What makes them different from other kinds of rights? One intuitive and longstanding response to these questions is that, unlike other kinds of rights, human rights are those that we have simply in virtue of being human. For example, John Simmons writes, “Human rights are rights possessed by all human beings (at all times and in all places), simply in virtue of their humanity.”
Following Charles Beitz, we shall call this the Naturalistic Conception of human rights.2
Free Will and Determinism
Tuesday, January 27, 2009 by tutor2u Admin
There are three theories of free will and determinism that you will need to be aware of:
Hard Determinism; In this theory we see that human behavior and actions are wholly determined by external factors, and therefore humans do not have genuine free will or ethical accountability. There are several different supporting views for this belief, which incorporates philosophical determinism, psychological determinism, theological determinism and scientific determinism.
Soft Determinism is the theory that human behavior and actions are wholly determined by causal events, but human free will does exist when defined as the capacity to act according to one’s nature (which is shaped by external factors such as heredity, society and upbringing).
Libertarianism is the theory that humans do have genuine freedom to make a morally undetermined decision, although our behaviour may be partially determined by external factors.
You also need to understand that philosophers distinguish between two different definitions of freedom. This will invariably influence one’s views on free will and determinism:
The liberty of indifference is a genuine freedom to act according to independent choices that are not wholly determined by eternal constraints such as heredity, background and education.
The liberty of