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Correlation of Parental Involvement and Self-Esteem

By AldweenBinaday Mar 09, 2013 7639 Words
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction
Significance of the study
Scope and Limitation
Hypotheses/assumptions
Definition of terms
Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
Chapter 3
* Instruments
* Methodology
* Data Gathering/ Data
Chapter 4
Chapter 5

Introduction
A subjective evaluation of teenagers concerning their sense of self-worthiness otherwise called as self-esteem is important in their own formation as a whole. The society surrounding a juvenile will never notice him if he has no confidence in the assets he have. Primarily, having a well valued self-esteem will attract more opportunities for the person, whereas having a low sense of worthiness can be a cause of series of problems or even psychological complications like depression. Thus, the formation of self-esteem is a crucial prerequisite for the development of the child.

Self-Esteem does not come out from a void. The formation of this psychological aspect of a human person is a life-long progression. But, the most crucial period of this process is during the adolescence of a child because in this phase, the child starts to notice himself, his abilities, his bragging rights and how the people think about him. In other words, it became crucial to form one’s self-esteem during adolescence because in this phase, the childish-baby starts to form his/her maturity both physical (mostly circles about bodily fitness and grooming) and psychological (mostly concerns about Emotional Quotient and Self-Esteem).

There are many factors on forming or deforming the sense of self appreciation of an adolescent. The common factors affecting the formation of self-esteem are as stated: (1) Body image which comprises his or her physical appearance and both his bodily and mental capacity, (2) Personal performance or achievements which encompasses the child’s own-earned bragging rights out of his or her own effort, and lastly (3) Social experiences which primarily involves the happenings in the child’s life both from school and home that crafted his or her self-esteem.

Forming one’s self-esteem during the adolescent stage is indeed a very delicate process since it’s a huge contributor for the development of the whole child in general. According to Sanaktekin and Sunar (2008), “The child alone has no capacity to form his own self-esteem”. Every child needs good guiding hands in their formation so that they might not go astray during the process. These guiding hands were being referred to as the parents. Thus, the importance of the intervention/involvement of parents in the lives of these adolescents is very imperative to study for the good of the child’s formation as a whole. Without the parents around, the children will have the tendency to deform themselves because again they have no capacity to form themselves and they need their parents to guide them in this process of formation. Significance of the Study

A child needs good hands on crafting them to become holistic individuals. One of the components of being a holistic individual is the sense of self belongingness or esteem of oneself. Self-esteem as defined by psychologists is the appreciation of whatever characteristics a person has. Thus, it’s a challenge to know the proper way of parental involvement to make the child holistically formed.

It’s a fact that the involvement of parents in the activities of their children at school is an important factor on the formation of these students. The office of Educational Research and improvement (2004) says that “when parents were involved in the education of their child. An increase in student performance will most likely occur. In addition, student behaviours are described as more positive when parents took part on the lives of their children so most likely the formation of their sons/daughters would be improved. According to a study conducted by Rosenberg, There were 3 primary factors of formation among students namely spiritual, academic and personal formation. That study said that parental involvement affects the academic and personal formation of a student. In addition, self-esteem is one of the components of personal formation. Thus, the analytical relation between these two variables is that self esteem is part of the personal formation of a student while parental involvement is one of the factors determining the same aspect of formation. That’s why this study is significant because it gives the behaviour of self-esteem in respect to the variable parental involvement which will later on support the facts stated awhile ago primarily about the “importance of parental involvement to self-esteem”.

This study aims to measure the behaviour of the variable self-esteem in respect to parental involvement. Using statistical tools, it will be possible to see the correlation between these two variables. This research is a quantitative research. This focuses on numerical values and survey scores that incorporate parental involvement and self-esteem of students (PAREF-Southridge Afternoon School). Hypotheses/assumptions

Because of the fact that self-esteem is one of the components of personal formation and parental involvement is a factor affecting the same formation then the hypothetical idea is that these two variables have a positive correlation. This means that when the quantity and quality of parental involvement increases the self-esteem of the student will also increase as well.

By basing the assumptions in the hypotheses, the researcher assumes that if the parents were more involved in the activities of their children inside and outside of the school, most likely these adolescents would have a higher self esteem. The scenario happens at it is. Vice versa is not applicable because the study uses parental involvement as the X variable and self esteem as Y. Scope and limitation

The population that will be covered by this study is all the students in PAREF-Southridge Afternoon School, but a stratified sampling out of this population would be drawn. This implies that from the 165 students of Southridge Afternoon School, only 116 students will be able to participate. (According to Slovin’s formula with a margin of error 5%)

Since the participants of the research are students in an all-boys school, a major disadvantage on providing self-esteem of different sexes will occur since the study became a unisex study but a major advantage is that with this kind of participants, this research will become a tool to show the relationship of parental involvement to self-esteem of male students. This research will be of good use to other researchers trying to compare the self-esteem of male students and female students because the participants of this study were all boys. Definition of terms

Parental Involvement: Is the quantity and quality of participation parents furnished to their children. Types of parenting: These are the types or ways of parental engagement parents apply to their children. a) Authoritarian Parental involvement: Authoritarian type of parenting is the styles of parental engagement where in the children were bound to obey the rules imposed by their parents without explanation why they need to do so. This is otherwise called as “martial-law” parenting because it’s a type of parental engagement where in the parents impose a lot of laws concerning the ‘freedom’ of the child[“Parental involvement as a moderator for students’ academic achievement “ (Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet; Lau,Poh. Journal of Science & Technology)] b) Authoritative Parental involvement: Is the type of parenting wherein the parents explain the rules they impose, its implications, its purpose and its end and encourages freedom of the Child. This is a democratic type of parental involvement where in its child centred and the parents let what the child wants to do [“Relationship between parenting styles and the academic performance of adolescents” (Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Annk, Fortner, Lauren A; Mullis, Ronald L.)] Self-esteem: Self-esteem is the value we place on what we believe to be true about ourselves. Put simply, our self-esteem is how we feel about ourselves. It's an emotion we hold true about ourselves. (“Self-Esteem”StudyMode.com 06 2005. 06 2005 <http://www.studymode.com/essays/Self-Esteem-60620.html>.) Adolescence: Adolescence (from Latin: adolescere meaning "to grow up") is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development generally occurring between puberty and legal adulthood (age of majority). (“What Is Adolescence”StudyMode.com. 02 2011. 02 2011<http://www.studymode.com/essays/What-Us-Adolescence-580504.html Pampering: It is synonymous to enhancing or boosting children to excel

Chapter 2
RRL (Review of Related Literature)
Proper parenting Style
There are two primary types of Parental involvement namely authoritarian and authoritative. According to the academic journal, “Parental involvement as a moderator for students’ academic achievement “ (Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet; Lau,Poh. Journal of Science & Technology) the authoritarian type of parenting is the style of parental engagement where in the children were bound to obey the rules imposed by their parents without any explanations why they need to do so. In addition, the author of the research states that this kind of parenting limits the expression of a child which makes him or her disadvantageous because it makes the child subjected to rules he or she does not even sees the purpose of obeying. That study also declares that the authoritarian parenting bounds children to obey out of fear and not out of love. Psychologically the first notion of those who experienced this kind of parenting is that they were worthless due to the fact that their voice weren’t heard. Hence, they will most likely have a lesser confidence or esteem with those who experienced authoritative parenting style. That’s why that research has a conclusion that students who experienced authoritative type of parenting have a better quality of self-esteem that those who experience authoritarian type of parental involvement.

The other style of parental engagement is the authoritative parenting. According to the academic journal, “Relationship between parenting styles and the academic performance of adolescents” (Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Annk, Fortner, Lauren A; Mullis, Ronald L.) authoritative parenting is the type of parenting wherein the parents explain the rules they impose, its implications, its purpose and its end. That study states that the parents practicing this kind of parental involvement should have only one reason on imposing their laws to their children. It should be for the good and welfare of their children. Other existing researches support this kind of parenting because it forms their children both intrinsic and extrinsic. In fact, the results of these two academic journals this research has just mentioned is that students experienced authoritative parenting style performs better than those who undergo authoritarian parents. In other words authoritative parenting style produces more efficient students than authoritarian parenting. Thus, authoritative style of parental engagement is better than authoritarian type of parental involvement. The involvement of parents

One of the focuses of this study is to know how parents should be involved on the activities of their children. In the study, “ Does parental homework involvement mediate the relationship between family background and educational outcomes” (Dumont, Hanm; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Nevmann; Murko; Niggli, Alois; schnyder, Inge) it shows that even in simple things like helping students in doing their homeworks, parents can significantly boost the performance, confidence and esteem of these children. The conclusion of that study is that involving in homework, though it seems simple, easy and has lesser worth; it still has huge indirect positive implication on parents’ sons or daughters. It shows how special their children are in an indirect manner by confirming that even in simple things like their homework there are still people around them that are ready to support for their success. Thus, the result is that the esteem and confidence of the children will increase and they will be motivated to do their best and study more which will result to an improvement in academic performance. The researches of that study states that obviously the grade of having a perfect homework is not the reason why the student-child is excelling. The real reason is that the child is motivated to study because he knows that his parents were there to support him. That made the student excels in his/her schooling.

What they’re trying to say is that no matter how intense the involvements of the parents were the one that really counts is the gravity of the expression of the idea that the child is special. By showing or expressing to the child, though indirectly, that he/ she is someone that should be taken care of, the parental involvement to be done will be worth it. The researchers of that study also draw a line of precaution not to overwhelm the child by too much pampering because it might result to make the child very dependent to others. Parental involvement as means of forming self-esteem

The parental involvement dimensions positively influenced achievement through its effect on student self-concept and locus of control. Likewise parents’ increased participation in involvement practices boosts internal aspects of a child. The study -“parents’ involvement in the adolescents’ schooling: a multidimensional conceptualisation and meditational model” states that parental involvement and self esteem have a positive correlation therefore it proves the hypothesis of this study. That research provides how parental involvement became a factor in forming self-esteem of students. That study also states that involvement of parents in the schooling of their children is a very delicate process and should be done correctly. The researcher of that study also states that if the parental involvement is wrong, most likely the child will turn out unwell.

The academic journal, “Parental involvement: The missing link in school achievement” also states that increasing student learning requires the collaboration of various interested groups, most notably the parents. That research also confirmed that families play an important role in creating a holistic individual that has proper intellectual capacity, psychological capability and external formation. That research says that good parents would result to good schools which will result to good students. It shows how parental involvement became a factor on forming an individual child and a collective institution like the school. That study gave importance in parenting and treated it as a very special variable that should be taken care of, monitored frequently and maintained consistently like what the academic journal “parents’ involvement in the adolescents’ schooling: a multidimensional conceptualisation and meditational model” states. Fathers’ involvement in the formation of future fathers

According to the academic journal “Parental style and academic achievement among the students” (Kazami S. Farhana) The role of parents, especially father has been considered very important for children’s grooming, development and learning. In addition, that research states that fathers influence more than mothers on the formation of male adolescents. Primarily, it’s because the son and father both know each other better due to the fact that they have same sex and they understand each other. In this study an indigenously designed questionnaire was used to collect the data needed. The result of that research was found that fathers’ involvement for the academic achievements of their sons were in favor than the maternal involvement. Note that this result does not mean maternal involvement is not necessary or not important. The researchers’ explanation was possible yet not eminent conclusions. These given reasons given by Kazami were (1) Fathers hold the highest authority in families thus their involvement with their child has a higher impact than mothers, (2) Fathers and sons have a mutual relationship. They share things in common so the fathers know how to deal with their sons better than mothers. Lastly, (3) every father went in the same shoes of their sons when they were still a child, so they understand, appreciate and know the causes and implications of what their sons did and they know how to handle it. The importance of parental involvement

In the book “Do parents know hey matter? Raising achievement through parental engagement” (Harris, Alma, Janet; Andrew-Power, Kirstie.) the study states that parental engagement is one of the major factors that pampers student achievement. The study also notes that without parental involvement, the path that students will take might astray because of lack of guidance. Hence, parental involvement should be monitored to help students excel and have a proper formation. With parental involvement, the formation of the child will become clearer because of the presence of a guide. Children will have a greater sense of self-worth, confidence and esteem. This book was consistent to another text.

According to the book “motivation in education”(Elsworth, Desmand H.) the parental involvement is classified as a “major factor” on forming students to excel. With the help of parents, there’s a high chance that students will excel and have a very good formation. That book states that parental involvement is not exclusive for self-esteem alone. In fact self-esteem is only one of the factors that parental involvement affects. That fact proves how important parental involvement is. Engagement of parents will affect many things, thus this factor should be studied well to provide parents ideas on how they should properly involve in the activities of their children to avoid deformation of their children and to promote the proper formation of their sons or daughters. Thorough Discussion: Parental Involvement and Self-Esteem (A summary of the related literature)

Our first school is our home and our first teachers were our parents. In teaching, proper methods should be followed to form good students. Thus, it’s also imperative to have of proper ways of parental involvement to form holistic children. So that’s what this study will focus. This research will provide parents the proper ways to be involved in the activities of their student-children to the formation of the self-esteem of their adolescents. In the research “ Does parental homework involvement mediate the relationship between family background and educational outcomes” (Dumont, Hanm; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Nevmann; Murko; Niggli, Alois; schnyder, Inge), one of the many ways to be involved in the activities of children is by participating in doing the homework/s of their children. In that way, parents could enhance the idea of being self-worthy to their children because of the fact that their sons/daughters will feel special when there are parents around them who will embrace them with guidance. Based in that research, Parents could craft their children even by just helping their children to do their homeworks. The results of that study proved that parental involvement really pampers the students to become achievers and to become holistic persons because even just on homeworks, significant improvements occur on the intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of the children.

Another point by another academic journal which is, “Parental style and academic achievement among the students” (Kazami S. Farhana), states that involvement of fathers to their sons is more important than maternal involvement. The reasons behind this according to Kazami were; (1) Fathers hold the highest authority in families thus their involvement with their child has a higher impact than mothers, (2) Fathers and sons have a mutual relationship. They share things in common so the fathers know how to deal with their sons better than mothers. Lastly (3) every fathers went in the same shoes of their sons when they were still a child, so they understand, appreciate and know the cause and implication of what their sons did and they know how to deal with it. That study will be of good use to this research because the participants of this study were all males. That means this study can use that research to support another claim which is “Father’s parental involvement is more influential than maternal involvement in male-students.

Now that the researcher already discussed proper ways of involvement on the lives of students and father involvement in their sons, He will now discuss the answer to a hanging question about which is better- “Authoritative or Authoritarian parenting style?” According to the academic journal, “Parental involvement as a moderator for students’ academic achievement (Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet; Lau,Poh. Journal of Science & Technology) the authoritarian parenting produces less excellent students. That study also says that authoritarian parenting lessens the capacity of the child to express himself, explore more things and learn from his mistakes because of the fact that his life was enclosed to the rule imposed by his parents. In the other hand, authoritative parenting is the one that forms the child to become holistic individuals because (1) It makes children understand why they should follow the laws imposed to them, (2) The children would think that they’re special because the laws obliged to them are for their own good (not like authoritarian which just impose laws without explaining it to their children) and lastly (3) authoritative parenting style let children think with themselves and learn from their mistakes. The claims of that research was supported by another academic journal which is : “Relationship between parenting styles and the academic performance of adolescents” (Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Annk, Fortner, Lauren A; Mullis, Ronald L.) that states the fact that students who experienced authoritarian style of parenting performs less than those who experienced authoritative kind of parenting. That study about Parental involvement as a moderator for students’ academic achievement of Ishak, Zahari, Low, Suet, and Lau,Poh almost have the same conclusions with the research conducted by Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Annk, Fortner, Lauren A and Mullis, Ronald L. about the relationships between parenting styles and the academic performance of adolescents. These two researchers support the hypothesis of this study that students who experienced authoritative parenting has a better sense of self-worth or esteem compared to those who experienced authoritarian type of parenting.

Now a new point will be drawn. Now that the proper type of parental involvement was already answered, the proper ways of involvement was already said and father’s involvement was also given notice, the focus now is to know how parental involvement affects the formation of self-perception or esteem of adolescents. According to the study, “parents’ involvement in the adolescents’ schooling: a multidimensional conceptualisation and meditational model”, parental involvement positively affects academic achievement and self perception of adolescents. This means that the hypothesis of this study is correct by saying parental has a parental involvement has a positive correlation with self esteem of self perception. The result of that study indicates that: (1) Parental involvement dimensions positively influenced achievement through its effect on student self-concept and locus of control; and (2) parents’ increased participation in involvement practices (monitoring, education expectations and affections) increases students’ self-concept and locus of control. These results summarized the hypothesis of this study because it says that parental involvement and self concept (where self esteem belonged) has a positive correlation. That study also provides proofs of infallibility in the assumptions and hypotheses given by this research because that thesis was a medium to understand the relation between parental involvement and self-esteem clearer and it also states that parental involvement and self-worthiness have a positive correlation. -------------------------------------------------

Lastly, according to the book “Do parents know hey matter? Raising achievement through parental engagement” (Harris, Alma, Janet; Andrew-Power, Kirstie.), it states that parental involvement is a crucial and delicate major factor that forms adolescents’ to excel or to become confident. In addition that book says that without parental involvement, the path that students will take might astray because there’s an absence of guidance. This fact proves that parental involvement is really a delicate factor on forming internal and external aspects of children. With the help of parents, students might excel and have a very high notion of being self-worthy. This book says that parental involvement is not just exclusive for self-esteem alone. In fact, that research states that self esteem is just one factor that parental involvement affects. Therefore the proper way of parental involvement is imperative to not just build the self esteem of the child but to form him as a holistic individual. Note that being holistic does not necessarily mean that one should become externally or physically fit but it means that one should be both external and internally fit. Being internally fit is to be psychologically healthy and emotionally upright. For one to become psychologically healthy he or she should have a very positive notion of self worthiness or esteem. Thus, one should have a proper level of self-esteem. Chapter 3

INSTRUMENTS:
* Parental Involvement Survey (PIS) - Used to measure the degree of parental involvement given by the parents of the students. (See appendix) * Rosenberg Self-Esteem survey (RSE) - Used to measure the level of self-worthiness or esteem of the students. (See appendix) METHODOLOGY:

A correlation study focuses in the relationship between two specific variables. It neglects the three measures of central tendency namely mean, median and mode because it only needs the x and y numerical values of every respondent but for this research, the author also used the standard deviation and the mean to prove that the data is reliable and not that scattered. Note that the mean is the best measure of central tendency to data in the ratio level such as the scores on both surveys. The standard deviation and the percentage standard deviation will be tackled later in the conclusion so that it will support the validity or consistency of the data.But before dealing with the standard deviation and the mean, the first thing to do in getting the correlation is to plot the specific location/point of every respondent in the Cartesian plane because the trend of correlation will be seen in the line of best fit of the graph. Be reminded that it’s necessary to first get the numerical value of the x and y component of each answers. (Note that parental involvement is the x variable and self esteem is the y variable)

In order to get the numerical values of the x and y responses of every student, It’s inevitable to convert their responses to numerical values by letting: SELF-ESTEEM SURVEY:

Strongly agree = 4
Agree = 3
Disagree = 2
Strongly disagree = 1
Strongly disagree = 4
Disagree = 3
Agree = 2
Strongly Agree = 1

For positive questions
For negative questions

PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT SURVEY:
SA (strongly agree)= 5
SwA (somewhat agree) = 4
N (neutral) = 3
SwD (somewhat disagree) = 2
SD (strongly disagree) = 5
SwD (somewhat disagree) = 4
N (neutral) = 3
SwA (somewhat agree) = 2

SD (strongly disagree) = 1SA (strongly agree) = 1
For positive questionsFor negative questions
The survey used was a mix of inverse question and basic question. Note that the positive questions are questions wherein the statement demands agreement if you have a positive disposition with the question while negative questions are the inverse of the positive questions because these are queries wherein the statement requires disagreement if you also have a positive disposition.

After converting the answers of the respondents in every question into numerical values, the next step is to add the numerical value of his response per question. For every person, the sum of the numerical value of his parental involvement survey will become his x coordinate and the sum of the numerical value of his self-esteem survey will become his y coordinate. DATA GATHERING:

The Data gathered was 100% from the students of PAREF-Southridge Afternoon School and their responses was carefully processed to be mistake free or at least with very minimal errors. See the appendix to view the response of every member of the sample. The conversion from the student’s response to numerical value and the sum of those numerical values was also placed there. The coordinates of every member of the sample based from their individual response is:

Correlation Coefficient (SM)=0.8349|

PARENTAL INVOLVEMENTSURVEY SCORES| SELF-ESTEEMSURVEY SCORES|

55| 23| Grade7|
91| 30| |
101| 32| |
89| 27| |
94| 32| |
97| 33| |
88| 29| |
84| 34| |
86| 29| |
77| 28| |
91| 29| |
39| 19| |
54| 24| |
89| 27| |
95| 36| |
58| 22| |
78| 25| |
93| 37| |
86| 30| |
45| 21| |
57| 19| |
35| 12| |
40| 13| |
96| 36| |
41| 17| |
92| 33| |
52| 20| 2A|
84| 30| |
98| 34| |
97| 31| |
98| 38| |
82| 31| |
68| 30| |
57| 21| |
85| 23| |
72| 27| |
78| 27| |
80| 33| |
77| 25| |
90| 29| |
77| 23| |
86| 29| |
85| 26| |
48| 16| 2B|
28| 11| |
33| 10| |
99| 36| |
98| 34| |
41| 34| |
39| 16| |
109| 39| |
106| 38| |
48| 20| |
87| 29| |
99| 34| |
98| 34| |
100| 36| |
40| 16| |
96| 34| |
47| 20| 3A|
90| 30| |
61| 27| |
91| 37| |
87| 29| |
55| 20| |
86| 37| |
80| 28| |
68| 28| |
51| 26| |
86| 23| |
71| 28| |
80| 26| |
80| 32| |
75| 26| |
89| 30| |
76| 22| |
84| 30| |
84| 29| |
50| 12| 3B|
75| 25| |
94| 27| |
52| 18| |
39| 13| |
41| 18| |
95| 35| |
96| 34| |
50| 34| |
43| 17| |
99| 35| |
103| 36| |
88| 34| |
89| 34| |
94| 35| |
95| 36| |
40| 16| |
96| 33| |
71| 25| 4th Year|
86| 38| |
80| 30| |
81| 33| |
77| 24| |
74| 28| |
61| 25| |
85| 23| |
60| 20| |
70| 30| |
84| 24| |
87| 29| |
87| 29| |
81| 23| |
51| 20| |
100| 30| |
71| 29| |
94| 27| |
71| 24| |
54| 12| |
| | |

-------------------------------------------------

Scatter Plot of every response:
Scatter Plot and Correlation:
The necessity of having a scatter plot in every correlation study is to see the trend of the correlation [either increasing from left to right (+) or decreasing from left to right (-)]. The slope of the line of best fit of the scatter plot will reflect the type of correlation between the measured variables. If it’s negative then it has a negative correlation (when x increases, y decreases) and if it’s positive then it has a positive correlation (when x increases, y also increases). In the RRL (review of related literature) of the research paper, the study has a hypothesis that parental involvement and self esteem has a positive correlation. In the scatter plot above, the verification of the hypothesis was granted because it has a positive slope therefore it has a positive correlation. Correlation Coefficient is equal to 0.8349. What does it mean? (Analysis of the result)

First of all, correlation refers to the connection between two variables. Remember that correlation does not reflect causality or cause and effect. It only show how one particular variable behaves in respect to another one. In layman’s term, it means how a particular variable seems to individually perform while the other one is individually behaving. In correlation study, the y variable is the one being observed in respect with the x variable.

In this research, the variable being observed is Self-esteem in respect with the level of parental involvement received by one self. After a “dirty process” of gathering data, converting ordinal response to numerical value, adding those values, getting the particular coordinates of every sample members and getting the correlation between the two variables using the Pearson’s r which is appropriate to data which is in ratio level like the one present in this study. The value of the correlation coefficient is 0.8349.

This inquiry is all about that decimal value (0.8349). Everything involved in this research only aims to that correlation coefficient. The conclusions, analysis and testifying of answers of this research will all root from the value 0.8349. So, what’s the meaning of that 0.8349? What’s it significance?

In the scale provided by the book “International Edition: Probability and statistics for engineers and scientists sixth edition. Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd, 2001. Walpole, Myers” the significance of a particular correlation coefficient is: 0- NO CORRELATION

1-10- VERY LITTLE
11-30- LITTLE CORRELATION
31-70- MODERATE CORRELATION
71-90- HIGH CORRELATION
91-99- VERY HIGH CORRELATION
100- PERFECT CORRELATION
Going back, the correlation coefficient established by the study between parental involvement and self-esteem was 0.8349. By pondering in the scale above, the conclusion is that parental involvement and self-esteem has a high correlation. From this fact, many things were proven which will branch out to other conclusions. The following were proven by the fact that parental involvement and self-esteem has a high positive correlation: (1) Due to the fact that parental involvement and self-esteem has a high positive correlation, then parents should be more involved to their children if they want the self-esteem of their adolescents to be well-formed because it’s inevitable that when children has a positive disposition with their parents then they will have higher sense of worthiness, (2) Having a positive parenting will “most-likely” make your children’s self-esteem to boost positively as supported by the correlation study, (3) Parental involvement indeed is a very crucial variable in forming the self-esteem of a adolescent because of the fact that these two variables both correlates positively, (4) parents who involve with their children often will most likely make their son’s sense of self-worthiness high and lastly parents who involve with their children less will most likely make their son’s sense of self-worthiness low. The sturdiness of the Data:

The consistency of the data to each other is measured using the standard deviation. The standard deviation reflects the average units of dispersion from the measure of central tendency which in this case the mean.

In the PIS (Parental involvement survey), a value of almost 20 (20.19031) units was acquired for the standard deviation and value of 76 (75.78448) was obtained for the mean. This only means that on the average, the value of the scores deviates or disperses from the mean (76) by almost 20 units.

On the other hand, in the SE (Self Esteem survey), a value of almost 7 units (6.980611) was acquired for the standard deviation and a value of 28.5 was obtained for the mean. Again, this only means that on the average, the value of the scores deviates or disperses from the mean (28.5) by almost 7 units.

The first impression that might be drawn from this data is that the values of the Parental involvement survey and Self Esteem Survey were inconsistent to each other because of the fact that the values of their standard deviations are far from each other. Well, that conclusion is wrong because for Data such as these two wherein the range of possible values or even the range of values was so far from each other, obviously the SD will be proportionally as far. So in cases like this, you will use the percentage deviation. Well, percentage deviation is almost the same as the standard deviation but it only returns the percentage of how the values disperse from the measure of central tendency. To get its value you will only get the percentage of the standard deviation by dividing it using the highest possible value (which is attainable in this case because my outcomes have a boundary). The possible highest point for the PIS is 115 while the possible highest point for the SE is 40. The value got for the percentage deviation for the PIS is 17.57 while the percentage deviation for the SE is 17.9. (Due to estimation) This only means that both the values of Parental Involvement Survey and Self Esteem survey deviates from the mean by 18%. Thus the data is consistent with the other one and therefore fortifies the validity of the data.

APPENDIX:
Verification of the instrument (an analysis on the compatibility of the survey questionnaire on verifying the premises stated by the researcher on his review of related literature) PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT QUESTIONNAIRE:

"1) Overall, I believe that my parents/ guardians are very involved in my life."
Perceptibly, it’s noticeable that this question is a positive one. Meaning, when you answered a positive response (Strongly Agree and Somewhat Agree) then you'll get a score of 5 or 4 respectively. This question surely measures the variable that this research paper wants to have (parental involvement) because this question measures the degree of parental involvement received by the one answering. Notice that in this question, the word "overall" was used. That implies that whatever the response of the one answering is reflects the gravity of the involvement of his parents in general. "2) I do not think that my parents have an accurate idea about my daily life."

This question is a negative one since it states how "negative" the level of parental involvement is. If the one answering responded with somewhat disagree or strongly disagree, then he will have a score of 4 or 5 respectively since the question is inverse so the method of computing the score is also opposite. Now, the assurance that this question can measure parental involvement is that this reflects how the children sees the involvement of his/her parents. As you can see, this question is subjective. Meaning, the desired response of the one answering the survey reflects how he/she think that his/her parents have an accurate idea about his/her daily life. "3) My parents show support for my activities outside of school."

This question is a positive one that covers how the parents of the one answering supports the activity he/she is involved outside the school. Hence, this can measure the variable parental involvement because it scopes the involvement of the parents outside of the school of the one answering the survey. "4) I feel that if my parents paid more attention to my school news and events, I would be a more successful student."

This question is a negative one since it questions the parental involvement of the parents as shown on the phrases "If his parents paid more attention, I would be a more successful student." this can measure the variable parental involvement because this asks the subjective view of the one answering on how he thinks parental involvement will make him a better student. "5) I engage in conversations with my parents about my day often."

A positive question like this can measure parental involvement because it requires the subjective response on how the one answering sees his closeness to his parents in the way that he engages with conversations with them. 6)" I feel I have to go out of my way to get my parents’ attention and/or interest in my life."

This question is a negative one that reflects how the one responding sees his or her parents as hindrances on his interests in life. Obviously this measures parental involvement because this shows the subjective view about the fact that "parents are hindrances in my interests" of the one answering. 7)" If I have a problem, I don’t feel comfortable asking for my parents’ advice."

This question is a negative one that reflects how the one responding is close or open to in saying his problems to his parents. This measures parental involvement because it shows another component of the parental involvement which is the sense of being open to them. 8)"I feel that my parents are more involved in my life compared to my peers’ parents."

This question is a positive one that reflects how the one responding sees his parents as majority in involvement than his peers. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "which is closer to me? My parents or peers?" 9)" My parents do not understand me because they are not involved in my life".

This one is a straightforward negative question that promotes the fact that the parents of the one answering can't understand him because they are not involved in his life. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How his parents can't understand him because they're not involved in his life." 10) I am involved in school and/or extracurricular activities because of my parents’ influence.

This one is a straightforward positive question that promotes the fact that the parents of the one answering makes him more outgoing because his parents are always behind him. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How his parents promote his extracurricular activities using their influence." 11) I would like for my parents to be more supportive of my interests and/or activities.

This one is a not noticeable positive question that promotes the fact that the parents of the one answering lacks involvement because he wants his parents to be MORE supportive on hid interest and activities. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How he desires his parents to be involved in his life because he's longing for it. If he answered Strongly Agree then he will have 5 points for that. 12) My parents’ ideas greatly influence my decisions in life."

This one is a positive question that promotes the fact that the his parents hold great influence in his decisions in life. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How great the influence of his parents is in regards to his life decisions". 13) My parents don’t attend as many schools events/extra curricular activities compared to my peers’ parents.

This one is a straightforward negative question that promotes the fact that the parents of the one answering don't care in the school events and extra curricular activities which he's involved. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How unnoticeable is he on his parents." 14) I would participate in more activities if my parents were more interested in what I like to do.

This one is a not noticeable positive question that promotes the fact that the one answering will make participate in more activities given that his parents is interested in his life because they influence him to be mo re active . This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How he wants his parents to bond with him on other activities". 15) I would be more involved in school activities if my parents stopped asking me to be more involved.

This one is a negative question that promotes the fact that the one answering will make participate in more activities given that his parents will stop asking him to do . This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How he sees his parents as people who discourage him when they ask him to do something". 16) I would enjoy spending time with my parents more if I felt that they wanted to spend time with me.

This one is a positive question that promotes the fact that the one answering wants to spend time with his parents given that they also want to spend time whi him. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How he wants bond with his parents given that hey also want to bond with him". 17) It’s easy to do things my parents don’t approve of because they are usually too busy to notice.

This one is a nagative question that promotes the fact that parents of the one answering is too busy to notice the things he's doing. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How his parents easily approve what he wants to do because they are too busy to notice". 18) I often act up or behave badly so my parents will have to punish me.

This one is a negative question that promotes the fact that the one answering is desperate to catch the attention of his parents. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How he desperately wants to catch the attention of his parents even if it will lead him to punishment". 19) My parents understand me because I find it easy to communicate with them.

This one is a positive question that promotes the fact that the one answering is very close to his parents because they communicate with each other often so as result, his parents can understand him very well. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How his parents understand him because they oftenly communicate with each other". 20) I spend more time at my friends’ houses then I do at my own homeThis one is a negative question that promotes the fact that the one answering is much close to his friends than his parents because he spend more time with them than in his own house. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How he enjoys being with his friends that staying on his own house". 21) I enjoy spending time with my parents.

This one is straightforward positive question that promotes the fact that the one answering enjoys being with his parents. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How he enjoys being with his friends parents". 22) I feel that my parents do not understand me.

This one is straightforward negative question that promotes the fact that the one answering feels that his parents don't understand him. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How he feels that his parents don't understand himself". 23) My parents and I often eat dinner and other meals together during the week.

This one is not noticeable positive question that promotes the fact that the one answering always bond with his parents on the dining table. This measures parental involvement because it shows the subjective response of the one answering concerning "How his parents want to be together with him even in simple meals like dinner".

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