Explain the strengths and weaknesses of Aquinas’ Cosmological argument The Cosmological argument attempts to explain that something has caused the universe to exist and this First cause is what we call God. The argument begins with observations that try to support the following statements: •
Everything in the universe has a cause
The universe itself must have a cause
To avoid infinite regress of causes there must be an uncaused cause •
This uncaused cause is God
The argument uses inductive reasoning, which means that the premises support the conclusion as the information comes from our senses. It is a posteriori argument, which means that it is based on experiences of the world around us. St Thomas Aquinas came up with five demonstrations for the existence of God and is known as the ‘five ways’. The five ways are: argument for an unmoved mover, argument for an uncaused causer, argument from contingency, argument from gradation and argument from teleology. It is the first three that support the cosmological argument to explain the existence of God. Aquinas believed that the universe is God’s creation and therefore the evidence we need to prove God’s existence can be found in the creation using intellect and reason. The argument from motion explains that everything that moves is moved by something else and there must be an initial cause of movement in the universe. The unmoved mover is God. The problem with this is if everything in the world was in motion, then for these objects to move something must have started it. Aquinas believed God was the unmoved mover and that he put the universe in motion. The argument from causation follows the idea that everything has a cause; there cannot be an infinite regress of causes. The first cause must be God. This idea focuses on cause and effect. Aquinas believed that the world is made up of a series of causes and effects but again needs a first cause. Aquinas thought that God caused the universe and he made all...
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