top-rated free essay

CRITICAL THINKING

By akamais Nov 17, 2014 791 Words
1. WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING?

Critical thinking is a process:
Involves wide range of skills and attributes:
Identifying other people’s positions, arguments and conclusions. Evaluating the evidence for alternative points of view.
Weighing up opposing arguments and evidence fairly.
Being able to read between the lines, seeing the surface and identifying false or fair assumptions. Recognising techniques eg false logic and persuasive devices Reflecting on issues in a structured way, bringing logic and insight to bear. Drawing conclusions

Presenting a point of view in a structured, clear, well reasoned way that convinces others.

Scepticism and trust..
Ability to reflect sceptically
Ability to think in a reasoned way
Method rather than personality trait
Critical thinking and argument
REASONING:
Knowing your own reasons: rational
Critical analysis of other people’s reasoning
Identifying their reasons and conclusions
Analysing how they select, combine and order reasons to construct a line of reasoning. Evaluating whether their reasons support the conclusion they draw. Evaluating whether their reasons are well-founded, based on good evidence. Identifying flaws in their reasoning.

Constructing and presenting reasons
Select and structure reasons to support a conclusion.
Present an argument in a consistent way;
Use logical order
Use language effectively to present the line of reasoning.
Why develop critical thinking skills?
Benefits of critical thinking skills:
Improved attention and observation
More focused reading
Improved ability to identify the key points in a text or message rather than distracted with less important material Improved ability to response to the appropriate points in a message. Knowledge of how to get your own point across more easily

Skills of analysis that you can choose to apply in a variety of situations. Benefits in professional and everyday life:
Precision on what you work and think.
More accurate and specific in noting what is relevant and what is not. Ancillary skills:
Observation
Reasoning
Decision making
Analysis
Judgement
Persuasion.
Underlying skills and attributes:
Underlying thinking skills
Knowledge and research
Emotional self management
Perseverance, accuracy and precision:
Attention to detail
Identifying trends and patterns
Repetition
Taking different perspectives
Objectivity
Considering implications and distant consequences.
Self-awareness for accurate judgment
Personal strategies for critical thinking:
Analytical strategy for the material
Understanding of the wider context
Evaluative and selective approach
Being self-critical about your own understanding, interpretation and evaluation Critical thinking in academic contexts:
Development of understanding
Both positives and negatives
Comprehensive: nothing is excluded
The idea or the action, not the person
Non-dualistic
Dealing with ambiguity and doubt
Critical thinking a student means:
Finding out where the best evidence lies for the subject you are discussing Evaluating the strength of the evidence to support different arguments Coming to an interim conclusion about where the available evidence appears to lead Constructing a line of reasoning to guide your audience through the evidence and lead them towards your conclusion Selecting the best examples

And providing evidence to illustrate your argument.

Barriers to critical thinking:
Misunderstanding of what is meant by criticism
Over-estimating our own reasoning abilities
Lack of methods, strategies or practice
Reluctance to critique experts
Affective reasons
Mistaking information for understanding
Insufficient focus and attention to detail

2. DEVELOPING THINKING SKILLS:
Comparison
Sequence
Categorising:
Categories
Categorising text
Close reading
Following directions
Recognising similarities
Focusing attention:
Identifying difference
Recognising sequence

3. IDENTIFYING ARGUMENTS:
Overall argument: contributing arguments or reasons.
Contributing argument: individual reasons.
a. Argument: persuasion and reasons
persuasion through reasons:
position or point of view
attempt to persuade others to accept that point of view
reasons given to support the point of view
Questions to ask?
What was the point of producing this text or programme?
What is the main message I am supposed to take from this?
What does the author/producer want me to believe, accept or do? What reasons have they offered to support their position?
Ambiguous arguments
b. Proposition: can be true or false: statements believed to be true and presented as arguments or reasons. c. Conclusion: leading to an end.
d. Premises; predicate

6 items in looking for in identifying an argument:
Position
Reasons/propositions
A line of reasoning
Conclusion
Persuasion
Signal words and phrases.
Locating the conclusion: clues to finding the conclusion
Start of the passage
The end of a passage
Interpretive summary
Signal words
Challenges and recommendations
Words indicating a deduction

4. Is it an argument? Argument and non-argument:
a. Position: point of view. Rule without reasons.
b. Agreement: to concur with someone else’s point of view. Basically agreeing with the position without reasons. c. Disagreement: to hold a different point of view from someone else. d. Argument: using reasons to support a point of view..can persuaded others and can include disagreement that is based on reasons. e. Non-arguments:

i. Descriptions
ii. Explanations and summaries.
f. Types of messages:
i. Argument
ii. A summary
iii. An explanation
iv. description

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Critical Thinking - Fallacies

    ...The significance of fallacies in critical thinking is important to understand so that clear and concise arguments can be made on a logical, factual level instead of one that is proliferated with emotions and illogical reasoning. The basis of these fallacies are dependent on critical thinking according to discussions in which the parties may no...

    Read More
  • Thinking and Decision Making

    ...Thinking and Decision Making Michael Ledford Mark Savell DJ Williams University of Phoenix MGT/350 Mr. Jerry Abendroth September 8, 2009 Thinking and Decision Making What are the parts of critical thinking? Believe it or not, a process of analysis takes place when thinking occurs. Basically, the conscious mind is presented with a ...

    Read More
  • Critical Thinking Tools and Techniques

    ...Critical Thinking Tools and Techniques What is Critical Thinking? Merriam-Webster (2004) defines thinking as: the action of using one's mind to produce thought. Although when trying to define "Critical" thinking, you have to take it even further. Critical thinking is a process that your mind has to go through to produce that thought. Critical t...

    Read More
  • The value of Critical thinking in the real world

    ... Life – Simplified! “Thinking is skilled work. It is true that we are naturally endowed with the ability to think but to do so clearly and logically require effort.” (Mandler,1976). As humans, we are innately inclined to think. It is a frequent occurrence and may happen anywhere and at anytime of the day. Critical thinking is a process o...

    Read More
  • critical thinking

    ...Thinking is a tool of life. Critical thinking is a term of thinking deeply, in spirit, where to gathered information from experience, reflection, evidence to reach an answer or conclusion. Critical thinking is “the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating...

    Read More
  • Critical Thinking

    ...CRITICAL THINKING This handout is available in an alternative format on request WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING?  Critical thinking is a higher order of thinking: it is the practice of using a number of different advanced thinking skills in a variety of complex ways.  Critical thinking focuses on thought: it looks at how facts a...

    Read More
  • Research paper on Creative vs Logical Thinking

    ...Are you more creatively thinking or logical thinking? A lot of people consider themselves to be mostly creatively thinking. I for example, personally considered myself more logical thinking. But after research, it is noted that while there are advantages and disadvantages to both types of thinking, they both can be learned. However, without lear...

    Read More
  • phl320 r2 critical analysis worksheet

    ...University of Phoenix Material Critical Analysis Worksheet Read “Common Core” and “The Battle Against Common Core Standards.” Perform a critical analysis of each reading using critical thinking techniques from this week’s readings. Respond to the following based on your critical thinking analysis of the “Common Core” and ...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.