Task 1: How would you define criminology?
We hear about crime in everyday life, read about it in newspapers, and watch it on the news. Crime is portrayed in several drama series on television and movies and is the subject of many conversations, whether it be a case involving a celebrity or a local or global tragedy. However for something that is such an everyday occurrence, criminology is not quite so easy to define as so may think. Criminology is a social science, the main aim is to analyse and research crime on both an individual and society basis. Criminology hopes to understand criminal behaviour and investigate the reasons behind why people commit crime. It is also important to look at ways in which crime can be reduced, how programmes, laws and policies may help to decrease or even stamp out crime. Criminology on a whole is made up of several elements such as law, sociology, biology and psychology. Criminology has since the 1920’s been associated with sociology; there are some connections also between biological and psychological theories of crime and this association carries on today.
I would describe criminology as the process of preventing, understanding and controlling crime. This includes the measurement, analysis and detection of crime. Criminology also covers foreseeing and predicting criminal activity and behaviours, and explaining such behaviours.
Task 2: Explain the difference between macro and micro theories used by Criminologists.
There are many criminological theories which have been studied and developed over the years. Micro theories can be concerned with either individuals on their own or small groups of people, such as gangs. Micro theories can also be known as etiological as it is concerned with how we explain and analyse criminal behaviour in individuals or within small groups. This is in comparison to macro theories which looks at the society as a whole and cares very little for individuals