With introduction and use of money, credit also came into existence. Credit is created when one party (it can be person, group of people, firm or an institution) lends money to another party, the borrowers. The act of borrowing creates both credit and debit. Debt means the obligation to pay the finance borrowed and credit means the claim to receive this money payment from the other party. Every credit involves debt, that is obligation to pay money and therefore creates claim.
1.1 Definition of important terms
1.1.1 Credit is generally understood to mean the finance provided to others at certain rate of interest (Mudida 2003).The act of borrowing and lending and there by the creation of credit is a special type of exchange transaction which involves future payments of the principle sum borrowed as well as rate of interest on it. The lending and borrowing of money and institution of money lending came into practice since money was invited by man (ibid).
1.1.2 Commercial Bank is a business organization which deals in money, it borrow and lend money in with purpose of generating profit Ahuja 2008).
1.1.3 Central Bank, Reserve Bank or Monetary Authority is a public institution that manages a state 's currency, money supply, and interest rates. Central banks also usually oversee the commercial banking system of their respective countries. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank possesses a monopoly on increasing the nation 's monetary base, and usually also prints the national currency, which usually serves as the nation 's legal tender (www.en.wikipedia.org).
2.0 HOW BANKS CREATE CREDITS
The source of money supply in the form of currency is circulation in Central Bank. It ensures the availability of currency to meet the transaction needs of the economy. The total volume of money in the economy should be adequate to facilitate the various types of economic activities such as production, distribution and consumption.
References: Ahuja H. L (2009); Macroeconomic Theory and Practice, 15th Revised edition, Rajendra Ravinda Printers PVT Ltd. New Delhi. Mudida, R. (2003). Modern Economics: Nairobi Focus publication Ltd. Maliyamkono, T.L. and M.S.D. Bagachwa, (1990), The Second economy in Tanzania Villiers Publications, London. http://www.ehow.com/info_7746614_functions-loans.html#ixzz2IBFRqK1bhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_bank.