# correlation

**Topics:**Statistics, Statistical hypothesis testing, Standard deviation

**Pages:**5 (1160 words)

**Published:**November 2, 2014

This assignment has two aspects and seven sections for the purpose of an assignment for a statistics class. Research Question 1

Is there a statistically significant relationship between students’ total community score as measured by the Classroom Community Scale (Rovai, 2002) and the total perceived learning scores as measured by the Perceived CAP Learning Scale (Rovai et al., 2009) after controlling for gender among students enrolled in the Introduction to Statistics course? Null Hypothesis 1

There is no significant relationship between students’ total community score as measured by the Classroom Community Scale (Rovai, 2002) and the total perceived learning scores as measured by the Perceived CAP Learning Scale (Rovai et al., 2009) after controlling for gender among students enrolled in the Introduction to Statistics course. Alternative Hypothesis 1

There is a significant relationship between students’ total community score as measured by the Classroom Community Scale (Rovai, 2002) and the total perceived learning scores as measured by the Perceived CAP Learning Scale (Rovai et al., 2009) after controlling for gender among students who are enrolled in the Introduction to Statistics course. Continuous Variables

Students’ total community score as measured by the Classroom Community Scale (Rovai, 2002) Students’ total perceived learning scores as measured by the Perceived CAP Learning Scale (Rovai et al., 2009) Control Covariate

Gender

Test Used

Since we have two continuous variables, and want to statistically control another variable, a partial correlation was used to run the analysis. Assumptions

Preliminary analyses using a scatter plot were performed as well as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Shapiro-Wilk tests to ensure no violations of the assumptions of linearity, bivariate normality, and homoscedasticity; assumptions were found tenable. For Community Connectedness and Perceived CAP Learning, the assumption of normality were tenable, p = .001 and P = .000 respectively. See Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1.

Figure 2.

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-SmirnovaShapiro-Wilk

StatisticdfSig.StatisticdfSig.

Community_Connectedness_Scale.19240.001.89240.001

Perceived_CAP_Learning_Scale.20840.000.88840.001

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Descriptive Statistics

This assignment required elements to be presented from the data set provided. An SPSS analysis of the mean, median, standard deviation, variance, and range for community connectedness and perceived learning were performed. See Table 1. Table 1.

Descriptive Statistics for Community Connectedness and Perceived Learning Variable (N = 40)

MMdnSDVRange

Community Connectedness27.0327.009.8296.3829

Perceived Learning37.4342.5013.86192.2042

Results

A partial correlation was used to evaluate the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between online university’s students’ sense of community and perceived learning, after controlling for gender (n = 40). The preliminary analyses showed that there were no violations of the assumptions of linearity, bivariate normality, and homoscedasticity. There was significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there was a strong positive partial correlation between sense of community (M = 54.65, SD = 19.66) and perceived learning (M = 37.43, SD = 13.86), while controlling for gender (M = 1.50, SD = 0.51), r (38)= 0.91, p >.01. Thus, higher levels of community are associated with higher levels of perceived...

References: Rovai, A.P., Wighting M.J.. Baker, J.D., & Grooms, L.D. (2009). Development of an instrument to measure perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor (CAP) learning in traditional and virtual classroom higher education settings. Internet and Higher Education, 12(1), 7-13.

Szapkiw, A. (2014). Spss assignment instructions. In Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University. Retrieved from http://amandaszapkiw.com/elearning/writing/downloads/Reporting-Statisical-Results-in-APA-Format.pdf

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