Running head: LINK BETWEEN PRENATAL SMOKING AND ALCOHOL USE AND 1
LINK BETWEEN PRENATAL SMOKING AND ALCHOHOL USE AND ADHD
Aiken Technical College
LINK BETWEEN PRENATAL SMOKING AND ALCOHOL USE AND 2 Abstract
The following paper discusses the direct connection between mother’s who smoked cigarettes and/or used alcohol during their pregnancy and their child having ADHD. Though genetics can play a factor those children who have the gene for ADHD have an increased risk of developing sever ADHD is their mother smoked or drank during their pregnancy.
LINK BETWEEN PRENATAL SMOKING AND ALCOHOL USE AND 3 Link between Prenatal Smoking and Alcohol Use and ADHD
Numerous studies have been conducted to see if there is a correlation between mothers’ who smoked cigarettes and/or drank alcohol during their pregnancy and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). What exactly is ADHD? ADHD is “described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood.” ADHD is characterized by children who have problems paying attention in class or concentrating, they also seem to be unable to follow directions, and they may also become easily bored or frustrated with the tasks at hand. Children with ADHD tend to move constantly and are very impulsive. Though these all are common in normal children these symptoms appear to happen more often in children with ADHD. Adults with ADHD may have symptoms such as difficulty with organizational skills, time management, goal setting and employment. They may also experience problems with self-esteem, addictions, and relationships. In a study done by Washington University researchers showed that there was an increase of a severe type of ADHD when genetics and prenatal exposure to alcohol and nicotine were studied together....
References: Washington University (2007, April 11). Prenatal Smoking Increases ADHD Risk In Some Children. ScienceDaily.
ADHD linked to prenatal exposure to alcohol and smoking. (2002). DATA: The Brown University Digest of Addiction Theory & Application, 21(7), 2.
Rodriguez, A. A., Olsen, J. J., Kotimaa, A. J., Kaakinen, M. M., Moilanen, I. I., Henriksen, T. B., & ... Jarvelin, M. R. (2009). Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(9), 1073-1083 Schmitz, M., Denardin, D., Silva, T., Pianca, T., Hutz, M., Faraone, S., & Rohde, L. (2006). Smoking during Pregnancy and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type: A Case-Control Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(11), 1338-1345.
Knopik, V., Heath, A., Jacob, T., Slutske, W., Bucholz, K., Madden, P., & ... Martin, N. (2006). Maternal alcohol use disorder and offspring ADHD: disentangling genetic and environmental effects using a children-of-twins design. Psychological Medicine, 36(10), 1461-1471.
Carsten, O., Karen Markussen, L., Tine Brink, H., Alina, R., Marjo Riita, J., Arto, K., & ... Jørn, O. (2009). Smoking during pregnancy and hyperactivity-inattention in the offspring--comparing results from three Nordic cohorts. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38(3), 698.
Davis, L. (n.d.). Smoking during pregnancy increases risk of childhood adhd. Retrieved from http://www.adult-adhd.com/aadhd/smoking- during-pregnancy-increases-risk-of-childhood-adhd.php
Please join StudyMode to read the full document