SMT. SULOCHANADEVI SINGHANIA SCHOOL, THANE
Std 10- History
Q1) Why Is the Revolt of 1857called the First war of Independence? •
The Revolt though initially started by the Indian soldiers in the service of the East Indian Company, spread like fire throughout length & breadth of the country. All sections of the people including princes, Jagirdars, farmers, artisans &soldiers for independence .Hindus &Muslims fought shoulder to shoulder to throw out the British .Hence 1857 Revolt is called the first war of independence.
Q2) Write the political causes of the First war of Independence.
A) Policy of expansion;
Few independent States were annexed on some pretext.
Indian states had either been annexed or had entered into alliances with the company. The British had become the supreme power and the Indian princes were reduced to puppet. b) Doctrine of lapse;
According to the Doctrine of lapse, heirs adopted without the consent of the company could inherit only the private property of the deceased ruler & not his territory which would come under the company’s rule. Satara, Jaitpur Nagpur Udaipur & Sambalpur became the victim of the Doctrine of Lapse. c) Annexation of Awadh;
Lord Dalhousie annexed Awadh under the pretext of alleged misrule. This caused resentment from the Indian soldiers. It affected the soldiers’ financial position.
D) Disrespect shown to Bahadur Shah;
Lord Dalhousie announced that successors of Bahadur Shah Zafar would not be permitted to use the Red fort as their palace. They were shifted to a place near Qutab Minar, & also his successors would not be allowed to use the imperial titles with their names and would be known as mere princes. This decision of the British hurt the feelings of the Muslims. Zeenat Mahal, the wife of Bahadur shah began plotting against them.
E) Treatment given to Nana Sahib & Rani Laxmi Bai;
Lord Dalhousie refused to pay the pension of Nana Sahib adopted son of Baji Rao II the former Peshwa.This was widely resented in Maratha region. Rani Laxmi Bai became a bitter enemy of the British because she was the victim of Lord Dalhousie policy.
F) Absentee Sovereignty ship;
India was being ruled by the British government from England. The earlier rulers like Mughals who had conquered India had in course of time settled and spent the collected revenue to the growth of India and Indians. In case of British India were being ruled from England & her wealth was being drained to England & not utilized for the welfare of Indians.
Q3) Write the Economic causes of the First war of Independence. 1) Exploitation of economic resources;
Agricultural India was made an economic colony of the Industrial England. •
India was forced to export at cheaper rates raw materials like raw cotton & raw silk ; plantation products ( like Indigo & tea) •
India was asked to accept readymade British goods either duty free or nominal duty rates. While Indian goods were subjected to high import duties. Thus the change in nature of India’s trade became instrumental for exploiting India’s resources.
2) Poverty & Famine
Famines ravaged all parts of the country in the second half of the 19th century. The British government did nothing to lessen people’s misery.
Inhuman treatment of Indigo cultivators;
The peasants were forced to cultivate any indigo in the fields chosen by the British planters.If they planted anything else their crops were destroyed and the cattle was carried off as punishment.
Decay of cottage industries;
Heavy duties on Indian silk & cotton textiles in Britain destroyed Indian industries.On the other hand British goods were imported into India at a nominal duty. By the middle of the 19th century,export of cotton & silk goods from India practically ceased. 5)
Economic Decline of Peasantry ;
The peasants were discontented with the official land revenue policy. •
Not even the part of the revenue was spent on the...
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