Critical Success Factors in Developing Teleworking Programs

Topics: Telecommuting, Management, Telecommuter Pages: 19 (6319 words) Published: October 12, 2008
Critical success factors in developing teleworking programs Kellyann Berube Kowalski
DepartmentofManagement,CharltonCollegeofBusiness,Universityof MassachusettsDartmouth,NorthDartmouth,Massachusetts,USA,and

Jennifer Ann Swanson
DepartmentofBusinessAdministration,StonehillCollege,NorthEaston,Massachusetts,USA Abstract
Purpose– To provide a framework of critical success factors for practioners and employers looking to develop new or enhance existing telework programs.
Design/methodology/approach– This paper focuses on benchmarking the remote work

arrangement of telecommuting. The issues of teleworking, including the benefits and challenges of such arrangements, are presented and reviewed. Based on a review of the teleworking literature, the authors have developed a framework that specifies the critical success factors that are instrumental in implementing or improving a teleworking program. Findings– The authors put forward a framework of the critical success factors including support, communication, and trust that are instrumental in developing telework programs. In order to address both macro and micro levels of analysis, the framework outlines critical success factors at the organizational, managerial, and employee level. Practicalimplications– In the information age, with rapid advances in technology and telecommunication systems, a teleworking program is not only a possibility, but also a smart strategic business decision. This paper provides a useful framework for organizations to employ when developing new or enhancing existing telework arrangements. Originality/value– By focusing on benchmarking the teleworking process, this paper provides a new and structured approach in the development of telework programs. KeywordsBenchmarking, Teleworking, Critical success factors, Work design PapertypeResearch paper

Benchmarking has become a prevalent tool used by organizations to determine how they are doing in comparison to other organizations and how to improve operations. It started in the area of manufacturing, but has become more widespread (Doerfel and Ruben, 2002; Greengard, 1995). In fact, benchmarking has been used in small and large, public and private and profit and nonprofit organizations (Spendolini etal., 1999). In addition to its penetration into all types of organizations, it has been used to examine all functional areas within an organization, including human resources (HR). More and more companies are using benchmarking to assess their HR practices, allowing them to learn the best way to carry out the HR function (Greengard, 1995). In fact, HR professionals are discovering that benchmarking is not only useful, but also necessary to stay competitive in today’s business world (Greengard, 1995). As noted by Greengard (1995, p. 64), “rapidly advancing technology, new ways of tackling work and leading-edge management approaches translate into a far greater need to understand the people side of business and to align HR with company goals”. One aspect of HR that is crucial in order to stay competitive is the ability to attract the most qualified employees (Mahoney, 2000). As benchmarking is becoming more prevalent in the area of HR, studies are becoming available that allow companies to compare their performance to that of other companies. Mahoney argues that benchmarking compensation and benefits is important, but that it takes more to attract and retain the best possible talent. He suggests that companies should be benchmarking other HR issues because other things, such as flextime and daycare, attract employees. In the information age, in which today’s companies are competing, teleworking is an HR option that companies are finding is worthy of consideration. As teleworking becomes more prevalent in organizations, and more and more organizations are implementing or considering implementing programs, it is becoming an area of HR in need of benchmarking. Yet there have not been any studies done or...

References: Allert, J.R. and Chatterjee, S.R. (1997), “Corporate communication and trust in leadership”,
CorporateCommunications, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 14-21.
AT&T (2002), “AT&T reports on telework payoff”, WorkandFamilyNewsbrief, October, Work and Family Connection, Inc, Minnetonka, MN, p
AT&T (2003), “Remote working in the net-centric organization”, an AT&T survey and white paper in co-operation with the Economist Intelligence Unit, London, July.
Becker, F.D., Quinn, K.L
Blodgett, M. (1996), “Telecommuting pilot test proves space-saving plan”, Computerworld, Vol. 30 No. 46, pp. 81-2.
Bresnahan, J
Browne, J.H. (2000), “Benchmarking HRM practices in healthy work organizations”, AmericanBusinessReview, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 54-61.
Cascio, W.F
Clean Air Council (2003), “The green commute program”, available at: (accessed 15 August).
Coleman, H.J
Connelly, J. (1995), “Let’s hear it for the office”, Fortune, Vol. 131 No. 4, pp. 221-2.
Davenport, T.H
Davis, D.D. and Polonko, K.A. (2001), “ITAC telework America 2001: Telework America 2001
summary”, October, available at: (accessed 8 August
Dugal, S. and Roy, M.H. (2002), “Creating value through relationship building in a globalized
marketplace”, JournalofInternationalBusinessandEntrepreneurship, Vol
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2003), “EEOC says telework is a reasonable accommodation”, CompensationandBenefitsReport, Vol. 17 No. 4, p. 12.
Ford, R.C
Fritz, M.B.W., Narasimhan, S. and Rhee, H.S. (1998), “Communication and coordination in the virtual office”, JournalofManagementInformationSystems, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 7-28.
Greengard, S
Greiner, R. and Metes, G. (1995), GoingVirtual:MovingYourOrganizationintothe21stCentury, Prentice-Hall, Englewood-Cliffs, NJ.
Grensing-Pophal, L
Haines, V.Y. III, St. Onge, S. and Archambault, M. (2002), “Environmental and person antecedents of telecommuting outcomes”, JournalofEndUserComputing, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 32-50.
Hartman, R.I., Stoner, C.R
Henderson, L. (1995), “Telecommuting: it’s all in your head”, MidrangeSystems, Vol. 8 No. 9,
Housley, J. (1999), “Benchmarking – is it worth it?”, Perspectives, Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 74-9.
Huws, U., Korte, W.B
Kurland, N.B. and Bailey, D.E. (1999), “Telework: the advantages and challenges of working here, there, anywhere and anytime”, OrganizationalDynamics, Vol. 28 No. 2, pp. 53-68.
Lavalle, W.J
Lupton, P. and Haynes, B. (2000), “Teleworking – the perception-reality gap”, Facilities, Vol. 18
McCormick, R.D. (1992), “Family affair”, ChiefExecutive, No. 76, pp. 30-3.
Mahoney, C
Reinsch, N.L. Jr (1997), “Relationships between telecommuting workers and their managers: an exploratory study”, TheJournalofBusinessCommunication, Vol. 34 No. 4, pp. 343-69.
Ruppel, C.P
Schwartz, L. (1997), “Employees’ quality of life brings telework into focus”, Oregon Office of Energy, Salem, OR, June, available at: (accessed 8 October 2003).
Spendolini, M.J., Friedel, D.C
Bussing, A. (1998), “Teleworking and quality of life”, in Jackson, P.J. and Van Der Wielen, J.M. (Eds), Teleworking:InternationalPerspective, Routledge, London.
Grensing-Pophal, L
Ruppel, C.P. and Howard, G.S. (1998), “Facilitating innovation adoption and diffusion: the case of telework”, InformationResourcesManagementJournal, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 5-15.
Van Horn, C.E
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Critical success factors of PM Essay
  • Critical Success Factors Essay
  • Critical Success Factors Essay
  • Essay about Critical Success Factor
  • Acer's Critical Success Factors Essay
  • Project Critical Success Factors Essay
  • Critical Success Factors Essay
  • Developing Orientation Program Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free