Topics: Police, Crime, Constable Pages: 6 (1208 words) Published: November 15, 2014

Law Enforcement
Joanna Fain
CRJ201: Introduction to Criminal Justice
Instructor:  Joe Niehaus
September 23rd, 2014

Law Enforcement
The history of the police agencies can be trace back to the 1630s, during this time the earliest colonists use the English style of policing. The civic duty for all citizens was “watch and ward” this offered no training or pay, it was the responsibility of the citizens to monitor the behavior of community members. Policing relied heavily on community consensus and the willingness of citizens to assist in capturing criminals (Wilbur, 2000). Sheriff’s Posses and constables were consisting of able-bodied men, because their service was liable. The collection of taxes and the supervision of election was the responsibility of the county sheriff. The night watchmen were in charge of looking out for suspicious activities and at times conducting weather reports (Wilbur, 2000). The heart of colonial policing was not policemen but punishment, hanging was for murders and more serious crimes, thieves were brand and stocks for petty criminals. The early policing punishments serve the purpose of shame in the community, which is use as an example for spectators. The jails were used as a holding place for criminals until their sentencing or trial; it was not for punishment or rehabilitation. The old reliance on community consensus broke down when cities started growing larger and a more diverse community began forming. “Large cities relied more on policing elected or appointed constables who were attached to the courts (Wilbur, 2000)”. When the American Revolution was over these individuals took the role of detectives who issued warrants and recover stole property. When the 19th century came around the watchmen sill patrolled the streets, but they were not shown respect and avoided dangerous confrontation. In cities such as Philadelphia the citizens settled their disputes with the help of the justice; these were petty disputes such as property damage, verbal abuse, and domestic violence. These conflict resolutions soon became the duties of the police. As time passed bigger cities like Boston and New York started adopting the first modern police force. The police officers were patrolling the day time hours. During the 1850s they started patrolling the night time hours as well. With all the changes that the police officers job allowed them to do; the new modern police force had the power to arrest without a warrant and walked a regular beat. Police officers did not start wearing uniforms until 1853; they did not start carrying a firearm until the end of the 1850s, and were only appointed those guns for a limited time by a politician. “With the new modern police force came new responsibilities and duties such as finding lost children, rescuing people from accidents, regulating markets, hauling drunks to the station house, moderating domestic quarrels, and untangling traffic jams (Wilbur, 2000)”. The 20th century of modern policing brought a new way of doing everything; technology was at the base of all these changes. Police officers went from policing small towns with a small amount in population to managing large cities with millions in population. The old community base policing did not work due to the overwhelming population growth, the public punishment that was used was eliminated and prisons were now used to remove criminals from the society. The court system tried to rehabilitate criminals through hard work and reading the bible. The demand for police officers improvement in community relations and efficiency came from the public. Crime control model conflict with social service models, efficiency and independence causes new problems in the stereotype of minority groups. The police technology that was used made response time for the public more rapid, improved communications, and the detection of crime was...

References: American Anthropologist, 111(4), 527-528 Retrieved September 8th 2014 from Research Library (Document 10:1954062591)
Miller, W (2000) The Good, The Bad & The Ugly: Policing America History Today
General One file Retrieved September 8th 2014 from
Gonzalez, R. (2009) Under Construction: Making Homeland Security at the Local Level
Wright, J. (2012). Introduction to Criminal Justice. Bridge point Education.
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