cost and labour involvement towards weeding and desuckering.

 

!

Efficient utilization of land, water, fertilizer and solar radiation.

!

Cost of production per unit quantity of fruits could be reduced considerably.

The methods by which, the HDP can be practiced in different fruit crops are mentioned briefly below.
Mango
Mangoes can be planted at a spacing of 5m x 5m and maintained till such time canopy overlapping is noted. The alternate rows can be removed if necessary at later stage when canopy overlapping interferes with the normal gowth and performance of the plants or with cultural operations. Mangoes can be also maintained at HDP system by proper pruning and regulating the canopy. Dwarf statured varieties with narrow canopy are much suitable for HDP system. Experiments with mango varieties like Amrapali, Dashehari and Mallika in Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi have indicated that even a spacing of 2.5-3m either way can be maintained in the initial years accommodating nearly 1300 plants per ha.

Sapota
Similar to mango, sapota is usually planted at 8-9m spacing conventionally. However, it is advisable to use a spacing of 5-6 m either way under HDP as it takes many years for the plants to assume the full canopy coverage. The recently released varieties like CO 3 sapota and PKM 4 sapota can be planted under HDP owing to their upright growth habit. Banana

Banana is grown normally at a spacing of 1.8 x 1.8 m (6’ x 6’) by planting one sucker per pit, in India. A new concept of increasing the plant density by planting more number of suckers per pit at a wider spacing has proven successful in increasing the productivity of banana. This system of high density planting in banana was devised at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore and has proved efficient in increasing the productivity of banana. Interestingly, it has also showed that possibility of reducing the water and fertilizer to a tune of 30-40% without

 

 

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Sesame Production

    ...Sesame Sesame is an excellent rotation crop of cotton, maize, groundnut, wheat, and sorghum. It reduces nematode populations that attack cotton and groundnut. It is also an excellent soil builder- it improves the soil texture and moisture retention and lessens soil erosion: the composted sesame leaves left on the soil binds the ground; retain...

    Read More
  • Cash Crops of Pakistan

    ..."The crops which are grown in Pakistan in abundance & earn foreign exchange for the country are called cash crops" Introduction: Pakistan is an agricultural country & seventy percent of her population lives on agriculture.These crops not only fulfill the local needs of food but also a great part of them is exported abroad to earn foreign e...

    Read More
  • The Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modifying Crops.

    ...The Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modifying Crops. Summary: What are the advantages and disadvantages of genetically modifying food crops? Can developing countries or countries struggling with famine profit from these techniques?Does it affect the surrounding environment? These are all questions that have kept scientist biologist ...

    Read More
  • Crop Variety Improvement

    ...Crop Variety Improvement Introduction to crop variety improvement [pic] Introduction to crop variety improvement The development of improved, fertilizer-responsive high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice during the early 1960s and their widespread adoptions by farmers, first in Asia and then in Latin America, marked the beginning of what i...

    Read More
  • Sorghum: Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilization

    ...Sorghum: Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilization 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are very much indebted to the management of NAERLS, ABU Zaria providing support and the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) for their logistic support in the production of this bulletin. We also wish to acknowledge Dr. D. I. Agekpe, Head of Seed U...

    Read More
  • Agronomical vs. Horticultural Crops

    ...knowledge about crops’ behaviours and characteristics is very essential for the farmers / producers most especially in the field of production. Three examples of specific aspects of crop behaviour that a farmer / producer must know are the plants’ life cycle, mode of production, and also its growth habit. The plant life cycle begins with a...

    Read More
  • intensive day

    ...proliferation and restricts root growth of crops (of crops that have vertical root growth). With sub-soiling, the needed soil depth, at least 80cm will be met . With sub-soiling, we can break hard pan without inversion and with less disturbance of top soil. 2.) Show that a triangular system has 15% more plants than a square system using t...

    Read More
  • effects of drought on farm production

    ...Effects of drought on farm production and livestock holdings 5. The main direct effects of drought on the farming sector are summarised in Figure 1. The most immediate consequence of drought is a fall in crop production, due to inadequate and poorly distributed rainfall. Farmers are faced with harvests that are too small to both feed their...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.