From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Crisis management is the process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatens to harm the organization, its stakeholders, or the general public. Three elements are common to most definitions of crisis: (a) a threat to the organization, (b) the element of surprise, and (c) a short decision time. Venette argues that "crisis is a process of transformation where the old system can no longer be maintained." Therefore the fourth defining quality is the need for change. If change is not needed, the event could more accurately be described as a failure or incident. In contrast to risk management, which involves assessing potential threats and finding the best ways to avoid those threats, crisis management involves dealing with threats after they have occurred. It is a discipline within the broader context of management consisting of skills and techniques required to identify, assess, understand, and cope with a serious situation, especially from the moment it first occurs to the point that recovery procedures start. Contents
2 Types of crisis
2.1 Natural crises
2.2 Technological crises
2.3 Confrontation crises
2.4 Crises of malevolence
2.5 Crises of organizational misdeeds
2.5.1 Crises of skewed management values
2.5.2 Crises of deception
2.5.3 Crises of management misconduct
2.6 Workplace violence
3 Crisis Leadership
3.1 Sudden crises
3.2 Smoldering crises
3.3 Signal detection
3.4 Preparation and prevention
3.5 Containment and damage control
3.6 Business recovery
4 Models and theories associated with crisis management o
4.1 Crisis Management Model
4.2 Management Crisis Planning
4.3 Contingency planning
4.4 Business continuity planning
4.5 Structural-functional systems theory
4.6 Diffusion of innovation theory
4.7 Role of apologies in crisis management
4.8 Crisis leadership
4.9 Unequal human capital theory
5 Examples of successful crisis management
5.1 Tylenol (Johnson and Johnson)
5.2 Odwalla Foods
6 Examples of unsuccessful crisis management
6.2 Ford and Firestone Tire and Rubber Company
7 Lessons learned in crisis management
7.1 Impact of catastrophes on shareholder value
7.2 Crisis as Opportunity
8 Public sector crisis management
8.1 Schools and crisis management
8.2 Government and crisis management
8.3 Elected officials and crisis management
9 Professional Organizations
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
Crisis management consists of:
Methods used to respond to both the reality and perception of crises. •
Establishing metrics to define what scenarios constitute a crisis and should consequently trigger the necessary response mechanisms. •
Communication that occurs within the response phase of emergency management scenarios. Crisis management methods of a business or an organization are called Crisis Management Plan. Crisis management is occasionally referred to as incident management, although several industry specialists such as Peter Power argue that the term crisis management is more accurate.  The credibility and reputation of organizations is heavily influenced by the perception of their responses during crisis situations. The organization and communication involved in responding to a crisis in a timely fashion makes for a challenge in businesses. There must be open and consistent communication throughout the hierarchy to contribute to a successful crisis communication process. The related terms emergency management and business continuity management focus respectively on the prompt but short lived "first aid" type of response (e.g. putting the fire out) and the longer term recovery and restoration phases (e.g....
References: 1. ^ Seeger, M. W.; Sellnow, T. L., & Ulmer, R. R. (1998). "Communication, organization and crisis". Communication Yearbook 21: 231–275.
2. ^ Venette, S. J. (2003). Risk communication in a High Reliability Organization: APHIS PPQ 's inclusion of risk in decision making. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Proquest Information and Learning.
4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Coombs, W. T. (1999). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
5. ^ a b c d e Lerbinger, O. (1997). The crisis manager: Facing risk and responsibility. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
7. ^ James, E. (Spring 2007). "Leadership as (Un)usual: How to Display Competence InTimes of Crisis". Leadership Preview. http://www.leadershipreview.org/2007spring/Article4.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-22.
8. ^ a b c d James, E. (Spring 2007). "Leadership as (Un)usual: How to Display Competence In Times of Crisis". Leadership Preview. http://www.leadershipreview.org/2007spring/Article4.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-22.
11. ^ Infante, D.; Rancer, A., & Womack, D. (1997). Building communication theory (3rd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
12. ^ Coombs, W. T. (2007). Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing, and Responding (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
14. ^ James, Erika; Lynn Perry Wooten (2010). "Why Discrimination Lawsuits Are a Noteworthy Crisis". Leading Under Pressure. Routledge Academic.
16. ^ Dezenhall, E. (2004-03-17). USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2004-03-17-dezenhall_x.html. Retrieved 2007-10-08.[dead link]
17. ^ Rudolph, B
18. ^ Goldman, A.; Reckard, E. (2007). LA Times. http://www.latimes.com/business/printedition/la-fi-pr18aug18,0,3471349.story?page=1&coll=la-headlines-pe-business. Retrieved 2007-10-13.[dead link]
19. ^ "The Pepsi Product Tampering Scandal of 1993"
20. ^ Shrivastava, P. (1987). Bhopal: Anatomy of a Crisis. Ballinger Publishing Company.
21. ^ Ackman, D. (2001). Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2001/06/20/tireindex.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-14.[dead link]
22. ^ Warner, F
23. ^ Pauly, J. J.; Hutchison, L. L. (2005). "Moral fables of public relations practice: The Tylenol and Exxon Valdez cases". Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4): 231–249. doi:10.1207/s15327728jmme2004_2.
25. ^ James, Erika; Lynn Wooten (2010). Leading Under Pressure. Routledge Academic.
28. ^ "Crisis management". Kansas City Public Schools. 2007. http://www.kckps.org/crisis/.
32. ^ a b c Boin, A.; P. Hart and E. Stern (2005). The politics of crisis management: Public leadership under pressure. New York: Cambridge University Press.
• Borodzicz, Edward P. (2005). Risk, Crisis and Security Management. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
• Coombs, W. T. (2006). Code Red in the Boardroom: Crisis Management as Organizational DNA. Westport, CT: Praeger.
• Office of Security and Risk Management Services (October 2007). "Crisis Management Workbook". Fairfax County Public Schools. http://www.fcps.edu/fts/safety-security/publications/cmw.pdf.
• Davidson, M.N. (2005). Ethics in Human Resource Management, in P.H. Werhane, R. E. Freeman (Eds.), Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
• Davidson, M.N. (2004). "Leading in Black and White: Working across the Racial Divide in Corporate America". Personnel Psychology 75 (2).
• Davidson, M.N. (2004). "Here and There: A Conversation about Identity". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 41 (3).
• Davidson, M.N. (2004). "Diversity that matters". Batten Briefings 3 (1).
• Davidson, M.N. (2003). "Making the Tough Calls: Negotiating Exclusion in Inclusive and Diverse Organizations". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 41 (1).
• Davidson, M.N. (2003). "Leveraging Difference for Organizational Excellence". Batten Briefings 2 (1).
• Davidson, M.N. (2002). "Inclusion and Power: Reflections on Dominance and Subordination in Organizations". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 40 (1).
• Davidson (2001). "Diversity and inclusion: What difference does it make?". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 39 (2).
• Davidson, M.N. (2001). "The impact of race on styles of dealing with conflict". Sex Roles 45 (5/6).
• Davidson, M.N. (2001). "Mentoring in the preparation of ethnically diverse graduate students". Review of Educational Research 71 (4).
• Davidson, M.N. (1999). The role of emotion in negotiation: The impact of anger. In R.J. Bies, R.J. Lewicki, B.H. Sheppard, (Eds.), Research on Negotiation in Organizations. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc..
• Davidson, M.N. (1999). "The value of being included: An examination of diversity change initiatives in organizations". Performance Improvement Quarterly 12 (1).
• Dezenhall, E. (2003). Nail 'em!: Confronting high-profile attacks on celebrities & businesses. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.
• Dezenhall, E.; Weber, J. (2007). Damage control: Why everything you know about crisis management is wrong. Portfolio Hardcover.
• Erickson, Paul A. (2006). Emergency Response Planning for Corporate and Municipal Managers (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier, Inc..
• Ferdman (2002). "Inclusion: What can I and my organization do about it?". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 39 (4).
• Ferdman (2002). "Drawing the line: Are some differences too different?". Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 39 (3).
• Fink, S. (2007). Crisis management: Planning for the inevitable. Backinprint.com.
• Friedman, R.A. (2001). "Managing diversity and second-order conflict". Journal of Conflict Management 12 (2).
• Friedman, R.A. (1999). The role of emotion in negotiation: The impact of anger. In R.J. Bies, R.J. Lewicki, B.H. Sheppard, (Eds.), Research on Negotiation in Organizations. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc..
• Mitroff, Ian I.; Gus Anagnos (2000). Managing Crises Before They Happen: What Every Executive Needs to Know About Crisis Management. New York: AMACOM.
• Mitroff, Ian I. (2003). Crisis Leadership: Planning for the Unthinkable. New York: John Wiley.
• Mitroff, Ian I. (2005). Why Some Companies Emerge Stronger And Better From a Crisis: Seven Essential Lessons For Surviving Disaster. New York: AMACOM.
• Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency (September 2007). "National Response Plan". http://www.dhs.gov/xprepresp/committees/editorial_0566.shtm.
• Smith, Larry; Dan Millar, PhD (2002). Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan. Washington, DC: AACC Community College Press.
• Smith, Larry; Dan Millar, PhD (2002). Crisis Management and Communication; How to Gain and Maintain Control (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: International Association of Business Communicators.
• Ulmer, R. R.; Sellnow, T. L., & Seeger, M. W. (2006). Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document