U03A1_ COUNSELING SPECIALIZATIONS AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAMS_ARezendes Resilience, an Evolving Concept: A Review of Literature Relevant to Aboriginal Research Resilience, an Evolving Concept: A Review of Literature Relevant to Aboriginal Research
In this paper, I will discuss the history of counseling; specifically how school counseling and mental health counseling came to be. I will also examine the key philosophies of the counseling profession including, wellness, resilience, and prevention. Finally, I will analyze the case of Ashley, a young girl experiencing depression due to life changes and discuss how a school counselor and a mental health counselor can assist her through these barriers.
According to S. T. Gladding (2004), the profession of counseling is fairly new. Counseling began in the late 1890’s and early 1900’s. In the late 1890’s counseling was simply known as giving advice or information. In the United States, counseling began due to the concern and well being of those affected by the Industrial Revolution (S. T. Gladding, 2004, p. 8). Ginter (2002) stated, “Counseling emerged during a socially turbulent period that straddled the ending of one century and the beginning of another, a period marked by great change that caused a major shift in the way individuals viewed themselves and others” (p. 220). Prior to the professional title, “counselor,” people in the counseling profession recognized themselves as teachers and advocates. Advocates worked on teaching children and adults about themselves and built lessons on moral values and evaluated intra and interpersonal relationships. Far before the idea of counseling, came the roots of wellness, which go back almost 2,000 years (Meyers & Sweeney, 2008, p. 1). People say, Aristotle may have been the first to write about wellness and during the Middle Ages, Descartes proposed a dichotomy of both mind and body and in the late 20th century a new model in medicine believed mind, body, and spirit were all important factors of both health and wellness (Meyers & Sweeney, 2008, p. 1). Resilience, another key philosophy in counseling came to light when Norman Garmezy (e.g., 1974), Emmy Werner and Ruth Smith (e.g., 1989), and Michael Rutter (e.g., 1999) all conducted extensive research. As stated by the Australian Government of Family studies, “...the concept of resilience has gone from being limited and specific in nature to being a more broad and widely encompassing construct. Research has moved from focusing on the individual to seeing the child within his or her wider family and community context and considering a much broader range of risk and protective factors” (Hunter, 2012). A growing trend in the field of counseling is the emphasis on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was common practice to meet with clients after or during a crisis. More recently, school counselors are beginning to intervene prior to major events and are working towards becoming more proactive in developing and carrying out individual and school wide prevention plans. Schools and families are needing help in preventing students from being involved with the many difficulties that come with being in high school, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, teen pregnancy, and drug and alcohol abuse (Krumboltz & Koplin, 2002). The school counseling profession emerged at the turn of the twentieth century. John Krumboltz and Thierry Koplin (2002) tell us that the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) began in 1958 and provided aid to education of all levels to both public and private schools. The NDEA was created mainly to stimulate the advancement of education in science, math and foreign language. NDEA also provided funding to other areas such as technical skills, geography, school libraries and counseling. The idea of supporting counseling in schools came from the Soviet Union’s initiation of Sputnik and the fear...
References: Gladding, S. T. (2004). Historical and Professional Foundations of Counseling . Counseling: a comprehensive profession (4th ed., ). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Sweeney, T. J. Wellness Counseling: The Evidence Base for Practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 482-493. Retrieved May 12, 2014, from the ProQuest database.
Hunter, C. (2012). Is resilience still a useful concept when working with children and young people?. Where did the concept come from? A brief history of resilience. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/papers/a141718/04.html
Krumboltz, J. D., & Koplin, T. G. (2002). Guidance and Counseling, School. In J. W. Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Education (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 975-980). New York: Macmillan Reference USA. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3403200272&v=2.1&u=minn04804&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=5cac2b88a0318e5ae2e9a4bd9a1078d7
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