Crisis Recovery: - Customers’ perspective towards Toyota’s brand. 1.2
Crisis is often a very fearful problem for organization around the world. As brand building takes up a very long period, destroying a brand on the other hand only require a blink of an eye. However, each and every organization will have their own module or particular ways to prevent their brand to have negative image in customers’ perception. But because of the unknown future, crisis might arise from nowhere and struck the organization with no mercy and brings the organization to an ending point. Crisis can be devastating as the effect of the crisis its own can sometimes be very hard to calculate as there might be many parties involved. To break down, there are in effect three types of crisis, each of which is determined by an accompanying time constraint (Parsons, 1996). According to Parsons, 1996, the three types of crisis are 1) immediate 2) emerging 3) sustained. Immediate crisis is a type of crisis where it has no warning about its incoming. Often, this type of crisis leave no breathing room for the organization to research about the problem and the organization certainly will not have a detailed plan to overcome this type of crisis. Additionally, the second type of crisis is the emerging crisis. Emerging crisis in compare to immediate crisis is much slower, but that doesn’t mean that emerging crisis deals lesser damage to an organization. But it shows that the emerging crisis will be more predictable than immediate crisis, however, it does need a lot of effort from the organization to find out about the starting sparks of this crisis. Last but not least is the sustained crisis, this type of crisis might be considered as very troublesome crisis for some organization as the nature of this type of crisis is that the sustained crisis will last up to several years. And the momentum to keep this type of crisis is often the speculation, gossip, and rumor.
After a walk through about several type of crisis, we already have brief idea on the type of crisis. However, most crises do not occur suddenly. The signals can usually be picked up and the symptoms checked as they emerge. A crisis can consist of four different and distinct stages. According to Fink, (1986), the four different stages are 1) prodromal crisis stage 2) acute crisis stage 3) chronic crisis stage 4) crisis resolution. The prodromal crisis stage being in the first stage also knows as symptom of a certain disease in medical field. In business field however, it give warning signal to a particular organization regarding a rising problem. It is either the organization notice the problem and solves it or the organization oversees the problem and then the problem reach the second stage which we known as acute crisis stage. At this stage, the warning light is not just blinking, but the problem is already on the surface and the organization have to take adequate action in order to solves this crisis. In this acute stage, problems are harder to take care of compare to prodromal stage, and the organization can only control the damage of this crisis. However, the losses are incurred. Additionally, the third stage is the chronic crisis stage. At this stage, the problem is always occurring and it is very difficult for a firm to solve. This stage might be the recovery period for some organization or vice versa for another organization. And lastly is the crisis resolution. From starting of the crisis to the very danger stage of crisis, there is always a chance for an organization to solve the problem. However, it is then differ by the level of organization put in to detect symptoms of problems. Besides, the lack of inexperience and inadequate method of dealing with crisis will also lead to an increase of level of the crisis. Keep in mind that no attempt to resolve the crisis or improper resolution might not be able to destroy a company. “But, its weakening effects can ripple through...
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