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Topics: Tourism, Terrorism, September 11 attacks Pages: 38 (7079 words) Published: December 1, 2013
Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 299–315, 2008 0160-7383/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain


Jorge E. Arana
Carmelo J. Leon
University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Abstract: Terrorism and threats to national security are documented to have impacts on tourism demand. This paper focuses on the short-run impacts of the September 11 attacks in New York on tourist preferences for competing destinations in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands. The proposed approach is a stated preference model based on two different samples taken at different points in time in relation to terrorist attacks. Results show that the attacks caused a shock to tourists’ utility, and a change in the image profile of destinations. Moreover, it was found that while some destinations experienced a strongly negative impact on their image and attractiveness, others were upgraded as a consequence of terror events. Keywords: discrete choice, terrorism, demand. Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ´

Resume: L’impact du terrorisme sur la demande touristique. Il est verifie que le terrorisme ´ ´
et les menaces pour la securite nationale ont des impacts sur la demande touristique. Cet arti´ ´
cle porte sur les impacts a court terme des attentats du 11 septembre a New York sur les prefe` `
´ ´
rences des touristes pour des destinations en concurrence en Mediterranee et aux Canaries. ´
L’approche est un modele de preference declaree base sur deux echantillons qui ont ete pris `
´ ´
´ ´
a des moments differents par rapport aux attaques. Les resultats montrent un choc sur le `
modele d’utilite des touristes et un changement sur le profile de l’image des destinations. `
En plus, certaines destinations ont subi un impact fortement negatif sur leur image et leur ´
attrait, tandis que d’autres ont ete revalorisees en consequence des evenements touristiques. ´ ´
´ ´
Mots-cles: choix discret, terrorisme, demande. Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tourism is an industry where both demand and supply can be sensitive to extreme events such as terrorism or political violence (Ritcher and Waugh 1986; Ryan 1993). The absence of terror or violence is a pre-condition generally accepted for the development of destinations (Israeli and Reichel 2003; Sonmez 1998). However, in the last decades, ¨

the world has been increasingly threatened by terrorism, and acts of violence have increased in many countries, some of them enjoying in parallel an increasing popularity as destinations (Sonmez, Apostolopo¨ ulos and Tarlow 1999). These events can be considered a handicap at conflict and novel destinations, since tourists used to show marked Jorge Arana is Lecturer in Economics at University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Faculty ˜

of Economics, 35017 Las Palmas, Spain. Email ). Carmelo Leo is Professor in Economics and Head of the Graduate Program in Economics at the same university. Authors are member and Director, respectively, of the UNESCO Chair in Tourist Planning and Sustainable Economics and the Research Group of Sustainable Economics. Their research interests are tourism and environmental economics. 299


J.E. Arana, C.J. Len / Annals of Tourism Research 35 (2008) 299–315 ~

preferences for tranquility and peaceful social environments (Neumayer 2004; Reisenger and Mavondo 2005). The impact of terrorism on consumer choice and tourism decisions has been an area of research concern on demand. However, most of these studies have utilized a times series approach. For instance, Ender and Sandler (1991) and Enders, Sandler and Parise (1992) used monthly data and time series analysis to prove a significant negative impact of terrorism on tourism revenues in Spain and other European countries, and...

References: J.E. Arana, C.J. Le n / Annals of Tourism Research 35 (2008) 299–315
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