Topics: Political corruption, Bribery, Transparency International Pages: 8 (2454 words) Published: February 22, 2014
For other uses, see Corruption (disambiguation).
"Corrupt" and "Corruptor" redirect here. For magicbouba, see Corrupt (disambiguation) and Corruptor (disambiguation). "Corrupted" and "Corruptors" redirect here. For the Japanese doom metal band, see Corrupted (band). For the American television series, see Target: The Corruptors!. "Debauchery" redirects here. For the German death metal band, see Debauchery (band). In philosophical, theological, or moral discussions, corruption is spiritual or moral impurity or deviation from an ideal. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement. Government, or 'political', corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain. The word corrupt when used as an adjective literally means "utterly broken".[1] The word was first used by Aristotle and later by Cicero who added the terms bribe and abandonment of good habits.[2] According to Morris,[3] corruption is described as the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest. Senior,[4] however, defines corruption as an action to (a) secretly provide (b) a good or a service to a third party (c) so that he or she can influence certain actions which (d) benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both (e) in which the corrupt agent has authority.Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that occurs as small favours between a small number of people (petty corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is part of the every day structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). Petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and within established social frameworks and governing norms. Examples include the exchange of small improper gifts or use of personal connections to obtain favors. This form of corruption is particularly common in developing countries and where public servants are significantly underpaid. Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political, legal and economic systems. Such corruption is commonly found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but also in those without adequate policing of corruption. The government system in many countries is divided into the legislative, executive and judiciary branches in an attempt to provide independent services that are less prone to corruption due to their independence. Systemic corruption (or endemic corruption)[5] is corruption which is primarily due to the weaknesses of an organization or process. It can be contrasted with individual officials or agents who act corruptly within the system. Factors which encourage systemic corruption include conflicting incentives, discretionary powers; monopolistic powers; lack of transparency; low pay; and a culture of impunity.[6] Specific acts of corruption include "bribery, extortion, and embezzlement" in a system where "corruption becomes the rule rather than the exception."[7] Scholars distinguish between centralized and decentralized systemic corruption, depending on which level of state or government corruption takes place; in countries such as the Post-Soviet states both types occur.[8] Corruption in different sectors[edit]

Corruption can occur in different sectors, whether they be public or private industry or even NGOs. Government/Public Sector[edit]
Public sector corruption includes corruption of the political process and of government agencies such as the police. Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions (elected officials or bureaucrats) can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face [9] Political corruption[edit]

Main article: Political corruption

A political...
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