1 – Introduction:
In a globalized economy increasingly competitive and complex, and where the changes are more frequent, the firms have to demonstrate a great adaptability and a high degree of agility to maintain or increase their competitiveness and their market share. The key word embedded in the daily business by most of the companies is the CREATIVITY, involving to create an environment and a process of thinking leading to the generation of new ideas relevant and feasible. This concept of creativity can be applied either in the conception and development of new products and services or in the processes of the organization. As Edward de Bono said the Creativity “is a skill and is not just about individual talent…Creativity is not only doing different but particularly creating value”. It is obvious that a company staying on this past glories and without the willingness to change and evolve its resources, products, offers or organizational structure, takes the risk of being caught or exceeded by the market and their competitors. However, the desire to be part of a creative process is not sufficient in itself, and some conditions and good practices have to be implemented to ensure the success and adherence to the concept. The next chapter describes some of the methodologies used and the conditions leading to Creativity.
2 – Creativity definition:
Since the last century, a wide number of studies have been performed in order to understand and explain from a rational point of view what is the definition of the creativity and how it is taking place in organization and finally the key factors and methodologies promoting creativity. From these studies, a common consensus is emerging and defining the creativity with two characteristics which are originality and usefulness.
In 1961, Rhodes described the framework of the creativity in four parts (The 4P’s) : The creative Person, the creative Process, the creative Product and the creative Press or environment. Creative Person: Even if every person can be creative, there are different levels of creativity in each person depending on some characteristics, or abilities like the openness, the curiosity, the imagination, the flexibility, the risk-taking, the motivation and the independence. Some assessments tools are available and allow defining the profile and the ability of each person to be creative like the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) or the MBTI defining the style of each person. These applications are very useful for team building or for foster creativity in organization. Creative Process: This part is related to the tools, the techniques and/or methods used for working together to optimize the creativity and critical thinking. The most important aspect of the different methodologies studied is a clear separation between each phase of the process in order to avoid interferences or disorder. Graham Wallas proposes a methodology split in 4 phases : Preparation, Incubation, Illumination and Verification. It has been demonstrated from a scientific point of view that different areas of the human brain are activated according to the phase treated.
Creative Product: As it was mentioned before, the Creative Product has to be both novel and useful. The question behind this is: What do we want to do better? What product, service or process we want to improve and turn in more helpful or efficient way.
Creative Press: The Creative Press refers to the psychological environment applied in an organization, a service or a team. The most favorable climate stimulating Creativity must integrate the following dimension of Freedom, Manager support, Trust, Openness, Dynamism, Risk-taking and Idea Time. The framework describes in the 4P’s theory is enabling to understand all factors and conditions conducting to the Creativity. The understanding of the theories is the first step toward an effective implementation. However the values of the companies and the role...
References: AMABILE M. Teresa & KRAMER J. Steven, Inner Work Life : Understanding the Subtext of Business
DE BONO Edward, Six Thinking Hats, 1985
RHODES Mel, An analysis of creativity, 1961
RICKARDS Tudor & MOGER Susan, Handbook for Creative Team Leaders, 1999
WALLAS Graham, The Art of Thought, 1926
Please join StudyMode to read the full document