Corrections History and Institutions

Topics: Prison, Crime, Criminal justice Pages: 4 (1191 words) Published: December 3, 2013

Corrections History and Institutions

Corrections History and Institutions
Incarceration began in the United States as a more acceptable and humane way to manage criminal behavior than physical punishment, workhouses, or exile. The earliest places of incarceration were first known as lock-ups or jails and were under local authority’s control. According to Axia Course Materials (2011) these housing facilities were under the maintenance of each county and state by local officials, such as the local sheriff. Jails were lock-ups for offenders in which criminal activity for an offense was pending from small non-threatening infractions, such as loitering to housing other offenders for serious crimes, such as murder. They were also for housing criminals with sentences with less than one year in which misdemeanors were the charges. State or federal authorities managing the prisons, were providing confinement for the offenders with sentences greater than one-year periods (Axia Course Materials, 2011). Prisons, both the state level and federal level, incarcerate convicted offenders, which are serving long-term sentences. According to Ortmeier (2006) some believe Newgate Prison in Simsbury, Connecticut, in 1773, was the first established prison but most historians continue to cite the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia, as the first American established prison. According to Schmalleger (2010) prisons in the United States progressed through nine stages of development; each emphasizing a different correctional philosophy. These stages include: Penitentiary Era (1790-1825). The modeling of 30 prisons after the prison in Auburn, New York, promoting congregate labor, rehabilitation for inmates, and deterrence (Schmalleger, 2010). Mass Prison Era (1825-1876). Construction of 35 additional prisons with the emphasis on punishment, incapacitation, and deterrence were in this era. This period also includes the opening of New York State’s Sing- Sing...

References: Axia Course Materials. (2011). CJInteractive Modules:Corrections: History and Institutions. The University of Phoenix.
What is Causing Prison Overcrowding. (2013). Retrieved from State of Connecticut:
Ortmeier, P. (2006). Introduction to Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Schmalleger, F. (2010). Criminal Justice TodayAn Introductory Text for the 21st Century, Tenth Edition. Upper Saddle River,NJ: Pearson Education.
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