AT THE TIP OF SPEAR
CRM - AT THE TIP OF THE SPEAR
Military flying differs considerably from commercial aviation due to the special circumstances and restrictions involved. Military discipline revolves around utter obedience whereas CRM aims to foster a culture with encouraging the freedom to respectfully question authority. The primary goal of CRM is enhanced situational awareness, self awareness, leadership, assertiveness, decision making, flexibility, adaptability, event/mission analysis and communication. It recognizes that a discrepancy between what is happening and what should be happening is often the first indicator that an error is occurring. The complexity of military aviation environment demands a foundation of solid airmanship and a healthy, positive approach to combating errors.
To learn about the importance of CRM vis-à-vis military aviation
CRM - Definition
CRM can be defined as a management system which makes optimum use of all available resources - equipment, procedures and people - to promote safety and enhance the efficiency of flight operations.
CRM - Overview
Crew (or Cockpit) Resource Management training originated from a NASA workshop in 1979 that focused on improving air safety. The NASA research at that time found the primary cause of the majority of aviation accidents to be human error, and further showed the main problems to be failures of interpersonal communication, leadership, and decision making in the cockpit. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) has gained increased attention from the airline industry in recent years due to the growing number of accidents and near misses in airline traffic. Cockpit Resource Management is a far-reaching discussion of crew coordination, communication, and resources from both within and without the cockpit. CRM concepts have endured by not only integrating themselves into the fabric of training, but also expanding the team concept, evolving into new applications, and possibly most important to the original operators, inspiring development and integration of CRM into safety and quality assurance goals at the corporate level. A variety of CRM models have been successfully adapted to different types of industries and organizations, all based on the same basic concepts and principles. Crew Resource Management still continues to focus on CRM in the cockpit, but also emphasizes that the concepts and training applications provide generic guidance and lessons learned for a wide variety of 'crews' in the aviation system as well as in the complex and high-risk operations of many non-aviation settings.
Characteristics - Military Aviation
The military is a non-homogenous organization. Throughout military aviation there are variations in the type of aircraft, missions performed, number of crew, automation levels and much more. Military flyers are by nature rule based i.e they are bound by policies, procedures and regulations that are often complex and overlapping from multiple origins. Therefore there are four principle characteristics that entail the reason for variety in military CRM training.
1. The Man
Civilian pilots are highly experienced in terms of flying hours contrary to the military pilots who are motivated and smart but must account for this large difference in experience. In commercial aviation, most pilots are hired on to airlines after they have achieved significant aviation milestones. In military flying, the pilots are cadets or young officers with almost no flying experience at all. They gain experience and proficiency on job. There are a large number of senior pilots and aircrew who garner substantial experience in their career.
Another important factor is the age difference. In comparison, military pilots are exposed to demanding situations at an earlier age and do not have the liberty to make decisions based on experience. The rank and experience gradient...
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