Country Images And Country Image

Good Essays
According to Jaffe and Nebenzahl (1984), Han and Terpstra (1988), Roth and Romeo (1992), Smith (1993), Papadopoulos and Heslop (2002), Jaffe and Nebenzahl (2006), despite several differences of approaches in the literature, each country has a certain image and a multifaceted structure.

First studies on country image in the literature belong to the 1930s and 1940s (Katz and Braly, 1933; Klingberg, 1941). On those years, several researches were done on impacts of social psychological processes, economic, cultural and political events on country image. But in these years, national perceptions and prototypes are of particular importance (Katz and Braly, 1933; 1943; Klinberg,1941). Nagashima (1970) considers country image a prototypes that are
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General Country Image

From the 1980s onwards, general country image has been differentiated from the concept of country of origin image and regarded as a new approach (Papadopoulos et. al., 1988; Han, 1990; Heslop et. al., 2004). According to this approach, country image consists of general judgements; it is country’s economic, political, cultural and historical heritage (Bannister and Saunders, 1978; Desborde, 1990).

According to Nagashima (1970) country image is the sum of emotions, ideas, belief and attitudes of customers on a particular country that are based on their experiences and knowledge towards that country. This image might be personal but it may also occur as a form of thought that is specific to whole nation (Nagashima, 1970).

Bannister and Saunders (1978) also adopt this point of view and define country image as a sum of a country’s economic and political development, historical traditions, industrialization, foreign affairs and technological developments. Desborde (1990) claims that country image reflects a country’s culture, political structure, economic level and technological development. According to Kotler and Gartner (2002) each country is made up with its own geography, history, law, art and music, famous cities and other features (Kotler and Gertner,
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Customers’ opinions are based on several different dimensions including price (Jaffe and Nebenzahl, 1984; Nagashima, 1970; White, 1975), labour (Han and Terpstra, 1988; Nagashima, 1970) and services (Han and Terpstra, 1988; Nagashima, 1970) and brand recognisability (Narayana, 1981). Consumers, although they lack general information about a country, can make an induction through a familiar product and assess that particular country (Han, 1989). Li, Fu and Murray (1997) agree with this view; according to them an image of customers towards a country occurs through “product-country” image. This perception emerges sometimes positively, sometimes negatively. Caroche et. al., (2005) summarize that product image creates an image towards a country and suggest that a country’s image is reflected on product

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