1. Identify four key personality/human development theories. The four personality and human development theories are
• Post Modern
2. Explain the concept of nature versus nurture.
Nature is the biological qualities that an individual inherits from his parents through conception and nurture is the environmental factors and experiences that influence the individual from birth.
3. Explain the concept of genetic inheritance and how it applies to counselling. Genetic inheritance defines the inborn biological traits that are the foundation of personality. It determines the developmental capacity of an individual to its potential. Understanding this concept helps the counselling process as it helps differentiate between the biological traits of an individual and the environmental factors that affect them and their potential capacity.
4. Explain Freud’s concept of the unconscious and why it is important in counselling. The unconscious symbolises suppressed thoughts, feelings or memories that affect the way we respond to everyday life subconsciously. This concept is very important in counselling because if those hidden inner thoughts and emotions can be identified and addressed through what Freud calls psychoanalysis, clients can understand some of their behaviours and work on them.
5. List the three different aspects of personality identified by Freud. Briefly explain how they relate to each other. The id is an innate function that seeks to satisfy the primary needs of a living organism. It does not work in a rational way and therefore can result in immoral behaviours. The ego defines itself through reasoning. It assesses a person’s needs and finds appropriate ways to meet them by weighing potential risk factors. The superego sets rules and standards to an individual’s needs, not based on reasoning, but more so on cultural and social influence. All three aspects of personality are very...
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