Course Notes Negotiable Instruments

Topics: Negotiable instrument, Promissory note, Commercial paper Pages: 14 (4382 words) Published: July 6, 2013
Sec. 122. Renunciation by holder. - The holder may expressly renounce his rights against any party to the instrument before, at, or after its maturity. An absolute and unconditional renunciation of his rights against the principal debtor made at or after the maturity of the instrument discharges the instrument. But a renunciation does not affect the rights of a holder in due course without notice. A renunciation must be in writing unless the instrument is delivered up to the person primarily liable thereon.    

Sec. 123. Cancellation; unintentional; burden of proof. - A cancellation made unintentionally or under a mistake or without the authority of the holder, is inoperative but where an instrument or any signature thereon appears to have been cancelled, the burden of proof lies on the party who alleges that the cancellation was made unintentionally or under a mistake or without authority.    

Sec. 124. Alteration of instrument; effect of. - Where a negotiable instrument is materially altered without the assent of all parties liable thereon, it is avoided, except as against a party who has himself made, authorized, or assented to the alteration and subsequent indorsers.  But when an instrument has been materially altered and is in the hands of a holder in due course not a party to the alteration, he may enforce payment thereof according to its original tenor.    

Sec. 125. What constitutes a material alteration. - Any alteration which changes: (a) The date; 
(b) The sum payable, either for principal or interest; 
(c) The time or place of payment: 
(d) The number or the relations of the parties; 
(e) The medium or currency in which payment is to be made;    
(f) Or which adds a place of payment where no place of payment is specified, or any other change or addition which alters the effect of the instrument in any respect, is a material alteration. BILLS OF EXCHANGE

Sec. 126. Bill of exchange, defined. - A bill of exchange is an unconditional order in writing addressed by one person to another, signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time a sum certain in money to order or to bearer.    

Sec. 127. Bill not an assignment of funds in hands of drawee. - A bill of itself does not operate as an assignment of the funds in the hands of the drawee available for the payment thereof, and the drawee is not liable on the bill unless and until he accepts the same.    

Sec. 128. Bill addressed to more than one drawee. - A bill may be addressed to two or more drawees jointly, whether they are partners or not; but not to two or more drawees in the alternative or in succession.    

Sec. 129. Inland and foreign bills of exchange. - An inland bill of exchange is a bill which is, or on its face purports to be, both drawn and payable within the Philippines. Any other bill is a foreign bill. Unless the contrary appears on the face of the bill, the holder may treat it as an inland bill.    

Sec. 130. When bill may be treated as promissory note. - Where in a bill the drawer and drawee are the same person or where the drawee is a fictitious person or a person not having capacity to contract, the holder may treat the instrument at his option either as a bill of exchange or as a promissory note.    

Sec. 131. Referee in case of need. - The drawer of a bill and any indorser may insert thereon the name of a person to whom the holder may resort in case of need; that is to say, in case the bill is dishonored by non-acceptance or non-payment. Such person is called a referee in case of need. It is in the option of the holder to resort to the referee in case of need or not as he may see fit.   

Sec. 132. Acceptance; how made, by and so forth. - The acceptance of a bill is the signification by the drawee of his assent to the order of the drawer. The acceptance must be in writing and...
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